Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Salus

(358 words)

Author(s): Wardle, David (Cape Town)
[German version] ('Well-being') was a deified characteristic (Personification) - depicted as a female deity, often enthroned, with a sceptre, bowl, snake or ear of corn - associated primarily with the security and welfare of the Roman state, its citizens and later its rulers. The city of Rome's temple to S. on the Mons Quirinalis, vowed by C. Iunius [I 19] Bubulcus in 311 BC during the second of the  Samnite Wars, was dedicated by him on 5 August (Cic. Att. 4,2,4; Cic. Sest. 131) 302 BC (Liv. 10,1…

Salustius

(665 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
(Σαλούστιος; Saloústios). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian Greek grammarian (perhaps 4th/5th cents. AD [3. 31]); author of a commentary on Callimachus' [3] Hekale (fr. 9; 29; 179 Hollis), the use of which can still be detected in the Suda [4. 13-18]. The attribution of an edition of the hymns of Callimachus [5. 78] and of the hypothesis to Sophocles' Antigone and Oedipus in Colonus [6. 17-20] is probable. Likely identical to the S. mentioned by Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Ἄζιλις. Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) Bibliography Editions: 1 A. S. Hollis, Callimachus. Hekale, 1990 2 R. P…

Salutatio

(446 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] ('Greeting'). The morning reception allowed clients ( cliens, clientes ) to pay their respects to their patronus , and to receive advice (Hor. Epist. 2,1,102) and support, e.g. money ( sportula ). It took place during the first two hours of the morning (Mart. 4,8); the client ( salutator) had to attend in toga (Juv. 3,126 f.); hence Martial (3,46,1) calls the clients' duties the togata opera. The visitors gathered in the vestibulum or atrium of the house of their patronus and awaited admission (Hor. Epist. 1,5,31). Friends and prominent individuals were grant…

Salutius

(4 words)

see Secundus

Salvianus

(171 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
Roman cognomen, extension of Salvius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] S. of Massilia Christian theologian at Massilia, died after 465 (modern Marseille), probably born after AD 400 at Trier, evidence of his presence on the Lérins Islands, married, later ascetic, wrote the treatise Ad Ecclesiam (‘To the Church’; Pseudepigraphy [II]) after 435, exhortating all Christians to donate all inheritance for ascetic reasons for the work of the church. S. then lived at Marseille as a priest until his death (after c. 465), there composing De gubernatione Dei (‘The Government…

Salvidienus

(396 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italian nomen gentile, derived from Salvidius. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Q. S. Rufus Salvius Before Agrippa, Octavian's principal commander (second cognomen indication of adoption or standardized form of S.? [1. 375]), Roman knight (Vell. Pat. 2,76,4; legendary Cass. Dio 48,33,2), friend of the young Octavian (Augustus [1]) and his principal commander before Agrippa. S., then possibly an officer in Caesar's army [1. 398], was in Apollonia with Octavian in 45-44 BC and was his adviser after Caesar's d…

Salvium

(142 words)

Author(s): Cabanes, Pierre (Clermont-Ferrand)
[German version] City in the territory of the Dalmatae (CIL XIII 6538; 14249,2: S. [1. 121]; Ptol. 2,17,9: Σαλουία/Salouía; It. Ant. 269,4: Salviae). After the Roman conquest in AD 6-9, it was in the province of Dalmatia on the Salona - Servitium road, modern Podgradina near Glamoc̆polje or Halapić (in Bosnia). Municipium from the time of Hadrianus onwards (CIL XIII 6538). Cult of Silvanus Silvestris (CIL XIII 13985; cf. [2]). Cabanes, Pierre (Clermont-Ferrand) Bibliography 1 C. Patsch, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der römischen Provinz Dalmatia, in: Wissenschaftli…

Salvius

(1,168 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Common given name of Oscan or Umbrian origin not used by the Roman upper class (abbreviated in inscriptions as Sa. or Sal.), later appears as a nomen gentile; also a slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Era [German version] [I 1] Slave leader (Slave leader) see Tryphon [2]. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] Centurion named only by Plutarch as one of Pompeius' murderers Centurion named only in Plut. Pompeius 78,1 and 79,4 as one of Pompey's murderers. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 3] Freedman and probable agent of Caesar Freedman probably active as …

Samara

(101 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] River in Picardy (France), modern Somme, rises north-east of St. Quentin and flows into the mare Britannicum (English Channel) at Abbeville. The form S. itself is not attested but reconstructed from the name of the city Samarobriva. Other forms of the name: Sambra (Not. Dign. Occ. 38,8: classis Sambrica), Somena (Ven. Fort. 7,4,15), Sumena (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,9), Sumina, Sumna, Summana ( cf. [1. 1335 f.]). In Not. Dign. Occ. loc. cit., the modern Somme is referred to as Sambra [2]; in Ptol. 2,9,2, the river is called Φροῦδις/ Phroûdis. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliog…

Samaria, Samaritans

(1,265 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin) | Zangenberg, Jürgen
[German version] I. Samaria (Hebrew Šomron, LXX Σαμάρεια/ Samáreia), seat of government of the kings of the Northern Kingdom of Israel from the reign of Omri (882-871 BC; Judah and Israel). The newly-founded city, whose name (root šmr, 'to guard, protect; watch-tower') refers to its strategic location, was not, as is often assumed, a Canaanite city-state alongside Jezreel as the Israelite centre. S. was the Israelite royal seat, and Jezreel a royal demesne. As is evident from Assyrian and OT texts, the rulers of S. were compelled to deliver tribute to the Assyrians b…

Samaria ware

(111 words)

Author(s): Docter, Roald Fritjof (Amsterdam)
[German version] Modern technical term for typical Iron Age luxury crockery of the Phoenician Levant. The name is taken from the unusual finding place of Samaria. SW keeled bowls and dishes, which had very thin walls, were produced in mould dishes and engraved with lines. Red slip painting (Red slip ware) was usually combined with a blanked area. Finds of SW on Cyprus, in Carthage and in southern Spain mark the earliest horizon of Phoenician western expansion. There are local adaptations of SW in Carthage. Phoenicians Docter, Roald Fritjof (Amsterdam) Bibliography P. Bikai, The Pott…

Samaritan

(200 words)

Author(s): Müller-Kessler, Christa (Emskirchen)
[German version] Special form of Hebrew, in which the Samaritans (Samaria) wrote the Pentateuch and a revised version of the book of Joshua. The Samaritan Pentateuch, which is distinguished from the Masoretic Hebrew text by orthographic variants and religiously based textual changes, was earlier occasionally considered to represent a more original version; yet proto-Samaritan Hebrew text versions have been found in Qumran. The texts from Qumran - which are, with the exception of the Masada Fragmen…

