Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Sanquinius

(119 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Q. S. Maximus. Son of a senator of the Augustan period, possibly M. Sanquinius, the Master of the Mint (RIC I 2 337; 342). S. became consul on 1 February AD 39 instead of Caligula, perhaps until the end of  June (Cass. Dio 59,13,2); at the same time he may have been a políarchos [2] ( praefectus urbi). CIL X 905 and Tac. Ann. 6,4,3 are also seen as relating to S.; in that case he would have been cos. suff. by c. 21/2, but  cos. II in 39. This reconstruction must, however, remain uncertain. In c. 46 he was legate of the army of Lower Germany; he also died there (Tac. Ann. 11,18,1). Eck, Wer…

Santoni

(210 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic tribe in southwestern Gaul (Caes. B Gall. 1,10,1; 11,6; 3,11,5; Mela 3,23; It. Ant. 459,3; Str. 4,2,1; 6,11: Σάντονοι/ Sántonoi; Ptol. 2,7,7: Σάντονες/ Sántones), in the modern Saintonge (Dépt. Charente-Maritime, partially Dépt. Charente [1]). The S. participated in the rebellion of Vercingetorix in 52 BC (Caes. B Gall. 7,75,3). Under Roman rule, they formed a civitas of the province of Aquitania (Plin. HN 4,108: S. liberi) with their capital at Mediolan(i)um [4] Santonum (Gallia, with map). Under Diocletianus, this was added to the provi…

Santra

(100 words)

Author(s): Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton)
[German version] A Roman tragic poet and scholar whose floruit should probably be dated to the mid-first century BC. As the author of biographies of literary figures, he was a predecessor of Suetonius [2] (vgl. Jer. Vir. ill., praef.), who cites him as an authority on Terentius (vita Ter. 31,10 ff. Reifferscheid) and Lucilius [I 6] (Suet. gramm. 14,4). Quint. inst. 12,10,16 attributes to him a shrewd observation on the origin of Asianism. S. also composed a work  De antiquitate verborum, in at least three books. Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) Bibliography GRF 384-389  R. Mazzacane, S.,…

Sanzeno

(119 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] Site (in Nonsberg - Val di Non near Trento/South Tyrol) which gave its name to an archaic group of finds (group 'Fritzens-S.') from the Early Iron Age (5th-1st cents. BC); S. was a fortified settlement rich in material finds revealing local South Alpine and Etruscan elements (the adorned bronze containers of the 'Situla Circle,' ceramic forms) as well as Celtic influences (iron gear, weapons). S. and the corresponding group of finds is believed to have belonged to the Raetian population of the central Alpine region. Raeti, Raetia; Situla Pingel, Volker (Bochum) Bibliogr…

Sao

(32 words)

Author(s): Antoni, Silke (Kiel)
[German version] (Σαώ/ Saṓ, ‘protector (fem.)’, ‘saviour’). Daughter of Nereus and Doris [I 1], one of the Nereids (Hes. Theog. 243; Apollod. 1,11). Antoni, Silke (Kiel) Bibliography N. Icard-Gianolio, s.v. S., LIMC 7.1, 666.

Saosduchinus

(176 words)

Author(s): Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig)
[German version] (Σαοσδούχινος/ Saosdoúchinos). Hellenized form of the Assyro-Babylonian royal name Šamaš-šuma-ukīn in the so-called 'Ptolemaic Canon' (Claudius Ptolemaeus [65]; cf. Nabonassar; in Beros(s)us, hypocoristically Samoges; FGrH 680 F 7,34). Though the elder son of Asarhaddon, by his father's decree S. received only Babylonia as his realm, while the younger Assurbanipal assumed the succession in Assyria. Even as king of Babylon, S. was under the suzerainty of his brother, against whom he rebelled in 652 BC, s…

Saoterus

(106 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Cubicularius of Commodus, so a slave. When Commodus returned to Rome as in triumph in AD 180, S. stood behind the emperor on the chariot. According to HA Comm. 3,6, he was his lover. For his home town Nicomedia, S. obtained the Senate's permission to build a temple for Commodus and to establish an agon (Cass. Dio 72,12,2). He is supposed to have been hated by the people of Rome because of his influence; that is why he was killed by frumentarii of the praetorian praefects (HA Comm. 4,5). The evidence on his person, however, is probably considerably distorted. Eck, Werner (Cologn…

Sapaudia

(147 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Territory in Gallia ripariensis. The earliest evidence (Amm. Marc. 15,11,17) is corrupt and cannot be used to support localisation in modern Savoy. Further evidence: Not. Dign. Occ. 42,15 ( praefectus barbaricorum Ebruduni, modern Yverdon-les-Bains on Lake Neuchâtel, Sapaudiae) and 42,179 ( tribunus cohortis Flaviae Sapaudi[ c] ae Calarone). In AD 443, the Burgundiones escaping from their annihilation at the hands of the Hunni were settled here by Aetius [2] (Chron. min. 1, 660,128). Ground studies suggest that S. was in the Swiss highlands north of lacus Lemanus

Saphar

(45 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)
[German version] (Σαφάρ/ Saphár: Periplus maris Erythraei 23; Sapphar: Plin. HN 6,26; Σάπφαρ/ Sápphar: Ptol. 6,7,41). The city of Ẓafār, referred to as ẒFR in an inscription (CIS IV 312,6), located near present-day Yerim. It replaced Mariaba as the capital of the Homeritae. Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)

Saphrax

(70 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Σάφραξ/ Sáphrax). Ostrogoth; he and Alatheus were legal guardians of Vetericus (Viderich) (son of Vidimir; Amm. Marc. 31,3,3); after crossing the Danube (after 375), he fought in the battle near Hadrianopolis [3] in AD 378 (Amm. 31,4,12). In 380 (?), he settled in Pannonia (Zos. 4,34,2 f.; Iord. Get. 140 f.). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 1, 802 2 F. Paschoud (ed.), Zosime, Histoire nouvelle, vol. 2,2, 1979, 406-408 (with French translation).

Sapientia

(4 words)

see Wisdom

Sapis

(83 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] A river, which gives its name to the tribus Sapinia, modern Savio; rises in the Appennines in the north of Umbria (Plin. HN 3,115;  Str. 5,1,11: Σάπις; Sápis); Sarsina is in its upper reaches. It flows through the region of Caesena into the Aemilia and joins the Ionian Sea (Ionios Kolpos) to the south of Ravenna. It was crossed by the via Popilia at the road station S. between Ariminum and Ravenna (Tab. Peut. 5,1: Sabis). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Sapor

(558 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Persian Šāpūr, Greek Σαπώρης/ Sapṓrēs). [German version] [1] I Son of Ardashir [1] and Great King of Persia AD 240/242-272, of the dynasty of the Sassanids. The main source for his reign is the trilingual inscription (Middle Persian, Parthian, Greek) discovered in 1936-1939 on the Kaba-ye Zardošt in Naqš-e Rostam (near Persepolis), the so-called Res Gestae Divi Saporis (= RGDS; [1. 284-371]; Trilingual inscriptions). S. defeated Gordianus [3] III in 244 at Misichē (Pirisabora) in Assyria; Gordianus died under suspicious circumstances. S. compelled t…

Sapphire

(71 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (σάπφειρος/ sáppheiros, Latin sapp(h)irus). A precious stone, identical not with our modern sapphire, but with the speckled lapis lazuli (Theophr. 8; 23 and 37 Eichholz; Plin. HN 33,68 and 161; 37,119 f.), which was introduced from Egypt by the Greeks. It was not until the 3rd cent. AD onwards that it was used by the Romans for jewellery or amulets. Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) Bibliography 1 D. E. Eichholz (ed.), Theophrastus De lapidibus, 1965.

