Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Sacra

(286 words)

Author(s): Rives, James B. (Toronto)
[German version] The customary Latin term for all kind of religious rituals (Macrob. Sat. 1,16,8). Its usage in old priestly titles is a sign of its antiquity ( e.g. rex sacrorum ). Roman scholars made a distinction between sacra publica and sacra privata (Fest. 284 L.). The former were listed in the local calendar and were divided into two main types: The first group were rituals which were carried out by magistrates and priests at public expense for the populus, but which did not require the public’s participation, the second group comprised festivals, such as the Fornac…

Sacramentarium

(402 words)

Author(s): Klöckener, Martin (Fribourg)
[German version] The terms sacramentarium and sacramentorum liber etc. refer to a type of Christian liturgical book that developed in Late Antiquity, made up of libelli (individual sheets or booklets) and containing prayers recited by the bishop or priests, especially during the celebration of the Eucharist. Sometimes it also contains other liturgical texts intended for certain feasts, periods and occasions. The oldest preserved codices date from the 2nd half of the 6th cent. The most important types of sacramentary in …

Sacramentum

(1,721 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Mali, Franz (Fribourg)
[German version] I. General remarks In contrast to ius iurandum , which in Latin generally refers to the oath itself and the act of swearing an oath, the sacramentum ('oath') has to do with the obligations an individual assumes vis-à-vis the god who is invoked (usually Iuppiter (I. B) in his function as Dius Fidius or 'all gods'). The sacramentum threatens that one may become sacer , in thrall to a god and consequently outlawed, by taking an oath affirming a false statement or failing to keep a promise made under oath (assertive or promissory oath) [1. 76-84]. Eder, Walter (Berlin) …

Sacred wars

(585 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (ἱεροὶ πόλεμοι/ hieroì pólemoi). As a concept hieròs pólemos is first encountered in the late 5th cent. BC and according to Aristophanes (Av. 554ff., particularly 556 with schol. = Philochorus FGrH 328 F 34 b) means 'war against divinity', whereas Thucydides (1,112,5; with the addition of καλούμενος/ kaloúmenos, 'so-called') uses it to describe the Spartans' intervention in Delphi in 448 on the pretext of protecting the sanctuary of Apollo [1. 1-14]. Accordingly there was no idea of a religious campaign for a deity [2. 67-87].…

Sacrifice

(10,943 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Haas, Volkert (Berlin) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Et al.
I. Religious studies [German version] A. General Sacrifice is one of the central concepts in describing ritual religion in ancient and modern cultures. In European Modernity, the term sacrifice (directly or indirectly influenced by Christian theology of the sacrificial death of Jesus Christ to redeem mankind) also has an intimation towards individual self-giving ('sacrifice of self'). The range of nuances in the modern meaning stretches to include discourses that have lost their religious motif and hav…

Sacrificial calendar

(5 words)

see Feriale

Sacrilegium

(283 words)

Author(s): Linderski, Jerzy (Chapel Hill, NC)
[German version] In Roman law, temple robbery or, more specifically, unlawful removal ( furtum) of (movable): (a) objects ( res) that were sacrae ( sacer ) from a place that was sacer ( aedes, templum: Quint. Inst. 7,3,10), perhaps even from private ownership (Cic. Inv. 1,11); and (b) private property, such as money, that had been deposited in a temple (thus Cic. Leg. 2,22 and 41). However, the latter was controversial: Septimius Severus and Caracalla ruled that such a crime be classified only as furtum (Dig. 48,13,6). The theft of sacra privata was not among the deeds constituting th…

Sacriportus

(84 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in Latium (Luc. 2,134; App. B Civ. 1,87: Ἱερὸς λιμήν/ Hieròs Limḗn) on the upper reaches of the Tolerus (present-day Sacco) on the via Labicana between Praeneste and Signia, possibly near Piombinara. Here, Cornelius [I 90] Sulla crushed the army of Marius [I 2] in the spring of 82 BC (Plut. Sulla 28,4; App. B Civ. 1,87; Liv. Per. 87; Vell. Pat. 2,26; Luc. 2,134). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 651  G. Tomassetti, La Campagna Romana, vol. 3, 1910, 459 (repr. 1976).