Samarkand

(4 words)

see Maracanda

Samarobriva

(526 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Gallia/Gaul Principal town of the civitas of the Ambiani, Late Antique Ambianis, modern Amiens (Dépt. Somme) at a crossing ( -briva) over the Samara (Caes. B Gall. 5,24,1; 47,2; 53,3; Cic. Fam. 7,11,2; 12,1,16; Tab. Peut. 2,3; CIL XIII 3490; Notae Tironianae 73 Zangenmeister; Honorius, Cosmographia 36 B1 Riese; in Ptol. 2,9,4 alternatively: Σαμαρόβριγα/ Samaróbriga; ILS 5839; It. Ant. 379,9 f.; 380,1: Samarabriva). No evidence of a preceding Celtic settlement has been found [1]. Its geographical charact…

Samarra

(509 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
[German version] ( Sāmarrā; Theophanes Continuatus 3,36: Σάμαρα/ Sámara). Area of ruins of c. 60 km2 and modern town on the left bank of the Tigris, 100 km north of Baghdad (cf. map). At this site, known since the neo-Assyrian Period (Mesopotamia III D), the emperor Julian [11] the Apostate fell in AD 363 in battle against the Sassanids. It was in this area, mainly inhabited by Nestorians (Nestorius), that the Nahrawān canal, dug in the time of Chosroes [5] Anushirvan (period of rule 531-579) began, which be…

Samaš

(5 words)

see Sun god

Samaš-šuma-ukīn

(4 words)

see Saosduchinus

Sambation

(177 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] (also Sanbation or Sabbation; Greek Σαββατικός/ Sabbatikós, Jos. BI 7,5). Mythical river, behind which the ten tribes of Israel (Judah and Israel) were said to have been exiled by the Assyrian king Salmanassar. According to Jewish legend, this river had the miraculous property of resting on the Sabbath, while on all other days its current was so strong that it hurled stones (among others, BerR 11,5; cf. already Plin. HN 31,24). Iosephus [4] Flavius describes the river, which according t…

Sambethe

(259 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (Σαμβήθη/ Sambḗthē or Σάββη/ Sábbē). Name, probably derived from Hebrew šabbat (Sabbath) [7. 622 ff.], of the Jewish Sibyl, who can be identified with the Egyptian, Persian and Babylonian Sibyls [2. 317 ff.]. A Sabbe is first recorded in Pausanias' [8] list of four Sibyls ( c. AD 160) (Paus. 10,12,1-9), drawing on Alexander [23] Polyhistor. She can be identified with a prophetess known as a 'Noah's daughter' in Or. Sib. 3,823 ff., Or. Sib. prooemium 33 and Or. Sib.  1,289. The 12 books of the Oracula Sibyllina, pseudepigraphic apocalyptic literature (Apocalypse…

Sambra

(132 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] River in Gallia Belgica River in Gallia Belgica, mentioned in ancient saints' legends (e.g., MGH Scriptorum rerum Merovingiorum 5,634,12; 5,643,12; details in [1. 1338]), modern Sambre, rising on the western edge of the Ardennes and flowing into the Mosa [1] (Meuse/Maas) near Namur. Identification with the Sabis [1] (Caes. B Gall. 2,16,1; 2,18) is uncertain. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 Holder. [German version] [2] Modern Somme Besides the modern Sambre (= S. [1]), the Samara was also called the S.  (cf. Not. Dign. Occ. 38,8). T…

Sambus

(143 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] [1] Tributary of the Ganges (Σάμβος/ Sámbos). Tributary of the Ganges (Arr. Ind. 4,4: Megasthenes), possibly identical to the Sarabus (Ptol. 7,1,29; 2,13) corresponding to the Sarayū (Agoranis). Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) [German version] [2] Indian king, 4th cent. BC (Σάμβος/ Sámbos in Arr. Anab. 6,16,3 f., Σάβος/ Sábos in Diod. Sic. 17,102,6 f. and Str. 15,1,33, Σάββας/ Sábbas in Plut. Alexander 64, Sambus in Curt. 9,8,13 and 9,8,17, Ambus in Just. Epit. 12,10, etc.). Indian king; his kingdom, with its capital at Sindimana, lay in the mountain …

Sambyke

(17 words)

[German version] [1] Harp (harp) see Musical instruments [German version] [2] Drawbridge (drawbridge) see Siegecraft

Same

(156 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) (Σάμη/ Sámē). In Homer, an island in Odysseus' kingdom (name forms: Sámos, Hom. Il. 2,634; Sámē is more recent, Hom. Od. 1,246); in the historical period, a city in the east of the island of Cephallenia, modern Sami. In 223/2 BC, an Aetolian colony was dispatched to S. (IG IX 12,1, 2); In 189 BC, S. was besieged and destroyed by Fulvius [I 15]  (Liv. 37,50,5; 38,28,5-30,1). Quite recent excavations and (to some extent unpublished Latin) inscriptio…

Samī

(104 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Site of ruins high in the Baḫtiyiārī Mountains (in Iran), c. 25 km north of the city of Īẕe (Malāmīr), in ancient Elymais. Among the numerous Hellenistic marble and bronze fragments found in a sanctuary, a bronze statue, somewhat over life size and almost completely preserved, is particularly noteworthy: it is as yet the only surviving large-scale representation in three dimensions of an Arsacid dignitary (prince?) (2nd cent. AD). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography 1 V.S. Curtis, The Parthian Costume and Headdress, in: J. Wiesehöfer (ed.), Das Partherreic…

Samian Ware

(74 words)

Author(s): Hawkes, Jason
[German version] British term for terra sigillata, a distinctive type of Roman ceramic identified from its pinkish or orange fabric, and characteristic smooth red slipped surface. It was once thought to have originated from the island of Samos, hence the term ‘Samian’, which remains in British usage. Hawkes, Jason Bibliography 1 G. de la Bedoyere, Samian Ware, 1988 2 C. Johns, Arretine and Samian Pottery, 1971 3 P. Webster, Roman Samian Pottery in Britain, 1996

Samia vasa

(60 words)

Author(s): Willers, Dietrich (Berne)
[German version] ('Samian vases'). Clay pots known only from Latin literature (Plaut. Bacch. 202; Plaut. Capt. 291; Cic. Rep. 6,2,2; Tib. 2,3,47; Isid. Orig. 20,3,4.6). Their shape is unknown, so they can not be correlated with pots of surviving Roman ceramics. The clay was high-fired and sherds were sharp; SV were used in sacral and profane contexts. Willers, Dietrich (Berne)