Sappho

(1,601 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto)
(Σαπφώ/ Sapphṓ; in her self-designation, fr. 1: Ψάπφω/ Psápphō). Greek poet c. 600 BC. [German version] A. Life Lyric poet, born at Mytilene or Eresus on Lesbos. Was regularly synchronized in Antiquity with the poet Alcaeus [4] and the statesman Pittacus (e.g., Str. 13,617). The date recorded in the Suda s.v. Σ. - the 42nd Olympiad = 612-609 BC - could refer either to her birth or to her akme. The latter is the more likely and accords with the notice in the Marmor Parium that she went into exile in Sicily between 603/02 and 596/95 (FGrH 239,36), when she s…

Sappho Painter

(201 words)

Author(s): Mommsen, Heide (Stuttgart)
[German version] Late Attic black-figure vase painter, c. 510-490 BC, named for the depiction of Sappho (with epigraph) on a kalpis in Warsaw (National Museum Inv. 142333). To date, 95 vessels have been ascribed to the SP, 70% of them lekythoi, in addition to other small vessels, some large vessels, tomb slabs and epinetra (Epinetron). Almost half of his paintings are white-ground. The SP did not use the red-figure technique predominant at the time, but he did occasionally use what is known as Six's technique, in which the figures were painted, co…

Sapropelite

(114 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] A dark-brown raw material of organic sapropel carbon with a dull shine, similar to jet or lignite, occurring in Bohemia and Moravia; it was worked, primarily by the Celts (6th-1st cents. BC), for jewel rings. Unworked and half-worked pieces in workshop finds, e.g. on the Heuneburg (6th cent.) and in the oppidum of Manching (2nd/1st cents. BC) show that jewellery was produced by cutting and carving and by turning on a lathe. Crafts, trade; Celtic archaeology; Jewellery Pingel, Volker (Bochum) Bibliography O. Rochna, Zur Herkunft der Manchinger Sapropelit-Ring…

Saqqara

(325 words)

Author(s): Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] Necropolis area with a length of c. 7.5 km at the edge of the Libyan desert south of Cairo. The heartland (S. north) was laid out in the 1st Dynasty (around 3000 BC) as a necropolis of Memphis on a hill above the newly founded city with a cemetery for the highest officials and members of the royal house. From the 2nd Dynasty (and right through to the 1st Intermediate Period), royal tomb complexes were repeatedly built in S., for example the pyramid complex of Djoser whose proximity was …

Sarabaitae

(149 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Lat. Sarabaitae). Certainly without direct evidence, Benedict of Nursia criticizes the Sarabaitae (Coptic: 'living scattered away from the monastery'?) in his classification of monasticism: they do not subject themselves to rules and live together in twosomes or threesomes as they see fit (Regula Benedicti, ch. 1). His source is the Regula Magistri, which in turn refers to the only authentic witness, Cassianus (Cassian. Conlationes patrum 18,7). A similar group, the Remnuoth (Coptic, probably: 'living individually'), is mentioned…

Saraca

(190 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] City in Arabia Felix to the northwest of Adan (Σάρακα/ Sáraka). City in Arabia [II] Felix to the northwest of Adan. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Desert in the Sinai Peninsula (Σάρακα/ Sáraka, Σαρακήνη/ Sarakḗnē, Ptol. 5,17,3). Desert in the Sinai Peninsula (modern al-Tīḥ) inhabited by the Σαρακηνοί/ Sarakēnoí. There is probably a connexion with the Sarakēnoí who, according to Ptol. 6,7,21, lived in the Ḥiǧāz in Arabia. There has been no explanation of the etymology of this designation, used from the 3rd cent. AD on synonymously with Sceni…

Saraceni

(127 words)

Author(s): Kuhnen, Hans-Peter (Trier)
[German version] ( Saraceni, Amm.  Marc. 14,4,1; Arraceni, Plin. HN 6,32; Σαρακηνοί/ Sarakēnoí, Zos. 4,22; 'Saracens'). Grand federation of Arab Beduin tribes, e.g. the Safaites and the Thamudeni. Because of their deployment of highly mobile camel units, from the 4th cent. AD onwards they were Rome's main opponent on the Limes Arabiae (Limes VII.). The first significant ruling personality was Imru al-Qais (died c. 330), and then the legendary queen Mavia (died c. 380). Arabs; Saraca [2] Kuhnen, Hans-Peter (Trier) Bibliography D. F. Graf, The Saracens and the Defence of th…

Saracens

(8 words)

see Arabs; Saraca [2] ; Saraceni;

Sarangae

(69 words)

Author(s): Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques (Liege)
[German version] (Σαράγγαι/ Sarángai, Hdt. 3,93; 117; 7,67; Ζαραγγαῖοι/ Zarangaîoi, Arr. Anab. 3,25,8; Zarangae, Plin. HN 6,94: mentioned beside the  Drangae). In the argumentum in Isidorus of Charax there is a form Ζαραγγιανή ( Zarangianḗ); in ch. 17 in the MSS, in contrast, Δραγγιανή ( Drangianḗ). A people of the Etymander (Helmand) region. The forms with S or  Z reflect the local pronunciation, those with D the Old Persian one. Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques (Liege)

Sarapanis

(148 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Str. 11,2,17; 3,4 τὰ Σαραπανά/ tà Sarapaná; Procop. Pers. 2,29,18; Procop. Goth. 4,13,15; 4,16,17: Σαραπανίς/ Sarapanís). Colchian fortress on the Phasis [1], navigable up to that point, through which the road to Iberia [1] led; identified with the remains of fortifications on the hill accessible only from the northeast at the confluence of Qvirila (Strabo's upper course of the Phasis) and Dzirula in the modern Šorapani, Georgia. Excavations in the lower town and the citadel uncovered traces of…

Sarapion

(118 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Σαραπίων/ Sarapíōn). [German version] [1] Priest of Horus, 2nd cent. BC Priest of Horus and in c. 160 BC the first Egyptian to hold the office of the eponymous priest of Alexander. Possibly identical with PP I/VIII 914. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Huß, Der makedonische König und die ägyptischen Priester, 1994, 45 f. [German version] [2] Dioiketes, 2nd cent. BC Dioikētḗs, in office after 145 and 142 BC, of the same rank as the 'friends of the first class' (PKöln V 223; PTebt III I732,1; Court titles B. 2.). Perhaps identical with a minor administrator documented 163-155 BC ( hypod…

