Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Rationalis

(5 words)

see rationibus, a

Rationality

(2,612 words)

Author(s): Renaud, François (Moncton, NB)
[German version] A. Definition The ancient concept of rationality cannot be tied to a single Greek or Latin term. First of all it must be distinguished from modern notions. The modern mind - both in general and in the sciences - is moulded by technological, economic, and administrative structures, and tends to equate rationality with 'goal-oriented rationality' (a rationality which focuses on means to reach a purpose). Given M. Weber's sociological distinction between goal-oriented, value-oriented, …

Rationibus, a

(342 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Head of the central financial administration of the Roman Emperor and his subordinates. In the financial administration of the princeps, at first privately organised and evolving already under Augustus, the entire system of revenues and expenditures was initially managed by a single freedman. His title a rationibus is first attested for the reign of Tiberius; but the freedmen who managed the breviarium totius imperii for Augustus (Suet. Aug. 101,4) were probably already called like this. The functional importance of the department lent consid…

Rations

(515 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East In the Ancient Near Eastern oikos or palace economy, the majority or (large) parts of the population were integrated into the institutional households of temples and/or palaces as direct dependents (the extent varied according to region and period). They were provided with the rations of natural produce (grain, oil, wool) guaranteeing them the level of subsistence necessary for their reproduction. In Mesopotamia, these rations of produce were in part supplemented, and in certain periods replaced, by the allocation of areas of land ( c. 6 ha.) as…

Ratomagus

(194 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Commerce Capital of the Veliocasses, present-day Rouen, linked by the Sequana (Seine) and Autura (Eure) to the Liger (Loire) and inner Gaul (Gallia/Gaul), an important harbour for exports to Britannia in the 2nd cent. AD (Amm. Marc. 15,11,12; It. Ant. 382,3; 384,1; Ptol. 2,8,8: Ῥατόμαγος; Tab. Peut. 2,2 f.; CIL XIII 3475: Ratumagus vicus; Notitia Galliarum 2,2: civitas Rotomagensium; Not. Dign. Occ. 37,10; 37,21: Rotomagus). Originally, the Veliocasses fell within the area of Gallia Belgica (Caes. B Gall. 2…

Rauraci, Raurici

(319 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] Celtic tribe, neighbours along with the Tulingi and Latobici of the Helvetii (Caes. B Gall. 1,5,4). The R. migrated westwards from their homeland in 58 BC with the Helvetii. As Munatius [I 4] Plancus founded the colony of Augusta [4] Raurica (modern Augst (CH)) in the territory of the R. in 44 BC, it must be assumed that they lived between the Upper Rhine and the southern foothills of the Jura. The remark in Caes. B Gall. 1,1,4, according to which the Germani and Helvetii shared a…

Raven

(590 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] The common raven, Corvus corax (κόραξ/ kórax, apparently derived from korós, 'black'; the juvenile, κορακῖνος/ korakînos, e.g., in Aristoph. Equ. 1053; Lat. corvus), originally distributed throughout Europe and Egypt (Ael. NA 2,48; smaller in Egypt, according to Aristot. Hist. an. 9(8),28, 606a 23 f.) and at least as large as a buzzard, is the largest of the European songbirds. Its characteristic call is 'kronk' or 'prrruk', but its vocalizations are otherwise highly varied (64 sounds, according to Ful…

Ravenna

(928 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Italy, languages | Regio, regiones | Rome | Rome | Batavian Revolt Harbour city in the territory of the Boii on the Ionios Kolpos (Adriatic). [German version] I. Foundation and Roman Period According to myth, R. was founded by Thessalians (Zos. 5,27); however, it was actually founded by Umbri in the 6th-5th cents. BC (Str. 5,1,2; 5,1,11; 5,2,1: Ῥάυεννα/ Rháuenna). The character of R.'s topography includes its proximity to the sea and protection by the natural geographic conditions - s…