Samicum

(222 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Σαμικόν; Samikón). The biggest fort of Triphylia (western Peloponnese) on the western foothills of Mount Kaiapha, between the modern Agoulinitsa lagoon in the north and lake Kaiapha in the south. This is the location of a cave of the Anigriades [4], spring nymphs of the former river Anigrus ( cf. [2]) with sulphur springs (Str. 8,3,19; Paus. 5,5,11; Schol. Hom. Il. 11,721). Sources: Paus. 5,6,1-3; Pol. 4,77,9; 80,12; Str. 8,3,13; 19 f.; 27. The form Sámos is only attested in Str. 8,3,20 and Schol. Hom. Il. 13,13. S. was probably built by the Eleans in …

Samius

(121 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Σάμιος/ Sámios), also Samus (Σᾶμος/ Sâmos). Epigrammatist of the 'Garland of Meleager' (Anth. Pal. 4,1,14), son of Chrysogonus and contemporary of Philip [7] V of Macedonia (Pol. 5,9,4), who condemned him to death (Pol. 23,10,8-10) perhaps because of his criticism (Plut. Mor. 53e). A poem about Philip V dedicating to Heracles the hide and horns of a bull survives (Anth. Pal. 6,116); a variant (ibid. 6,114) on the same theme can probably also be ascribed to him (the attribution to Simi…

Sammael

(188 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Hebrew Sammāel). Negative angel figure in Jewish tradition, often identified with Satan. S. is mentioned for the first time in Ethiopic Henoch 6, where he is one of a group of angels that rebels against God (cf. the name Σαμμανή/ Sammanḗ or Σαμιήλ/ Samiḗl in the Greek version). According to Greek Baruch 4,9, he planted the vine that led to the fall of Adam; S. was therefore cursed and became Satan. In the 'Ascension of Isaiah', S. is identified with the figure of Beliar (4,11). Rabbinical literature represents S. in the s…

Sammai, Shammai

(150 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] ( c. 50 BC-AD 30). Significant representative of Pharisaic Judaism (Pharisaei). Š. figures in the traditional rabbinical chain from the revelation of the Torah of Moses (Pentateuch) to the 'Five Pairs' ( zugot; cf. mAvot 1,15); his counterpart is Hillel, to whom Š. is opposed in a cliché fashion in rabbinical literature: in questions of law, whereas Hillel made rather lenient decisions, Š. is characterized by strictness and rigour (cf. bShab 31a). Rabbinical tradition sees Š. as the founder of a school of scholars (Hebrew bēt-Šammai) that is likewise contrasted wi…

Sam(m)onium

(133 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Greek: Σαμ(μ)ώνιον/ Sam(m)ṓnion). Promontory on the northeastern tip of Crete, modern Kavo Sidero. Strong winds often prevented seafarers from rounding the cape. S. served ancient authors as a fixed point of reference for geographical information and the communication of distances between the islands of the Aegean Sea (cf. Str. 2,4,3; 10,3,20; 10,4,2 f.; 10,4,5; 10,4,12; 10,5,18; Dionys. Per. 110; Mela 2,112; Plin. HN 4,58; 60 f.; 71: promunturium Samonium; Ptol. 3,17,5; Stadiasmus maris magni 318 f.; 355; Acts 27:7: Σαλμώνη/ Salmṓnē in connection with the…

Sammurammat

(4 words)

see Semiramis

Samnites, Samnium

(1,710 words)

Author(s): Vanotti, Gabriella (Novara)
[German version] I. Name, ethnos, geography The S. called their country Safinim, and themselves probably Safineis (inscriptions: Vetter 149; coins: [1. 149 f.]); the Greeks, respectively, Saunîtis (Σαυνῖτις, Pol. 3,90,7) and Saunîtai (Σαυνῖται, Philistus FGrH 556 F 41 f.; according to Fest. 436 L, derived from saúnion, 'spear'); the Romans called them S. (ILS 1). While etymologically related, these terms do not have the same geographical meaning. Common to Safineis and the ethnics Sabini and Sabelli is the Indo-European root * Sabh (cf. the god Sabus, Cato HRR fr. 50 f.).…

Samnite wars

(6 words)

see Samnites, Samnium

Samos

(1,981 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Kienast, Hermann J.
Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Archaeological investigations on Samos (S.) date back to the 18th cent. They were initially superficial, and limited to finding and identifying the few remains still standing. As the sources provide very little in the way of concrete information, the quest at first concentrated on the monuments described by Herodotus (3,60) as the greatest structures in all Hellas: Eupalinus' tunnel, the harbour mole and the temple of Hera. The ancient …

Samos

(1,590 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Theatre | Ionic | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Phoenicians, Poeni | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (ἡ Σάμος/ hē Sámos, Lat. also Samus). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] I. Geography Island in the southeastern Aegean Sea, only c. 2 km from the mainland of Asia Minor (at Mycale); connected in prehistoric times; total area 476 km2. The island is crossed by a chain of mountains (Ampelus according to …

Samosata

(191 words)

Author(s): Hausleiter, Arnulf (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Syria | Xenophon | Zenobia | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Legio | Limes | Limes | Pompeius (Σαμόσατα; Samósata), modern Samsat Hüyüğu (in Turkey), city on the northern bank of the Euphrates [2]; today submerged. A Hittite stele from S. and Assyrian sources attest the name of Kummuḫu (an Assyrian provincial town from the time of Sargon II onwards). Capital city of the Commagene under king Antiochus [16] I. Occupied in AD 72 by Vespa…

Samothrace

(1,617 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Tsochos, Charalampos (Erfurt)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Peloponnesian War | Pompeius | Education / Culture (Σαμοθράκη; Samothrákē). [German version] I. Geography and history Island (178 km2, with Mount Phengari, 1161 m) in the northern Aegean Sea, 30 km out from the Tracian coast, rich in water, with a narrow and flat beach and lacking in natural harbours. There are isolated traces of Neolithic settlements (near Karyotai and Mikro Vuni), in the Bronze Age it was occupied by Thracians. In c. 700 BC, S. was settled by Greek colonists, probably by Aeolis [1] of Lesbos, who fou…

Sampsigeramus

(184 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Σαμψιγέραμος; Sampsigéramos) [German version] [1] Prince of Emesa and Arethusa, 1st cent. BC The prince of Emesa and Arethusa (Str. 16,2,11) in Syria; was an (unfaithful) ally of Antiochus [14] XIII, whom he captured twice and killed in 64 BC (Diod. Sic. 40,1b). His good relationship with Pompeius [I 3] prompted Cicero to use his exotic Aramaic name as a nickname for Pompey (Cic. Att. 2,14,1; 16,2; 17,1-2; 23,2-3). S. was named among the princes who supported the rebellion of the Pompeian Caecilius [I 5] Bassus, which began in 46 BC (Str. 16,2,10). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) …