Sarapis

(4 words)

see Serapis

Saravus

(196 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] River springing from Mont Donon in the Vosges (Vosegus) and flowing into the Mosella near Contoniacum; the present-day Saar river. Pier substructures testify to the existence of a bridge along the road Divodurum (Metz) - Augusta [6] Treverorum (Trier); the valley road running on the right of the Mosella converged to this bridge as well. There is evidence of other bridges upriver. The ‘winding S.’ (Auson. Mos. 91-93; cf. 367-369) was navigable up to Saarburg. A vicus S. is mentioned in an inscription on a column from Mont Donon, along the procession road l…

Sarcina

(4 words)

see Impedimenta

Sarcophagus

(4,388 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Lesky, Michael (Tübingen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Oepen, Alexis
(σαρκοφάγος/ sarkophágos, stone coffin, literally 'flesh-eater'; Lat. arca, capsula and sarcofagus, Juv. 10,171). I. Graeco-Roman [German version] A. Material, typology, research Since the 18th cent., scholars have been referring to containers for corpses decorated with reliefs as sarcophagi. These were made of marble, less frequently of limestone, tuff, sandstone, granite, basalt or porphyry. Pliny describes a lapis ... sarcophagus from Assus (Plin. HN 2,210; 36,131) as 'corpse-consuming'. Terracotta and lead were used in certain regions. Wooden sarco…

Sardanapalus

(88 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (Σαρδανάπαλ(λ)ος; Sardanápal(l)os). Legendary Assyrian ruler, who combines traits of several Assyrian rulers (e.g. Sennacherib and Saosduchinus/Šamaš-šuma-ukīn) according to the accounts of  Greek authors (Hdt. 2,150; Pol. 8,12,3; Dion. Chrys. 4,135; Clem. Al. Strom. 2,20). During the 19th century, S. was a subject in music [1. 168], literature (Byron) and fine arts (Delacroix) (Orient, reception in the West). Renger, Johannes (Berlin) Bibliography 1 J. Renger, Altorientalistik und Vorderasiatische Archäologie in Berlin, in: W. Ahrenhövel, Chr. Sc…

Sardiane

(110 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σαρδιανή; Sardianḗ). Town territory of Sardis (with map; Str. 13,4,5; cf. Xen. Hell. 3,4,21; Xen. Ages. 1,29). Besides the valley of Pactolus, it included the fertile plain around the middle course of the Hermus [2] (Σαρδιανὸν πεδίον/ Sardianòn pedíon, Hdt. 1,80,1; Plut. Agesilaos 10; Str. loc.cit.), about east of Salihli up to Turgutlu [1. 499, 501], its exact boundaries being unknown. The Roman judicial district of Sardis ( Sardiana iurisdictio, Plin. HN 5, 111) stretched far beyond S., especially towards the east. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 G. …

Sardinia

(973 words)

Author(s): Meloni, Piero (Cagliari) | Meloni
(Σαρδώ/ Sardṓ, Σαρδών/ Sardṓn, Σαρδωνία/ Sardōnía), the island of Sardinia. [German version] I. Name S. is called Sandaliotis in Myrsilus (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 63), Ichnousa in Timaeus (Myrsilus FGrH 477 F 11; from τὸ σάνδαλον/ sándalon, 'shoe sole'; Ichnusa from τὸ ἴχνος/ tò íchnos, 'footprint'; with regard to the confusion of authors in Plin. HN 3,85 cf. F. Jacoby in comm. on FGrH; cf. Aristot. Mir. 100; Sall. Hist. fr. 2,2; Paus. 10,17,2). Meloni, Piero (Cagliari) [German version] II. Geography At 23,800 km2, the second biggest island in the Mediterranean (Mare Nostrum; th…

Sardinia et Corsica

(334 words)

Author(s): Meloni
[German version] The second Roman province. One consequence of the 1st of the Punic Wars [I] for Rome was the gain of Sardinia. In 237 BC, in a rider (StV III 497) to the peace treaty (StV III 493), Carthage renounced claim to the island (Pol. 1,88,8 ff.; Liv. 21,40,5; 22,54,11). At the same time, the Romans also annexed Corsica (Sinnius Capito apud Fest. 430,14-20), combining the two islands into one province, from 227 BC under the administration of a praetor (Solin. 5,1; Liv. 23,24,4; Liv. per. 20). In the Roman Imperial Period, the difficult province, always plagued b…

Sardis

(3,784 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Writing | Theatre | Byzantium | Christianity | Xenophon | | Diadochi and Epigoni | Alexander | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Rome | Athletes | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources (Σάρδεις/ Sárdeis, Lat. Sardis). [German version] I. Location and name City set at the opening of the valley of the Pactolus into that of the Hermus [2] as it broadens into the Sardian Plain. Centre of th…

Sardonyx

(67 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (σαρδόνυξ/ sardónyx, Latin sardonyx). Today a brown-and-white-banded variety of chalcedony, but in Antiquity a metal from the S. Mountains in India. Whether ancient gems allegedly made from sardonyx [1. e.g. pls.üü 15,52 and 18,42] in fact consist of this stone would be a matter for study. Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) Bibliography 1 F. Imhoof-Blumer, O. Keller, Tier- und Pflanzenbilder auf Münzen und Gemmen des klassischen Altertuns, 1889 (repr. 1972).

Sar-e Pol-e Ẕahāb

(211 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Archaeological find site in Kurdistan, Iran (Old Persian Ḥulvān; Akkadian Ḫalmān), 20 km from the Iraqi border on the old Kermānshāh-Baghdad road. There, to both sides of the River Alvand, was found a total of four reliefs of the Lullubaean princes who reigned in the late 3rd or early 2nd millennium BC; among them, the triumphal relief of Anubanini [2. pl. 49], with the motif of trampling the enemy underfoot, provided the model for the relief of Darius [1] I at Bisutun. Below this image is …

Sargon

(888 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] [1] of Akkad (Akkadian Šarru[ m]- kīn, 'the ruler is legitimate'). Founder (2340-2284 BC) of the so-called dynasty of Akkad in Mesopotamia. According to later Sumerian and Akkadian literary and historiographical tradition, S. was said to have been the son of a certain Lāipum and a priestess [1. 69; 2. 36-49] and to have begun his career as a cupbearer under King Ur-Zababa of Kiš [1; 2. 51-55]. S. established his own (to date unidentified) residence, Akkad, and created by his conquests …

Sarissa

(197 words)

Author(s): Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle)
[German version] (σάρισσα/ sárissa or σάρισα/ sárisa). Long pike of the Macedonian infantry and cavalry, weighing 6-7,5 kg and having a length of 4,5-5,4 m (Theophr. Hist. pl. 3,12,2; Asclepiodotus 5,1; Pol. 18,29; [1]). It consisted of a wooden shaft, preferably made of European cornel, and had pointed metal tips at both ends. The bottom point served as spare part, as a counterweight and for fixing the sarissa on the ground against a cavalry attack. Since the sarissa was held with both hands during the fight, the foot soldiers armed with it could carry only a small ro…