Ravenna Annals

(297 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] ( Chronica Italica in [1], better Chronicon Constantinopolitanum (cf. [7; 8. 41-43]). Originally simply an informative chronicle in Latin, based on the calendar structure of the Consularia Constantinopolitana [1. 197-245], written or expanded in Constantinople in the 4th century AD for a ruling class, eager for knowledge, on the periphery of the court  (for the images contained cf. [2; 3; 4]). An early phase extending as far as AD 387 is transmitted in the Fasti Vindobonenses posteriores (Cod. Vindobonensis no. 3416, 15th century) and Fasti Vindobonenses priores

Ravenna Papyri

(115 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Collection, now dispersed but at the time comprising 61 items, of non-literary Latin texts on papyrus from the period AD 433 - c. 700, the predominant majority of which probably belonged to an archive in Ravenna. The RP are an important source for the social, economic and administrative history of Italy in the transition period from Antiquity to the Middle Ages. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography J.-O. Tjäder, Die nicht-literarischen Papyri Italiens aus der Zeit 445-700, 2 vols., 1955, 1982  Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. FS zum 100j. Bestehen der Papyrus-Sa…

Ravilla

(20 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('grey-eyed'), byname of L. Cassius [I 17] Longinus R. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 228.

Ray

(5 words)

see Electric ray

Razor

(222 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ξυρόν/ xyrón; Lat. novacula, cultellus, culter tonsorius). Razors were used from the early Greek period on for shaving the  beard and cutting hair from the head when in mourning, for example; numerous examples survive. They could easily exceed 20 cm in length; materials used for blades were iron and bronze; for handles bronze, ivory and wood. Razors are instanced in various forms: they could be shaped like a spatula or a crescent, long and slender with a straight or curved blade, broad…

Re

(650 words)

Author(s): Quack, Joachim (Berlin)
[German version] ( R), the most important god in the Egyptian pantheon. Essentially merely the word for 'sun' and as appellative still used as such in Coptic, translated into Greek as Helios. Re is the god who originated in himself, yet the primeval ocean Nun is considered to be his father. In Heliopolis he is linked with the god Atum, and his children are Shu and Tefnut (Tefnut, legend of). Often the epithet 'Horus of the horizon' (Harachte), is bestowed on him. The phases of the sun during the day are classified by the Egyptians as Chepre (morning), Re (midday) and Atum (e…

Realschule

(1,533 words)

Author(s): Keck, Rudolf W.
Keck, Rudolf W. [German version] A. Concept (CT) Since the Hamburg Agreement of 1964 the term Realschule in Germany is understood to be an intermediate type of school devoted to general education at Secondary Stage I (formerly also called Mittelschule or considered an extended stage of the Volksschule or Grundschule); as a rule, it is a selective school between the Gymnasium and the Hauptschule, taking students up to the tenth year of instruction and the Fachoberschulreife (also called m ittlere Reife: the school leaving certificate). Exceptions are the so-called Mittelschulen in t…

Reaping machines

(454 words)

Author(s): Ruffing, Kai (Münster)
[German version] RM ( vallus, carpentum) are known from the descriptions of Pliny (Plin. HN 18,296) and Palladius (Pall. Agric. 7,2,2-4); there are some pictorial depictions on reliefs from the Gallic and Germanic provinces, while the literary sources indicate only Gaul as the area of distribution. The RM consisted of a box fitted with wheels on both shorter sides; the front was open and fitted with a row of gripping teeth. The rear side had two bars, between which a harnessed ass or ox would push th…

Rea Silvia

(6 words)

see Rhea Silvia

Reason

(6 words)

see Intellect; Logos [1]

Reate

(238 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | | Italy, languages | Natural catastrophes With Amiternum, main town of the Sabini on the via Salaria (Itin. Anton. 306; Tab. Peut. 5,5), present-day Rieti. From the 3rd cent. BC to at least 27 BC, praefectura (CIL IX 4677), afterwards municipium, tribus Quirina, regio IV (Strab. 5,3,1: Ῥεᾶτε; Plin. HN 3,107; 109; Cic. Sest. 80; Cic. Att. 4,8; Suet. Vesp. 2,1). R. was protected by a town wall ( opus polygonale; 3rd cent. BC). There is a viaduct dating back to the same period (restored in the first cent. AD)…

Rebilus

(23 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen occurring in the Caninii family (Caninius [3-5]) until the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR, 265.
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