Samus

(159 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Σάμος/ Sámos). [German version] [1] King of Armenia, 3rd cent. BC King of Armenia first half of the 3rd cent. BC, appears among the paternal ancestors of Antiochus [16] I of Commagene as the father of king Arsames [4] (OGIS 394). S. (and not his homonymous descendant) founded Samosata, later the capital of Commagene, and Samokart in the Armenian region of Arzanene. In c. 255 BC he hosted the Bithynian prince Ziaelas. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] S. Theosebes Dicaeus (Σ. Θεοσεβὴς Δίκαιος/ S. Theosebḕs Díkaios). Great-grandson of S. [1], son of Ptolemaeus [III…

Sanatruces

(216 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Σανατρούκης/ Sanatroúkēs). [German version] [1] Parthian ruler, 1st cent. BC (Greek literary sources: Σινατρούκης/ Sinatroúkēs, Phlegon of Tralleis, fr. 12 in Photius; Σινατροκλῆς/ Sinatroklês, Ps.-Lucian, Macr. 15; or in the genitive: Σιντρίκου/ Sintríkou, App. Mithr. 104). Son of Artabanus [4] I and brother of Mithridates [13] II, Gotarzes I and Orodes [1] I. In 78/7 BC, in his 80th year, S. was elevated to the Parthian throne by the Sacaraucae and ruled a further 7 years (Ps.-Lucian, Macr. 15). In the conflict between Mith…

Sanbulus

(110 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] According to Tac. Ann. 12,13,3 the place where Gotarzes II defeated Mithridates [15], his anti-king sent by Rome; it is also mentioned that the last battle between Alexander [4] the Great and Darius [3] III was fought in the same place. Reference is made to a fortress near Nineveh (Ninus [2]). S. is a mountain on which Gotarzes sacrificed to Hercules and is presumably close to the field of battle. S. has to date not been identified. Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) Bibliography P. Bernard, Heracles, les grottes de Karafto et le sanctuaire du Mont Sambulos en Ira…

Sanchuniathon

(318 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
[German version] (Σαγχουνιάθω/ Sanchouniáthō; Phoenician sknytn, 'Sakon has given'). Phoenician and source for Herennius Philo of Byblus (= P.), who used him for his Phoenician History (Euseb.: Φοινικικὴ Ἱστορία/ Phoinikikḕ Historía; Iohannes Lydus, Steph. Byz.: τὰ Φοινικικά), of which we know only through references in Eusebius [7] (Euseb. Praep. evang. 1,9,20-21; 10,9,12 ff. Mras = FGrH 790). S. is said to have lived at Beirut (Berytus, according to the Suda), Tyrus or Sidon (Ath. 3,100) even 'before the Trojan War', and h…

Sanctio

(163 words)

Author(s): Ebner, Constanze (Innsbruck)
[German version] (from Latin sancire: 'to consecrate', 'render inviolable'), originally in the sacral sense: confirmation by oath of a treaty ( foedus ... sanciendum, Liv. 1,24,6); in the context of a lex ('law'), sanctio means the totality of clauses to ensure implementation (Cic. Att. 3,23,2-3), then generally legal consequence, esp. of prohibitory laws, esp. penalty. The categorization of leges (Ulp. Reg. 1-2, v. here lex, leges D.1.) according to the type of sanctio into leges imperfectae (without sanctio), minus quam perfectae (penalty only) and perfectae (act declared nul…

Sanctuaries

(1,134 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen) | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
[German version] I. General The word 'sanctuary' is derived, like the French sanctuaire, Italian santuario, etc., from the Latin sanctus ('set off'). On the other hand, the German collective term for a wide variety of types of cult places, Heiligtum, traces back to the Germanic adjective * heila-, * heilu- ('whole', 'complete') [1. 78]. In 20th-cent. German-language scholarship of religion, the German term eventually came to be used synonymously with the above-mentioned terms derived from sanctus. This is connected with, among other things, the archaeological and lite…

Sanctus

(392 words)

Author(s): Wardle, David (Cape Town)
[German version] (originally the perfect passive participle of the Lat. verb sancire, 'dedicate, make inviolable'). Sanctus is not identical with sacer , but the use of sanctior as the comparative of sacer and the formation of the compound sacrosanctus point to a connexion going back to the Indo-European *sak- ('endowed with existence'). Three phases of the ancient use of sanctus and the substantive sanctitas can be identified. 1. Sanctus qualifies things, places or offices defined or safeguarded in their existence, usually in a law, by a sanctio  (e.g., walls, …

Sancus

(371 words)

Author(s): Elm, Dorothee
[German version] Semo S. Dius Fidius (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,58,4; CIL VI 30994), also called Dius Fidius, S. or Semo S. A god of mysterious origin and nature, assumed to be of Sabine extraction (Ov. Fast. 6,213-18; Varro, Ling. 5,66). The name S. (also transmitted as Sanctus) is derived from Latin sancire, 'to make steadfast, fix' (but it is also explained as the Sabine word for 'heaven': Lydus, Mens. 4,90; [4. 116]). Semo is of unknown derivation, but is associated with semen ('seed') and understood to indicate a god of sowing ([3] contra [2. 204]). The god, along with Salus Semonia …

Sandalphon

(187 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Hebrew sandālfōn). Name of one of the most important angels in rabbinic angelology. S.'s size spans from earth into the heavenly realm and he surmounts his angel companions by 500 years 'while making wreaths for his creator' (bHag 13b with the interpretation of Ez 1:15; PesR 20 [97a]). Related traditions identified these wreaths with the prayers of Israel that S. presents to God (Bet ha-Midrasch 2,26 Jellinek). It is highly probably that his name is derived from the Greek συνάδελφος/ synádelphos, 'fellow brother' (in the community of angels or specifically o…

Sandals

(579 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (πέδιλον/ pédilon, σανδάλον, -ιον/ sandálon, -ion; Lat. sandalion, solea, all usually plur). Sandals (soles attached with straps to the feet and reaching up to the ankles or just above) were certainly the most common ancient footwear and were made in various variations. Greek sandals were tied with thin laces up to the ankles [2. 270, fig. 5]; only in the Roman Imperial Period did there emerge ribbon-like leather straps, crossing or running diagonally over the foot. The straps were often …

Sandhi

(887 words)

Author(s): Haebler, Claus (Münster)
[German version] The Indian word sandhi- (masc.) 'putting together, linking', a term used by Indian grammarians, was adopted by European linguistics in the middle of the 19th cent. in view of the lack of a corresponding term from Classical Antiquity. It describes (1) the 'coming together' of word-final phonemes with word-initial phonemes, esp. of words in a syntactic relationship (hence also the term 'sentence phonetics'), and also words occurring as members of nominal and verbal compounds; (2) (m…