Sarmatae

(900 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σαρμάται/ Sarmátai, Σαυρομάται/ Sauromátai; Lat. Sarmatae). Iranian nomadic tribes who include, among others, the Alani, Aorsi, Iazyges, Rhoxolani and Sirachi. They lived until the mid 3rd cent. BC east of the Tanais (modern Don), regarded as the border between Scythae (with map) and S. (Hdt. 4,21), in the steppes north of the Caucasus (τὰ τῶν Σαρματῶν πεδία/ tà tôn Sarmatôn pedía, Str. 11,2,15). The Syrmatae probably lived in the outermost western region (Steph. Byz., s.v. Συρμάται; in Ps.-Scyl. 68 already west of the Tanais). From the m…

Sarmaticus

(154 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] A victory title assumed by Roman emperors to indicate a military success over the Sarmatians (Sarmatae). After AD 175, Marcus [2] Aurelius and his son Commodus were the first to bear the epithet Sarmaticus following the peace treaty with the Iazyges. Maximinus [2] Thrax and his son Maximus bore the title Sarmaticus maximus from AD 236. Although Sarmatian tribes continued to threaten the Danube border, Diocletianus was the first to accept the title Sarmaticus maximus again in AD 285 (three more times from then on). After Diocletian, all the Augusti of the…

Sarmizegetusa

(236 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia | Limes | Pertinax | Rome | Balkans, languages Town in Dacia (cf. Ptol. 3,8,9: Ζαρμιζεγέθουσα/ Zarmizegéthousa; Cass. Dio 68,8,7: Ζερμιζεγέθουσα/ Zermizegéthousa; Dig. 50,15,1,9: Zarmizegetusa; Geogr. Rav 4,7: Sarmazege; Tab. Peut. 7,5: Sarmategte; in the inscriptions mainly S.), modern Hunedoara, Haţeg (Romania). In the pre-Roman Period, the centre was a settlement of the Daci and residence of the Dacian kings (S. Regia in Dacia Superior). Owing…

Sarnus

(242 words)

Author(s): Gargini, Michela (Pisa)
[German version] River in Campania (Plin. HN 3,9,62; in Vibius Sequester 138 also a mountain S.; in Oros. 4,15,2 f. erroneously identified with the Arno; Ptol. 3,1,7; Tab. Peut. 6,5 without being called by name; Procop. Goth. 4,35 calls it Δράκων/ Drákōn, 'Dragon'), gently flowing with abundant water (Sil. Pun. 8,537), which empties into the Sinus Puteolanus at Nuceria [1], modern Sarno. Conon [4] traced the name of the S. back to Pelasgians who settled there from the Peloponnese, calling the S. Sarro and themselves Sarrastae (FGrH 26 F 3; cf. Verg. Aen. 7,738; Sil. Pun. 8,536 …

Saron

(112 words)

Author(s): Börm, Henning (Kiel)
[German version] (Σάρων; Sárōn). According to the legend, the third king of Troezen, who founded a temple and a festival to Artemis Saronia. When a stag fled into the sea during a hunting party, S. was drowned while he was chasing it and was buried in the temple. Since then, the 'Phoebian' gulf has been called the Saronian (Paus. 2,30,7; Saronikos Kolpos). According to other sources, S. lived on as a sea god or daemon (Aristid. 2,274); presumably, S. was originally pursuing the goddess Artemis herself instead of an animal, descending only at a later date from the position of a god to that of a heros…

Saronikos Kolpos

(103 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σαρωνικὸς κόλπος/ Sarōnikòs kólpos, πέλαγος/ pélagos, πόντος/ póntos, or πόρος/ póros; also κόλπος Αργείας/ kólpos Argeías, Ptol. 3,16,12, or Σαλαμινιακὸν πέλαγος/ Salaminiakòn pélagos, Str. 8,2,2), modern 'Gulf of Aegina'. Named after the mythical king Saron of Troezen, a generally shallow gulf of the Aegean Sea (Paus. 2,30,7; 2,32,10, cf. 2,34,2; Str. 2,5,21) between Attica in the northeast, Argolis in the southwest and the Isthmus of Corinth in the northwest, with many islands (e.g., Aegina, Salami…

Sarpedon

(481 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Σαρπηδών/ Sarpēdṓn). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and Laodameia [1]. Son of Zeus and Laodameia [1]. In the Trojan War, S. and his cousin Glaucus [4] command the Lycians (Lycii), the strongest and remotest allies of the Trojans (Hom. Il. 2,876-877; the name S. is also of Lycian origin [1]). Zeus' son S. wins a duel with Zeus' grandson Tlepolemus (ibid. 5,628-662) and plays a decisive part in storming the defensive wall around the Greek camp (ibid. 12,290-471). Here his rousing speech to Glaucus (ibid. …

Sarsina

(114 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] (Σάρσινα; Sársina). City in Umbria (Str. 5,2,10; Mart. 9,58; Sil. Pun. 8,463; Sarsinates: Liv. Per. 15; Plin. HN 3,114; Pol. 2,24,7: Σαρσινάτοι; Sarsinátoi), still called S. today. At the end of the 4th cent. BC, it was an Umbrian centre with a sacred district from the 3rd cent. BC. In 266 BC, it was subjected by Rome (Liv. loc.cit.). Municipium, regio VI, tribus Pupinia. City constructed by Romans with a grid of parallel streets, public buildings at the forum and a domus. Necropoleis near Pian di Bezzo. The Roman comic poet Plautus was born in S. (Plaut. Mostell. 770). Morcian…

Sarte

(115 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Σάρτη; Sártē). Mentioned in Hdt. 7,122 as the southernmost of the towns on the east coast of the Chalcidian Sithonia (Chalcidice), S. should be found in the area of present-day Sarti. S. appears in the Athenian registers of the tribute shares only in 434/3 BC (ATL 1,396 f.), after the area was split off from Torone; in 432, at the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, it sided with Athens; in 415/4 it appears once more in the evidence as a member of the Delian League. Since it is not mentioned again in the evidence, S. must have been re-incorporated later by Torone. Zahrnt, Michael…

Sarus

(178 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] [1] (Σάρος/ Sáros). River in Cilicia Pedias, modern Seyhan, rising on the Taurus in Cappadocian Cataonia and flowing through Comana [1], past Adana and ultimately into the sea to the west of Magarsa (this branch has dried up); it is for this reason often conflated with the Pyramus [1]. In the early Byzantine Period, the S. was still navigable as far as Adana (Procop. Aed. 5,5,8 f.; cf. also Xen. An. 1,4,1; Liv. 33,41,7; Str.  12,2,3; Ptol. 5,8,4). Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography W. Ruge, RE 2 A, 34  Hild/Hellenkemper, 28, 398 f. [German version] [2] Rex Gothorum, AD…

Saserna

(327 words)