Sandon

(334 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Σάνδων/ Sándōn, also Σάνδας/ Sándas, Σάνδης/ Sándēs, Lat. Sandan) was probably originally a Luwian god of weather and vegetation with characteristics of a war god and, to a lesser extent, of a sun god. In the Zarpiya ritual of Kizzuwatna in southeastern Asia Minor (KUB IX 31 II 22 f.; [7. 141; 8. 340]) he appears as d ša-an-ta-aš- LUGAL-uš, 'king Šantaš'. He is identified with Marduk, written ideographically as d AMAR.UD. A rock relief at Ivriz on the northern slopes of the Taurus (7th/6th cent. BC [6. 331; 1. 21] contains a pictorial representat…

Sandracottus

(181 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Arr. Anab. 5,6,2: Σανδράκοττος/ Sandrákottos, Str. 15,1,36: Σανδρόκοττος/ Sandrókottos, Plut. Alexander 62: Ἀνδράκοττος/ Andrákottos, Just. Epit. 15,4: Sandracottus, Old Indo-Iranian Tschandragupta). Indian king ( c. 320-298 BC) of the Mauryan Dynasty, king of the Prasii and founder of the Mauryan Empire (Mauryas with map). In Indian sources, his life is connected with legends, and parts of a S. legend are also found in Justin (15,4). He concluded a peace with Seleucus following a conflict of which no d…

Sane

(205 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Σάνη/ Sánē). [German version] [1] Colony of Andros This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Persian Wars | Delian League Colony of Andros on the south side of the isthmus of the Chalcidian Acte (Chalcidice) at the end of the canal built by Xerxes (Hdt. 7,22 f.; 123). As a member of the Delian League, S. paid on average one talent a year in the 5th cent. BC (ATL 1,396 f.). In 432 BC, at the onset of the Peloponnesian War, S. remained on Athens' side and in the winter of 424/423 resisted the attack b…

Sangala

(66 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Alexander | Graeco-Bactria (Σάγγαλα/ Sángala). Capital and fortress of the Indian Cathaei in the Punjab, to the east of Hydraotes (modern Irāvatī). The city was conquered and destroyed in 326 by Alexander [II 4] the Great after a fierce battle (Arr. Anab. 5,22-24; Polyaenus, Strat. 4,3,30). Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography A. Herrmann, s. v. Σάγγαλα, RE 1 A, 1740.

Sangarius

(233 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Σαγγάριος/ Sangários). River in Asia Minor, modern Sakarya, c. 520 km long, source (according to Str. 12,3,7; cf. 12,4,4; 5,3) 150 stadia from Pessinus (according to Liv. 38,18,8 at mons Adoreus) in Phrygia (Phryges). The headwaters of the upper course collect the water of the Phrygian highlands. In the prehistoric era, the southern river system of the S. was more significant; it carried away the precipitation from the area around Ilgın in the south to Yunak and today has left evidence of itself in a heavily…

San Giovenale

(213 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] Swedish excavations, 1956-1967, uncovered large sections of an Etruscan settlement on a high plateau at the confluence of two water courses in the northeastern foothills of the Tolfa Mountains. The floor plans of houses from three settlement phases are important for the study of the architecture of archaic Etruscan houses (cf. House [II C]): a late Bronze Age hut settlement with timber-framed buildings smaller than the long houses in Luni sul Mignone was located under the courtyar…

Sanhedrin

(4 words)

see Synhedrion

San Marco: Horses/Quadriga

(1,360 words)

Author(s): Schweizer, Stefan (Kassel RWG)
Schweizer, Stefan (Kassel RWG) [German version] A. Horses of San Marco (CT) The four bronze horses of San Marco, originally gilded, constitute the only known example of a free-standing quadriga from Antiquity. Stolen from Constantinople by Venetian mercenary soldiers in 1204, during the Fourth Crusade under the Doge E. Dandolo, the group of horses was set up soon after the mid-13th cent. on a terrace fronting the square above the portal area of the San Marco Basilica, where it is documented by a mosaic in t…

Sanni

(34 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Σάννοι; Sánnoi). In Str. 12,3,18 a term for the tribe formerly called Macrones, to the southwest of Trapezus. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography O. Lordkipanidze, Das alte Georgien in Strabons Geographie, 1996, 158-163.

Sannyrion

(126 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Σαννυρίων/ Sannyríōn). Attic comedic poet of the end of the 5th cent. BC, mocked by his competitors for his skinniness [1. test. 3]. The titles of three plays and 13 fragments with a total of eight and a half verses have been handed down: the Γέλως ( Gélōs, 'Laughter') featured a talking god (fr. 1) and mocked the tragedian Meletus [3] (fr. 2) and Aristophanes [3] (fr. 5); in the Δανάη ( Danáē), dated to 407-404 BC, Zeus considers what shape would be best for him to get to his Danae and in the process makes fun of the tragedic actor Hegelochus (fr. 8); the Ἰώ ( Iṓ), also on a mythical…

Sanquinius

(119 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Q. S. Maximus. Son of a senator of the Augustan period, possibly M. Sanquinius, the Master of the Mint (RIC I 2 337; 342). S. became consul on 1 February AD 39 instead of Caligula, perhaps until the end of  June (Cass. Dio 59,13,2); at the same time he may have been a políarchos [2] ( praefectus urbi). CIL X 905 and Tac. Ann. 6,4,3 are also seen as relating to S.; in that case he would have been cos. suff. by c. 21/2, but  cos. II in 39. This reconstruction must, however, remain uncertain. In c. 46 he was legate of the army of Lower Germany; he also died there (Tac. Ann. 11,18,1). Eck, Wer…

Santoni

(210 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic tribe in southwestern Gaul (Caes. B Gall. 1,10,1; 11,6; 3,11,5; Mela 3,23; It. Ant. 459,3; Str. 4,2,1; 6,11: Σάντονοι/ Sántonoi; Ptol. 2,7,7: Σάντονες/ Sántones), in the modern Saintonge (Dépt. Charente-Maritime, partially Dépt. Charente [1]). The S. participated in the rebellion of Vercingetorix in 52 BC (Caes. B Gall. 7,75,3). Under Roman rule, they formed a civitas of the province of Aquitania (Plin. HN 4,108: S. liberi) with their capital at Mediolan(i)um [4] Santonum (Gallia, with map). Under Diocletianus, this was added to the provi…

Santra

(100 words)

Author(s): Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton)
[German version] A Roman tragic poet and scholar whose floruit should probably be dated to the mid-first century BC. As the author of biographies of literary figures, he was a predecessor of Suetonius [2] (vgl. Jer. Vir. ill., praef.), who cites him as an authority on Terentius (vita Ter. 31,10 ff. Reifferscheid) and Lucilius [I 6] (Suet. gramm. 14,4). Quint. inst. 12,10,16 attributes to him a shrewd observation on the origin of Asianism. S. also composed a work  De antiquitate verborum, in at least three books. Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) Bibliography GRF 384-389  R. Mazzacane, S.,…

Sanzeno

(119 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] Site (in Nonsberg - Val di Non near Trento/South Tyrol) which gave its name to an archaic group of finds (group 'Fritzens-S.') from the Early Iron Age (5th-1st cents. BC); S. was a fortified settlement rich in material finds revealing local South Alpine and Etruscan elements (the adorned bronze containers of the 'Situla Circle,' ceramic forms) as well as Celtic influences (iron gear, weapons). S. and the corresponding group of finds is believed to have belonged to the Raetian population of the central Alpine region. Raeti, Raetia; Situla Pingel, Volker (Bochum) Bibliogr…

Sao

(32 words)

Author(s): Antoni, Silke (Kiel)
[German version] (Σαώ/ Saṓ, ‘protector (fem.)’, ‘saviour’). Daughter of Nereus and Doris [I 1], one of the Nereids (Hes. Theog. 243; Apollod. 1,11). Antoni, Silke (Kiel) Bibliography N. Icard-Gianolio, s.v. S., LIMC 7.1, 666.