Author(s): Ruffing, Kai (Münster)
[German version] The two Sasernae, who were probably members of the  gens Hostilia and are described in Columella as pater et filius (Columella 1,1,12), were the authors of a Latin work on agriculture published between 146 and 57 BC; they were considered the earliest Latin agrarian writers after Cato [1] (Columella 1,1,12; Plin. HN 17,199). Columella and Plinius [1] rated their work highly (Columella 1 praef. 32; 1,1,4: “ non spernendus auctor rei rusticae Saserna”; 1,1,12; Plin. HN 17,199: ' peritissimi'). From mentions in Varro, Columella and Pliny it is possible to re…

Saspeires

(118 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Σάσπειρες/ Sáspeires: Hdt. 1,104; 110; 3,94; 4,37; 40; 7,79; Σάπειρες/ Sápeires: Apoll. Rhod. 2,395; Ἑσπερῖται/ Hesperȋtai: Xen. An. 7,8,25; Str. 14,1,39; Latin Sapires: Amm. Marc. 22,8,21). East Kartvelian tribe, according to Herodotus between the Colchians and the Medes, and belonging to the eighteenth satrapy together with the Matienians and the Alarodians (3,18); documented probably from the 3rd century BC onward; on the upper reaches of the Acampsis/Çoruh, it can be identified with the city of Sp…

Sassanids

(3,054 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
In the narrower sense, the term S. designates the members of the Iranian dynasty of the descendants of Sāsān; in the broader sense, it designates the inhabitants of the Sassanid Empire or its political elite (3rd-7th cents. AD). [German version] I. Evidence Among the written sources (discussion and literature in [25. 153-164, 283-287]; cf. also [1; 6; 27]), the contemporary indigenous evidence should have priority, esp.: a) the inscriptions, some multilingual, of kings and dignitaries (of the 3rd cent. AD) of Persis, the ancestral homel…

Sasura

(81 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Place in Africa proconsularis, from the time of Diocletianus in the province of Byzacena (Diocletianus, with map), some 18 km to the north of Thysdrus, modern Henchir el-Ksour (Bell. Afr. 75,3; 76,1: oppidum Sarsura; Ptol. 4,3,36: Σασοῦρα/ Sasoûra; Tab. Peut. 6,3: Sassura vicus). Caesar attacked the Pompeians under Caecilius [I 32] and Iuba [1] there in 46 BC and conquered S. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, p. 73, no. 12  J.-B. Chabot (ed.), Recueil des inscriptions libyques, 1940/1, Nr. 43-45.

Sasychis

(80 words)

Author(s): Quack, Joachim (Berlin)
[German version] (Σάσυχις; Sásychis). According to Diod. Sic. 1,94,3 one of the great legislators of Egypt. The name has been variously connected with Egyptian proper names. It is most likely a variant of Asychis, who is recorded in Hdt. 2,136 as a follower of Mycerinus and whose name corresponds to Egyptian š-ḫ.t. Interpretations as Shoshenq (Sesonchosis) are phonetically problematic. Quack, Joachim (Berlin) Bibliography 1 A. Burton, Diodorus Siculus, Book I. A Commentary, 1972, 273 2 A. B. Lloyd, Herodotus Book II. Commentary 99-182, 1988, 88-90.

Satala

(99 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Christianity | Xenophon | Zenobia | | Legio | Limes | Limes (τὰ or ἡ Σάταλα [ or hē Sátala]; Cass. Dio 68,19,2; Procop. Pers. 1,15,9 f.). Important communications node in Armenia Minor during the Imperial Period and hence a long-standing Roman garrison town. In the Christian period it was a see (remains at modern Sadağ). A fragment (face) of an Anahita-Artemis sculpture was found here. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography B. N. Arakeljan, Ocerki po istorii iskusstva drevnej Armenii (VI v. do n.E. - I…

Satan

(386 words)

Author(s): Kundert, Lukas (Basle)
[German version] (from Hebrew satan, 'treat with hostility, be hostile';  cf. also sitna, 'hostility') in its basic sense describes an 'adversary, enemy, political opponent', and persons who by their inimical behaviour set out to prevent an undertaking. From the variant satam there is a noun mastema, 'hostility' (Hos 9,7 f.), which is the origin of Mastema, the name of a mythical S. figure in the  Book of Jubilees. A S. character proper has been documented for the first time c. 520 BC. He is part of the heavenly assembly, is subordinate to the will of God and is described …

Sataspes

(103 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Σατάσπης; Satáspēs). According to Hdt. 4,43 a maternal nephew of Darius [1] I, who was to be impaled for the violation of the daughter of Zopyrus. He was released upon the intercession of his mother, and as atonement he was given the task of circumnavigating Libya (Africa). He started from Egypt and left the Mediterranean through the 'Pillars of Heracles' (i.e. the Straits of Gibraltar), but turned back without having fulfilled his task; as a result Xerxes I had the originally imposed punishment carried out. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography F. Colin, Le récit…

Satem languages

(242 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] In phonetics and phonology, the term satem (Avest. satəm, ‘hundred’) is employed to characterize those Indo-European languages which - unlike centum languages - preserve the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) series of palatal stops , , g̑h as independent phonemes. The change of palatal tectals (Gutturals) into affricates (such as č, ć) or fricatives is a common phenomenon in the history of languages. Not all languages did necessarily take the same path in the development from PIE * k̑ṃtó- to Avestan satəm, Sanskrit śatám, Lithuanian šim̃tas or Old Church Slavonic sto. …

Satibarzanes

(137 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Σατιβαρζάνης; Satibarzánēs). [German version] [1] Chamberlain of Artaxerxes [1] I 'Eunuch'/chamberlain in the entourage of Artaxerxes [1] I (Plut. Artaxerxes 12,4. Plut. Mor. 173e; Ktes. FGrH 688 F 30). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Satrap of Areia, 4th cent. BC Persian satrap of Areia [1], fought in the battle of Gaugamela on the left flank (Arr. Anab. 3,8,4), follower of Bessus and one of the assassins of Darius [3] III (Arr. Anab. 3,21,9 f.). He surrendered in 330 to Alexander  [4] the Great (Arr. Anab. 3,25,1 f.; …

Saticula

(155 words)

Author(s): Gargini, Michela (Pisa)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Coloniae Fortified city in Samnium (Samnites), probably near modern Sant'Agata dei Goti on the right bank of the Isclero, a left-hand tributary of the Volturnus. Bitterly fought over during the 2nd Samnite War, S. was conquered by the Romans in 315 BC (Liv. 9,21 f.; Diod. Sic. 19,72,4: Σατικόλα/ Satikóla) and in 313 secured by the establishment of a colony (Liv. 27,10; Vell. Pat. 1,14,4; Plin. HN 3,107; Fest. 340). Two km from Sant'Agata dei Goti, a necropolis with numerous red-figure…

Saties

(88 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Important Etruscan gens, known from the Tomba François in Volci/Vulci, 4th/3rd cent. BC. Several family members are named in inscriptions there, the founder of the tomb, Vel S., is depicted richly robed. An Avele Sataiies, dedicator of an Attic vase of unknown provenance in Heidelberg (end of the 6th cent. BC), and a Fasti S., mentioned by name on an Hellenistic urn from Clusium (modern Chiusi), were probably members of the same gens. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography F. Buranelli (ed.), La Tomba François di Vulci, 1987, 147-161.