Saosduchinus

(176 words)

Author(s): Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig)
[German version] (Σαοσδούχινος/ Saosdoúchinos). Hellenized form of the Assyro-Babylonian royal name Šamaš-šuma-ukīn in the so-called 'Ptolemaic Canon' (Claudius Ptolemaeus [65]; cf. Nabonassar; in Beros(s)us, hypocoristically Samoges; FGrH 680 F 7,34). Though the elder son of Asarhaddon, by his father's decree S. received only Babylonia as his realm, while the younger Assurbanipal assumed the succession in Assyria. Even as king of Babylon, S. was under the suzerainty of his brother, against whom he rebelled in 652 BC, s…

Saoterus

(106 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Cubicularius of Commodus, so a slave. When Commodus returned to Rome as in triumph in AD 180, S. stood behind the emperor on the chariot. According to HA Comm. 3,6, he was his lover. For his home town Nicomedia, S. obtained the Senate's permission to build a temple for Commodus and to establish an agon (Cass. Dio 72,12,2). He is supposed to have been hated by the people of Rome because of his influence; that is why he was killed by frumentarii of the praetorian praefects (HA Comm. 4,5). The evidence on his person, however, is probably considerably distorted. Eck, Werner (Cologn…

Sapaudia

(147 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Territory in Gallia ripariensis. The earliest evidence (Amm. Marc. 15,11,17) is corrupt and cannot be used to support localisation in modern Savoy. Further evidence: Not. Dign. Occ. 42,15 ( praefectus barbaricorum Ebruduni, modern Yverdon-les-Bains on Lake Neuchâtel, Sapaudiae) and 42,179 ( tribunus cohortis Flaviae Sapaudi[ c] ae Calarone). In AD 443, the Burgundiones escaping from their annihilation at the hands of the Hunni were settled here by Aetius [2] (Chron. min. 1, 660,128). Ground studies suggest that S. was in the Swiss highlands north of lacus Lemanus

Saphar

(45 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)
[German version] (Σαφάρ/ Saphár: Periplus maris Erythraei 23; Sapphar: Plin. HN 6,26; Σάπφαρ/ Sápphar: Ptol. 6,7,41). The city of Ẓafār, referred to as ẒFR in an inscription (CIS IV 312,6), located near present-day Yerim. It replaced Mariaba as the capital of the Homeritae. Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)

Saphrax

(70 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Σάφραξ/ Sáphrax). Ostrogoth; he and Alatheus were legal guardians of Vetericus (Viderich) (son of Vidimir; Amm. Marc. 31,3,3); after crossing the Danube (after 375), he fought in the battle near Hadrianopolis [3] in AD 378 (Amm. 31,4,12). In 380 (?), he settled in Pannonia (Zos. 4,34,2 f.; Iord. Get. 140 f.). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 1, 802 2 F. Paschoud (ed.), Zosime, Histoire nouvelle, vol. 2,2, 1979, 406-408 (with French translation).

Sapientia

(4 words)

see Wisdom

Sapis

(83 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] A river, which gives its name to the tribus Sapinia, modern Savio; rises in the Appennines in the north of Umbria (Plin. HN 3,115;  Str. 5,1,11: Σάπις; Sápis); Sarsina is in its upper reaches. It flows through the region of Caesena into the Aemilia and joins the Ionian Sea (Ionios Kolpos) to the south of Ravenna. It was crossed by the via Popilia at the road station S. between Ariminum and Ravenna (Tab. Peut. 5,1: Sabis). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Sapor

(558 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Persian Šāpūr, Greek Σαπώρης/ Sapṓrēs). [German version] [1] I Son of Ardashir [1] and Great King of Persia AD 240/242-272, of the dynasty of the Sassanids. The main source for his reign is the trilingual inscription (Middle Persian, Parthian, Greek) discovered in 1936-1939 on the Kaba-ye Zardošt in Naqš-e Rostam (near Persepolis), the so-called Res Gestae Divi Saporis (= RGDS; [1. 284-371]; Trilingual inscriptions). S. defeated Gordianus [3] III in 244 at Misichē (Pirisabora) in Assyria; Gordianus died under suspicious circumstances. S. compelled t…

Sapphire

(71 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (σάπφειρος/ sáppheiros, Latin sapp(h)irus). A precious stone, identical not with our modern sapphire, but with the speckled lapis lazuli (Theophr. 8; 23 and 37 Eichholz; Plin. HN 33,68 and 161; 37,119 f.), which was introduced from Egypt by the Greeks. It was not until the 3rd cent. AD onwards that it was used by the Romans for jewellery or amulets. Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) Bibliography 1 D. E. Eichholz (ed.), Theophrastus De lapidibus, 1965.

Sappho

(1,601 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto)
(Σαπφώ/ Sapphṓ; in her self-designation, fr. 1: Ψάπφω/ Psápphō). Greek poet c. 600 BC. [German version] A. Life Lyric poet, born at Mytilene or Eresus on Lesbos. Was regularly synchronized in Antiquity with the poet Alcaeus [4] and the statesman Pittacus (e.g., Str. 13,617). The date recorded in the Suda s.v. Σ. - the 42nd Olympiad = 612-609 BC - could refer either to her birth or to her akme. The latter is the more likely and accords with the notice in the Marmor Parium that she went into exile in Sicily between 603/02 and 596/95 (FGrH 239,36), when she s…

Sappho Painter

(201 words)

Author(s): Mommsen, Heide (Stuttgart)
[German version] Late Attic black-figure vase painter, c. 510-490 BC, named for the depiction of Sappho (with epigraph) on a kalpis in Warsaw (National Museum Inv. 142333). To date, 95 vessels have been ascribed to the SP, 70% of them lekythoi, in addition to other small vessels, some large vessels, tomb slabs and epinetra (Epinetron). Almost half of his paintings are white-ground. The SP did not use the red-figure technique predominant at the time, but he did occasionally use what is known as Six's technique, in which the figures were painted, co…