Satire

(1,304 words)

Author(s): Braund, Susanna (London)
[German version] I. Genre As a modern concept, satire denotes a witty and critical approach which can be found in any type of literature or art: “the playfully critical distortion of the familiar” (Feinberg). In antiquity, the term denoted the Roman literary genre of satura as discussed by Quintilian (Inst. 10,1,93) and known to us through the works of Horace, Persius and Juvenal. The genre must be distinguished from other works which feature satirical passages, including Aristophanes [3], Herodas, Plautus, Lucretius, Horace's Epodes and Seneca's Epistles. Quintilian's statem…

Satire

(2,847 words)

Author(s): Brummack, Jürgen
Brummack, Jürgen [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Satire is a noteworthy example of a continuous tradition extending from Late Antiquity to the Modern Period. Its foundation is the reception of Horace, Persius and Juvenal as well as scholia of Late Antiquity and remarks by grammarians. This material is also the basis of the theoretical development of the subject. Although the Menippea was, for the most part, only later involved, by the 16th cent. it had become extremely influential. The tense rel…

Satirical (mocking) poems

(8 words)

see Iambographers; Invective; Parody

Satis

(150 words)

Author(s): von Lieven, Alexandra (Berlin)
[German version] (Σάτις/ Sátis, Egyptian Sṯ.t), Anuket and Chnum (Chnubis [1]) are the three chief deities of the island of Elephantine. The temple of S. on Elephantine is archeologically attested as early as the Early Dynastic Period (from c. 2800 BC) [1]. S. is depicted as a woman wearing a crown with horns. Because of the phonological similarity of S. and Sothis, the two goddesses were identified with one another in the Late Period (713-332 BC) [2]. This connection is reinforced by the association of Sothis with the flooding of …

Satisdatio

(197 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] In Roman law, satisdatio (the giving of a security) constituted a special form of the cautio (warranty). Anyone obliged to the satisdatio had to provide a guarantor at regular intervals (Dig. 2,8,1). The guarantor had to be idoneus (“fit”, i.e. solvent); this could be established by an arbiter (a judge with administrative discretion) (Dig. 2,8,9 and 10 pr). It was also a fundamental requirement that the bondsman was of the same legal status as the party furnishing security. Cases in which a satisdatio could be arranged by the praetor or where it was even prescribed ipso ju…

Satnioeis

(96 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Σατνιόεις; Satnióeis). River in Troas (Hom. Il. 6,34; 14,445; 21,87), modern Tuzla Çayı, rises on the southwestern slopes of the Ida [2], near Gargara. It was on the S. that Homer's city of Pedasus [3] is supposed to have been (cf. Str. 13,1,50). At Assus the S. is only about 2 km from the sea; it then proceeds west and reaches the sea between Hamaxitus and Larisa [5] near Gülpınar. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s. v. S, RE 2 A 1, 79 f.  W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 250-253  J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1973, 245 f.

Saton

(65 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (σάτον/ sáton, Latin satum; seā) is a Hebrew capacity measure for liquids and dry goods. Its volume varies in time and place between 20 and 24 loghim (Log; Hin; Sextarius) and corresponds to roughly 9.1-13.1 litres. During the Roman period the s. was equated with 1 1/2 Italic modii ( Modius [3]) (Jos. Ant. Iud. 9,85; less often 1 1/4 modii). Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)

Satorninus

(193 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich Alfried (Cambridge)
[German version] (Σατορνεῖλος/ Satorneîlos, Σατορνῖνος/ Satornînos, Latin Saturninus). Christian teacher at the time of the emperor Hadrian (first half of the 2nd century AD) in Antioch [1] (Euseb. Hist. eccl. 4,7,3; cf. also Hippolytus, Refutatio omnium haeresium 7,28), who was considered a heretic (Heresy; Gnosis). According to Eirenaeus [2] of Lyon, Adversus haereses 1,24,1-2, his doctrine presented as the supreme principle the unknown Father, creator of the angels. According to S., Man, as the 'ima…

Sator square

(746 words)

Author(s): Hofmann, Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] Latin graffito of 5 rows of 5 letters, which can be read as a palindrome from all four sides and in all four directions: R O T A S     S A T O R     O P E R A     A R E P O     T E N E T     T E N E T     A R E P O     O P E R A     S A T O R     R O T A S     Fig. 1     While the 10 attested 1st-3rd century AD examples begin with ROTAS, those from late antiquity and the Byzantine period (some also in Greek letters) and from mediaeval and modern times start with SATOR. Finds are distributed over the whole of the Roman empire (Cirencester, Manchester, Aquincum, Dura-Europus, Ro…

Satrae

(89 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σάτραι; Sátrai). Thracian tribe on the northern coast of the Aigaion Pelagos (Aegaean) between Nestus and Strymon on the northeastern slopes of the Pangaeum, whose ore deposits they exploited (Hdt. 7,112; possibly also meant by  Σατροκένται/ Satrokéntai in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 181). The Edones are recorded as being there from 475 BC onwards (Hdt. 9,75). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography 1 J. N. Jurukova, Monetite na trakijskite plemena i vladeteli (Monetni sakrovista ot balgarskite zemi), 1992, 16 2 I. von Bredow, Stammesnamen und Stammeswir…

Satrap

(933 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Old Persian ḫšaçapāvan-, 'protector of the kingdom/dynasty', Elamic šá-ak-šá-ba-ma, Akkadian aḫšadrapanu, Imperial Aramaic ḥšatrapan, Greek usually σατράπης/ satrápēs [9]; Latin satrapa, -es, satraps). Title of a Persian-Achaemenid (seminal: [3]), later also Seleucid, Parthian and Sassanid provincial governor (Parthian ḥštrp / ḫšahrap/; Middle Persian štrp / šahrap/). The title appears first in the Bīsutūn inscription of Darius [1] I [11. DB III 14.56], where it denotes two appointees of the new king in Bactria and Arachosi…

Satrapes

(397 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] (title) see Satrap (Persian-Achaemenid title) see Satrap Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Graecized name of the Canaanite god Šadrapa' (Σατράπης/ Satrápēs; Σαδράπης/ Sadrápēs). Graecized name of the Canaanite god Šadrapa, worshipped from North Africa to Babylonia esp. in the Hellenistic-Roman period. The Greek form of the name, probably chosen in allusion to the Old Persian title ḫšaθra ('protector of the land'), is known from two inscriptions of Maād near Byblus (dated 8 BC and the…

Satrap revolt

(370 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Several risings of Persian satraps against the central authority of the Great Kings are documented, esp. in the late 5th and 4th cents. BC (e.g. Megabyzus [2], Pissuthnes, Amorges, Cyrus [3] the Younger), but the term SR usually refers to the main phase (late 360s, called 'Great' by Diod. Sic. 15,90 ff, esp. 93,1) of the revolts against Artaxerxes [2] II (370s-350s). According to this source, it was characterized by joint action ( koinopragía) among numerous satraps (and peoples) of Asia Minor, support of these by the Egyptian Tachos and by the Sparta…