Sapropelite

(114 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] A dark-brown raw material of organic sapropel carbon with a dull shine, similar to jet or lignite, occurring in Bohemia and Moravia; it was worked, primarily by the Celts (6th-1st cents. BC), for jewel rings. Unworked and half-worked pieces in workshop finds, e.g. on the Heuneburg (6th cent.) and in the oppidum of Manching (2nd/1st cents. BC) show that jewellery was produced by cutting and carving and by turning on a lathe. Crafts, trade; Celtic archaeology; Jewellery Pingel, Volker (Bochum) Bibliography O. Rochna, Zur Herkunft der Manchinger Sapropelit-Ring…

Saqqara

(325 words)

Author(s): Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] Necropolis area with a length of c. 7.5 km at the edge of the Libyan desert south of Cairo. The heartland (S. north) was laid out in the 1st Dynasty (around 3000 BC) as a necropolis of Memphis on a hill above the newly founded city with a cemetery for the highest officials and members of the royal house. From the 2nd Dynasty (and right through to the 1st Intermediate Period), royal tomb complexes were repeatedly built in S., for example the pyramid complex of Djoser whose proximity was …

Sarabaitae

(149 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Lat. Sarabaitae). Certainly without direct evidence, Benedict of Nursia criticizes the Sarabaitae (Coptic: 'living scattered away from the monastery'?) in his classification of monasticism: they do not subject themselves to rules and live together in twosomes or threesomes as they see fit (Regula Benedicti, ch. 1). His source is the Regula Magistri, which in turn refers to the only authentic witness, Cassianus (Cassian. Conlationes patrum 18,7). A similar group, the Remnuoth (Coptic, probably: 'living individually'), is mentioned…

Saraca

(190 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] City in Arabia Felix to the northwest of Adan (Σάρακα/ Sáraka). City in Arabia [II] Felix to the northwest of Adan. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Desert in the Sinai Peninsula (Σάρακα/ Sáraka, Σαρακήνη/ Sarakḗnē, Ptol. 5,17,3). Desert in the Sinai Peninsula (modern al-Tīḥ) inhabited by the Σαρακηνοί/ Sarakēnoí. There is probably a connexion with the Sarakēnoí who, according to Ptol. 6,7,21, lived in the Ḥiǧāz in Arabia. There has been no explanation of the etymology of this designation, used from the 3rd cent. AD on synonymously with Sceni…

Saraceni

(127 words)

Author(s): Kuhnen, Hans-Peter (Trier)
[German version] ( Saraceni, Amm.  Marc. 14,4,1; Arraceni, Plin. HN 6,32; Σαρακηνοί/ Sarakēnoí, Zos. 4,22; 'Saracens'). Grand federation of Arab Beduin tribes, e.g. the Safaites and the Thamudeni. Because of their deployment of highly mobile camel units, from the 4th cent. AD onwards they were Rome's main opponent on the Limes Arabiae (Limes VII.). The first significant ruling personality was Imru al-Qais (died c. 330), and then the legendary queen Mavia (died c. 380). Arabs; Saraca [2] Kuhnen, Hans-Peter (Trier) Bibliography D. F. Graf, The Saracens and the Defence of th…

Saracens

(8 words)

see Arabs; Saraca [2] ; Saraceni;

Sarangae

(69 words)

Author(s): Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques (Liege)
[German version] (Σαράγγαι/ Sarángai, Hdt. 3,93; 117; 7,67; Ζαραγγαῖοι/ Zarangaîoi, Arr. Anab. 3,25,8; Zarangae, Plin. HN 6,94: mentioned beside the  Drangae). In the argumentum in Isidorus of Charax there is a form Ζαραγγιανή ( Zarangianḗ); in ch. 17 in the MSS, in contrast, Δραγγιανή ( Drangianḗ). A people of the Etymander (Helmand) region. The forms with S or  Z reflect the local pronunciation, those with D the Old Persian one. Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques (Liege)

Sarapanis

(148 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Str. 11,2,17; 3,4 τὰ Σαραπανά/ tà Sarapaná; Procop. Pers. 2,29,18; Procop. Goth. 4,13,15; 4,16,17: Σαραπανίς/ Sarapanís). Colchian fortress on the Phasis [1], navigable up to that point, through which the road to Iberia [1] led; identified with the remains of fortifications on the hill accessible only from the northeast at the confluence of Qvirila (Strabo's upper course of the Phasis) and Dzirula in the modern Šorapani, Georgia. Excavations in the lower town and the citadel uncovered traces of…

Sarapion

(118 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Σαραπίων/ Sarapíōn). [German version] [1] Priest of Horus, 2nd cent. BC Priest of Horus and in c. 160 BC the first Egyptian to hold the office of the eponymous priest of Alexander. Possibly identical with PP I/VIII 914. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Huß, Der makedonische König und die ägyptischen Priester, 1994, 45 f. [German version] [2] Dioiketes, 2nd cent. BC Dioikētḗs, in office after 145 and 142 BC, of the same rank as the 'friends of the first class' (PKöln V 223; PTebt III I732,1; Court titles B. 2.). Perhaps identical with a minor administrator documented 163-155 BC ( hypod…

Sarapis

(4 words)

see Serapis

Saravus

(196 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] River springing from Mont Donon in the Vosges (Vosegus) and flowing into the Mosella near Contoniacum; the present-day Saar river. Pier substructures testify to the existence of a bridge along the road Divodurum (Metz) - Augusta [6] Treverorum (Trier); the valley road running on the right of the Mosella converged to this bridge as well. There is evidence of other bridges upriver. The ‘winding S.’ (Auson. Mos. 91-93; cf. 367-369) was navigable up to Saarburg. A vicus S. is mentioned in an inscription on a column from Mont Donon, along the procession road l…

Sarcina

(4 words)

see Impedimenta

Sarcophagus

(4,388 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Lesky, Michael (Tübingen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Oepen, Alexis
(σαρκοφάγος/ sarkophágos, stone coffin, literally 'flesh-eater'; Lat. arca, capsula and sarcofagus, Juv. 10,171). I. Graeco-Roman [German version] A. Material, typology, research Since the 18th cent., scholars have been referring to containers for corpses decorated with reliefs as sarcophagi. These were made of marble, less frequently of limestone, tuff, sandstone, granite, basalt or porphyry. Pliny describes a lapis ... sarcophagus from Assus (Plin. HN 2,210; 36,131) as 'corpse-consuming'. Terracotta and lead were used in certain regions. Wooden sarco…