Satricum

(276 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Latini, Latium City in Latium on the road from Antium to Velitrae, near modern Borgo Montello to the northeast of Anzio. Traces of settlement from the 10th century BC on. In the 7th/6th century BC an Etruscan foundation. In the 5th/4th century BC S. was a settlement of the  Volsci, who participated in the battle of Lacus Regillus on the side of the Latini (Dion. Hal. ant.  5,61,3). S. was destroyed twice in the course of the Roman-Latin …

Satrius

(208 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italian, presumably a family name from Etruria (Schulze 80; 225). Cf. also Satyrius. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] S., M. As the son of L. Minucius Basilus's sister, he was adopted by him, but was bypassed by means of a forged will (Cic. Off. 3,73 f.; Minucius [I 4]). In 44/43 BC he is recorded as patron of the Picentes and Sabines and a follower of M. Antonius [I 9] (Cic. Off. 3,74; Cic. Phil. 2,107). He cannot be identified with the legate of C. Trebonius in Cicero (Ad Brut. 1,6,3). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) II. Imperial period [German version] [II 1] S. Rufus Senator in the reign of …

Satureius

(32 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Tr. pl. in 133 BC, in a fight was the first to hit Ti. Sempronius [I 16] Gracchus with a chair leg (Plut. Ti. Gracchus 19,10). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Saturius Firmus

(54 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Senator, cos. suff. in 148 AD (FO2 51). His father (or grandfather) of the same name, probably mentioned in Plin. Ep. 4,15,3, was married to a daughter of the senator Asinius Rufus (cf. [1]) and this eased his rise to senatorial status. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Syme, RP 7, 604.

Saturnalia

(963 words)

Author(s): Distelrath, Götz (Constance)
[German version] Roman festival of Saturnus on December 17. In the Republican Fasti Antiates maiores, the day of the Saturnalia was qualified as EN, whereas in the Augustan Fasti Amiterni it was marked NP and was therefore designated as feriae (‘holidays’; Fasti). It seems plausible to see this change in the context of Caesar's calendar reform as an acknowledgement of the significance of the festival, which had been rising from the end of the 3rd cent. BC onwards (Calendar B.4.). Concerning the duration of the Satu…

Saturnia

(221 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Regio, regiones A small town, nowadays insignificant, on the River Albegna in the hinterland of Volci/Vulci. According to Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,20 and Plin. HN 3,52, S. was called Aurinia in the Etruscan Period; with the institution of a Roman military prefecture after 280 BC its name was changed to S. In the 6th cent. BC, after the decline of Marsiliana d'Albegna (perhaps Caletra), the agrarian se…

Saturninus

(490 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1-2] See Ap(p)uleius [I 10-11]. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) [German version] [3] Emperor for a short time, 3rd cent. Was elevated to emperor by the army at the time of Gallienus, but killed by the soldiers a short time afterwards because of his severity (SHA Tyr. Trig. 23; cf. SHA Firmus 11,1; SHA Gall. 9,1). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 2, 230  PLRE 1, 805 no. 1. [German version] [4] Imperator Caesar C. Iulius S. Augustus of Moorish extraction, followed a military career (Zos. 1,66,1; SHA Quatt. tyr. 9,5; Zon. 12,29), until Aurelianus [3] appointed him dux l…

Saturnus

(1,184 words)

Author(s): Mastrocinque, Attilio (Verona)
[German version] A. Name and characteristics The Roman god S. or Saeturnus (ILLRP 255; Fest. 432 f. L.), whose name is formed like Juturna and Manturna, is etymologically connected with sator ('sower') by various ancient authors (Varro, Ling. 5,64; Aug. Civ. 6,8; 7,13,19; Tert. Ad nat. 2,12; Arnob. 4,9; Fest. 432 L.; Macrob. Sat. 1,10,20) and some modern scholars, although his festival did not fall in the sowing season. The derivation from saturare (Cic. Nat. D. 2,64; 3,62) stemmed from the fact that his feast day was the 17th December, when the yearly cycle 'was co…

Satyr

(1,533 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Σάτυρος/ Sátyros, pl. Σάτυροι/ Sátyroi, Latin Satur, Satyrus), also Silenus (Σι-, Σειληνός/ Si-, Seilēnós, pl. Σι-, Σειληνοί/ Si-, Seilēnoí, Doric Σιλανός/ Silanós, Latin Silenus, Silanus). [German version] I. Mythology, art and cult A satyr/Silenus was a member of a group of demons who, since their relatively late emergence at the end of the 7th/beginning of the 6th cent. BC, have formed part of the mythical entourage of the god Dionysus; Silens, as a more or less distinctive and independent figure, emerged from that retinue…

Satyrion

(41 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] (Σατυρίων/ Satyríōn). Poet of New Comedy (3rd century BC), known only from an epigraphic mention in the list of victors at the Dionysia, in which S. appears with one victory [1]. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 590.

Satyrius

(133 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Σατύριος; Satýrios). Epigrammatist of uncertain identity, perhaps identifiable with Satyrus [9]: the only surviving poem, Anth. Pal. 6,11, is attributed by the Anthologia Planudea to one S. (name rarely attested), but by the Anthologia Palatina to a Satrius, not recorded elsewhere (possibly the Italic gens name Satrius? cf. [2]). Content: dedication to Pan by a hunter, a bird catcher and a fisherman (theme of 14 further epigrams from the 3rd cent. BC until the 6th cent. AD, parodied by Lucianus, perhaps Lucillius…

Satyr play

(1,196 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(σατυρικὸν δρᾶμα, satyrikòn drâma). [German version] A. Origins As in the case of Greek tragedy, the debate on the origins of the SP also starts with an observation in Aristotle's Poetics. According to Aristot. Poet. 1449a 19 ff., tragedy had initially dealt with minor topics in a humorous language and only later acquired its appropriate solemnity, because it had developed from the satyresque (ἐκ σατυρικοῦ, ek satyrikoû) and its original nature had been more that of a dance (ὀρχηστικωτέρα, orchēstikōtéra). Aristotle thus did not claim in any way that tragedy had developed…

Satyrus

(1,465 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Σάτυρος/ Sátyros). [German version] [1] S. I King of the regnum Bosporanum from 433/2 to 389/8 BC. Son of Spartocus I. S.' co-regent may have been (until 393/2) his brother Seleucus [1]. S. directed his attention at the Asiatic coast of the Cimmerian Bosporus (Bosporus [2]). He restored the Sindian King Hecataeus following a revolt, and allied with him through a dynastic marriage. S.'s divorced wife then sent the King of the Ixomates against him (Polyaenus, Strat. 8,55). S. died during the siege of Theodosia. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Da…

Sauconna

(60 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name of the river usually called Arar, modern Saône, literarily attested only since Late Antiquity (cf. Amm. Marc. 15,11,17: Ararim quem Sauconnam appellant, 'Arar which is called S.'; Avitus, Epist. 83 = MGH AA 6,2). The name had been recorded earlier, however, e.g. as a term for dea Souconna in Châlon-sur-Sâone (ILS 9516). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Saufeius