Sardanapalus

(88 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (Σαρδανάπαλ(λ)ος; Sardanápal(l)os). Legendary Assyrian ruler, who combines traits of several Assyrian rulers (e.g. Sennacherib and Saosduchinus/Šamaš-šuma-ukīn) according to the accounts of  Greek authors (Hdt. 2,150; Pol. 8,12,3; Dion. Chrys. 4,135; Clem. Al. Strom. 2,20). During the 19th century, S. was a subject in music [1. 168], literature (Byron) and fine arts (Delacroix) (Orient, reception in the West). Renger, Johannes (Berlin) Bibliography 1 J. Renger, Altorientalistik und Vorderasiatische Archäologie in Berlin, in: W. Ahrenhövel, Chr. Sc…

Sardiane

(110 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σαρδιανή; Sardianḗ). Town territory of Sardis (with map; Str. 13,4,5; cf. Xen. Hell. 3,4,21; Xen. Ages. 1,29). Besides the valley of Pactolus, it included the fertile plain around the middle course of the Hermus [2] (Σαρδιανὸν πεδίον/ Sardianòn pedíon, Hdt. 1,80,1; Plut. Agesilaos 10; Str. loc.cit.), about east of Salihli up to Turgutlu [1. 499, 501], its exact boundaries being unknown. The Roman judicial district of Sardis ( Sardiana iurisdictio, Plin. HN 5, 111) stretched far beyond S., especially towards the east. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 G. …

Sardinia

(973 words)

Author(s): Meloni, Piero (Cagliari) | Meloni
(Σαρδώ/ Sardṓ, Σαρδών/ Sardṓn, Σαρδωνία/ Sardōnía), the island of Sardinia. [German version] I. Name S. is called Sandaliotis in Myrsilus (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 63), Ichnousa in Timaeus (Myrsilus FGrH 477 F 11; from τὸ σάνδαλον/ sándalon, 'shoe sole'; Ichnusa from τὸ ἴχνος/ tò íchnos, 'footprint'; with regard to the confusion of authors in Plin. HN 3,85 cf. F. Jacoby in comm. on FGrH; cf. Aristot. Mir. 100; Sall. Hist. fr. 2,2; Paus. 10,17,2). Meloni, Piero (Cagliari) [German version] II. Geography At 23,800 km2, the second biggest island in the Mediterranean (Mare Nostrum; th…

Sardinia et Corsica

(334 words)

Author(s): Meloni
[German version] The second Roman province. One consequence of the 1st of the Punic Wars [I] for Rome was the gain of Sardinia. In 237 BC, in a rider (StV III 497) to the peace treaty (StV III 493), Carthage renounced claim to the island (Pol. 1,88,8 ff.; Liv. 21,40,5; 22,54,11). At the same time, the Romans also annexed Corsica (Sinnius Capito apud Fest. 430,14-20), combining the two islands into one province, from 227 BC under the administration of a praetor (Solin. 5,1; Liv. 23,24,4; Liv. per. 20). In the Roman Imperial Period, the difficult province, always plagued b…

Sardis

(3,784 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Writing | Theatre | Byzantium | Christianity | Xenophon | | Diadochi and Epigoni | Alexander | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Rome | Athletes | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources (Σάρδεις/ Sárdeis, Lat. Sardis). [German version] I. Location and name City set at the opening of the valley of the Pactolus into that of the Hermus [2] as it broadens into the Sardian Plain. Centre of th…

Sardonyx

(67 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (σαρδόνυξ/ sardónyx, Latin sardonyx). Today a brown-and-white-banded variety of chalcedony, but in Antiquity a metal from the S. Mountains in India. Whether ancient gems allegedly made from sardonyx [1. e.g. pls.üü 15,52 and 18,42] in fact consist of this stone would be a matter for study. Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) Bibliography 1 F. Imhoof-Blumer, O. Keller, Tier- und Pflanzenbilder auf Münzen und Gemmen des klassischen Altertuns, 1889 (repr. 1972).

Sar-e Pol-e Ẕahāb

(211 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Archaeological find site in Kurdistan, Iran (Old Persian Ḥulvān; Akkadian Ḫalmān), 20 km from the Iraqi border on the old Kermānshāh-Baghdad road. There, to both sides of the River Alvand, was found a total of four reliefs of the Lullubaean princes who reigned in the late 3rd or early 2nd millennium BC; among them, the triumphal relief of Anubanini [2. pl. 49], with the motif of trampling the enemy underfoot, provided the model for the relief of Darius [1] I at Bisutun. Below this image is …

Sargon

(888 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] [1] of Akkad (Akkadian Šarru[ m]- kīn, 'the ruler is legitimate'). Founder (2340-2284 BC) of the so-called dynasty of Akkad in Mesopotamia. According to later Sumerian and Akkadian literary and historiographical tradition, S. was said to have been the son of a certain Lāipum and a priestess [1. 69; 2. 36-49] and to have begun his career as a cupbearer under King Ur-Zababa of Kiš [1; 2. 51-55]. S. established his own (to date unidentified) residence, Akkad, and created by his conquests …

Sarissa

(197 words)

Author(s): Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle)
[German version] (σάρισσα/ sárissa or σάρισα/ sárisa). Long pike of the Macedonian infantry and cavalry, weighing 6-7,5 kg and having a length of 4,5-5,4 m (Theophr. Hist. pl. 3,12,2; Asclepiodotus 5,1; Pol. 18,29; [1]). It consisted of a wooden shaft, preferably made of European cornel, and had pointed metal tips at both ends. The bottom point served as spare part, as a counterweight and for fixing the sarissa on the ground against a cavalry attack. Since the sarissa was held with both hands during the fight, the foot soldiers armed with it could carry only a small ro…

Sarmatae

(900 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σαρμάται/ Sarmátai, Σαυρομάται/ Sauromátai; Lat. Sarmatae). Iranian nomadic tribes who include, among others, the Alani, Aorsi, Iazyges, Rhoxolani and Sirachi. They lived until the mid 3rd cent. BC east of the Tanais (modern Don), regarded as the border between Scythae (with map) and S. (Hdt. 4,21), in the steppes north of the Caucasus (τὰ τῶν Σαρματῶν πεδία/ tà tôn Sarmatôn pedía, Str. 11,2,15). The Syrmatae probably lived in the outermost western region (Steph. Byz., s.v. Συρμάται; in Ps.-Scyl. 68 already west of the Tanais). From the m…

Sarmaticus

(154 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] A victory title assumed by Roman emperors to indicate a military success over the Sarmatians (Sarmatae). After AD 175, Marcus [2] Aurelius and his son Commodus were the first to bear the epithet Sarmaticus following the peace treaty with the Iazyges. Maximinus [2] Thrax and his son Maximus bore the title Sarmaticus maximus from AD 236. Although Sarmatian tribes continued to threaten the Danube border, Diocletianus was the first to accept the title Sarmaticus maximus again in AD 285 (three more times from then on). After Diocletian, all the Augusti of the…
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