(145 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
Italic nomen gentile. The family was from the ancient local aristocracy of Praeneste (CIL I2 279-290; 1467-1471; 2439) and is attested in Rome itself and as traders on Delos from the end of the 2nd cent. BC onwards (RRC 204). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] S., L. Appears in Cicero's letters 67-44 BC as an Epicurean (Cic. Att. 7,2,4) and a friend of Pomponius [I 5] Atticus (Cic. Att. 7,1,1). In 43 the latter rescued S., who had been proscribed because of his wealth  (Nep. Att. 12,3). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] S., M. Leader of Annius [I 14] Milo's followe…

Saumacus

(106 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Killer of Paerisades [6] V, who surrendered the Regnum Bosporanum to Mithridates [6] VI. According to the decree honouring Diophantus [2] (IOSPE 12 no. 352, 34-35), S. had begun a rebellion with the Scythae, which gripped the European part of the empire. He was captured by Diophantus and handed over to Mithridates. This rebellion was evidently directed against the new political leadership. The view that S. was a slave is based on a wrong translation. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography A. Gavrilov, Skify Savmaka - vosstanie ili vtorženie?, i…

Sauromaces

(140 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] A pro-Roman king of Iberia [1] who was expelled in AD 368/9 by Sapor [2] II (Amm. Marc. 27,12,4). In 370, Valens [2] had S. brought back by Terentius [II 1], and Aspacures, S.' pro-Persian cousin, arranged for the territory along the Cyrus [5] to be divided between them, so S. received only the part bordering on Armenia and the Lazi (Amm. Marc. 27,12,16 f.). This arrangement was approved by the emperor but aroused the anger of the great king, who wanted to maintain the rule of his…

Sauromates

(249 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Σαυρομάτης; Sauromátēs). Name of Bosporan kings; see also Sarmatae. [German version] [1] King of the Regnum Bosporanum, c. 100 AD King of the Regnum Bosporanum, AD 93/4-123/4, son of Rhescuporis II; S. conducted successful wars against the Scythae (IOSPE 22 26) and pirates in the area of the northern Pontos. Many new buildings in Gorgippia and Panticapaeum attest to the increase in prosperity under his rule. There was a column in honour of S. in Sinope (IOSPE 22 40). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] King of the Regnum Bosporanum, c. 200 AD King of the Regnum …

Savaria

(198 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Limes | Pannonia | Rome | Rome Roman colony in Pannonia superior, modern Szombathely in western Hungary. Its location on the Amber Road (route Aquileia - Carnuntum) and good road connections to Arrabona and via Sopianae to Sirmium enabled a swift economic growth. Under Claudius [III 1] a colony was founded in S. ( Colonia Divi Claudii S.: Plin. HN 3,146), t ribus Claudia. Until AD 106 S. was the administrative centre of the province. As a centre of communications and admi…

Savincates

(60 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Celtic tribe in the Alpes Cottiae, mentioned on the Augustus Arch in Segusio (CIL V 7231) and at the Mausoleum of Escoyères en Queyras (CIL XII 80). It can therefore presumably be located in the region to the southeast of  Briançon. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 175-177, 356 f.

Savus

(81 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Σάουος; Sáouos). Right-hand tributary of the Danube in the south of  Pannonia (Plin. HN 3,128; 147 f.; Ptol. 2,16,1 f.; 3,9,1;  Str. 4,6,10; Geogr. Rav. 4,20), modern Sava (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia). In its middle and lower reaches it was navigable. On its banks there were important communications nodes (Neviodunum, Siscia, Sirmium, Singidunum). S. was also worshipped as a river deity (CIL III, 4009). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 33 Tergeste, 1961, 65  TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 100.

Saxanus

(225 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] ( Saxsanus, also Saxsetanus). Epithet, primarily of Hercules. The name derives from Latin saxum, 'rock, stone'; Hercules S. was worshipped in the context of individual Italic or provincial Roman quarrying regions. The beginning of the worship of Hercules S. dates back to before the second half of the 1st century AD in central Italy (Tibur: CIL XIV 3543, the restoration of an older sanctuary in the Flavian period as a terminus ante quem), less likely in upper Italy (CIL V 5013). From Italy, the cult presumably came to Germany with some of the soldiers…

Saxa Rubra

(119 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] Statio on the right bank of the Tiberis at the ninth milestone of the via Flaminia (14,4 km to the north of Rome; SHA Sev. 8,9; Tab. Peut. 5,5: ad rubras), at a junction of the v ia Tiberina and another road in the direction of Veii (Mart. 4,64,15). It was named after the red tuff rocks that come close to the river at this point. There was a small tavern ( cauponula: Cic. Phil. 2,77) there. This is the place where Maxentius was defeated by Constantinus [1] the Great in AD 312 (Aur. Vict. 40,23). Nearby, at Prima Porta was Livia's [2] Villa ad Gallinas Albas. Morciano, Maria Milvia (Fl…

Saxones

(589 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Σάξονες/ Sáxones, the Saxons). Association of Germanic tribes, first mentioned at Ptol. 2,11,11. According to him, they settled in Holstein to the northeast of the lower Elbe; in the west their territory bordered the sea (Ptol. 2,11,31: three Saxon islands). Presumably the S. originated from the Reudigni and the Aviones (Tac. Germ. 40,2) [1]. They may have become known to the Romans earlier, possibly in 5 AD when a fleet sailed to the Cimbrian peninsula, yet Tacitus does not menti…

Scabris

(4 words)

see Salebro

Scadinavia

(155 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Name of an island of enormous size (Mela 3,54: S. a conjectural reading for Codannovia; Plin. HN 4,96; 8,39: S., various MSS: Scati-), which became known to the Romans during a naval expedition involving circumnavigation of Jutland in AD 5 (R. Gest. div. Aug. 26; Vell. Pat. 2,106,3; Plin. HN 2,167). In addition, Plin. HN 4,104 (following unnamed informants) incorrectly locates the Scandiae Islands to the north of Britain (cf. Ptol. 2,11,33). These designate primarily southern Sweden and the Danish isles (cf. also Ptol. 2,11,34: Σκανδίαι/ Skandíai with the main isla…

Scaeae

(93 words)

Author(s): Antoni, Silke (Kiel)
[German version] (Σκαιαί/ Skaiaí sc. πύλαι/ pýlai). The 'Scaean Gate' in Troy (Hom. Il. 3,145; 3,149 et passim; without pýlai: Hom. Il. 3,263; Str. 13,1,21; in the singular: Quint. Smyrn. 11,338), also called Dardaníai. Several explanations of the name are possible: the 'left' or 'western gate' or 'gate of misfortune' (derived from  σκαιός [2]), 'crooked gate' or named after its builder Scaeus (schol. Hom. Il. 3,145; 9,354; 11,170 Bekker; Hsch. s. v. Σκαιῇσι πύλῃσιν) or after the Scaei [1] people. Antoni, Silke (Kiel) Bibliography 1 L. Bürchner, s. v. Skaiisches Tor, RE 3 A, 424 2 LS…
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