Sacrosanctus

(301 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] According to Festus (318, s. v. s.) s. described objects or persons who were protected by oath ( Sacramentum ) in such a way that by harming them the culprit came under the threat of the death penalty. As examples Festus gives the tribune of the plebs ( Tribunus plebis ) and, incorrectly, also the plebeian aediles. From their inception (in 494 BC; Struggle of the orders), the people's tribunes were protected by the lex sacrata (Liv. 2,33,1 and 3;  Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,89,2-4; Cic. Rep. 2,58), i.e. by an oath of the plebs to have every injury to a tribu…

Sacrum Imperium

(2,738 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam) [German version] A. Imperial Designation (CT) The imperial designation Sacrum Imperium (S.I.) was first officially used by the Hohenstaufen chancellery of Emperor Frederick I in Italy in March 1157 (MGH legum sectio IV, vol. 1, constitutiones et acta publica imperatorum et regum 1, ed. L. Weiland, Hannover 1893, p. 224, l. 19 = Constitutio Friderici I 161) on the occasion of the call for a campaign against Milan, without displacing the titles imperium or imperium Romanum. The new designation "retained loose but consistent currency in the Hohens…

Sadalas

(293 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Σαδάλας; Sadálas). [German version] [1] King of the Odrysae, 87/86-80/79 BC King of the Odrysae in 87/86-80/79 BC, successor of Cotys [I 4]. Sadalas supported Cornelius [I 90] Sulla against Mithradates [6] VI at Chaeronea (Cic. Verr. 2,1,63; [1. 258; 318; 337; 2. 114; 3]). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) [German version] [2] King of the Odrysae, 45/44-42 BC Grandson of Sadalas [1], king of the Odrysae in 45/44-42 BC, who supported Pompeius [I 3] the Great at Pharsalus by order of his father Cotys [I 5] (Caes. B Civ. 3,4,3); Sadalas is attributed with the …

Sadducees

(1,027 words)

Author(s): Deines, Roland (Herrenberg)
(Σαδδουκαῖοι/ Saddoukaîoi; Lat. Sadducaei). [German version] I. Name and Origins Along with the Pharisees (Pharisaei) and Essenes, the Sadducees make up the third inner-Jewish circle and definitively shaped the religious and political fortune of Jewish Palaestina from the mid 2nd cent. BC to the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem in AD 70. The Greek name Saddoukaîoi (attested only in plur.) supposedly comes from Zadok, the chief priest at the time of David [1] (Σαδδουκ/ Saddouk, LXX), whose family held the office of high priest hereditarily down to the 2nd cent. BC…

Sadyattes

(361 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Σαδυάττης/ Sadyáttēs). Luwian name: prefix * sādu- 'efficient', final part - atta either 'father' as in Hittite, then 'stalwart father', or - more likely (- atta is a suffix) - 'a person who possesses stalwartness [1. 450]. The occurrence of the name after 1200 BC is proof of the survival of Luwian culture in West Anatolia until the Achaemenids in c. 550 BC. [German version] [1] Last king of Lydia from the house of the Heraclidae, murdered in c. 680 BC Last king of Lydia from the house of the Heraclidae, murdered by Gyges [1] in c. 680 BC. His epithet Candaules probably alludes to Hermes…

Saeculares Ludi

(7 words)

see Ludi (K.); Saeculum

Saeculum

(750 words)

Author(s): Haase, Mareile (Toronto) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
('Age'). [German version] I. General Censorinus [4] takes up ancient theories on saeculum in ch. 17 of De die natali (AD 238) in the framework of chronographic remarks. His sources include Varro, who, according to Serv. Aen. 8,526, was the author of a text, De saeculis. Censorinus, DN 17,2, defined saeculum as 'the length of the longest possible human lifetime' ( spatium vitae humanae longissimum partu et morte definitum). Censorinus makes a clear distinction between Etruscan (17,5-6) and Roman traditions (17,7-15; Roman(or)um saeculum: 17,7): the ritual staging of the beginn…

Saena

(120 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria City in Etruria (Tab. Peut. 4,3: Sena Iulia; Ptol. 3,1,49: Σαίνα/ Saína), present-day Siena. The earliest traces of settlements date from the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age. Extant are late Etruscan hypogaea (Porta Pispini, Corancina, Porta S. Marco, Porta Camollia). S. was an Augustan colonia (CIL IX 332) of regio VII (Plin. HN 3,51), tribus Oufentina (Tac. Hist. 4,45). A dedication of the ordo Saenensium dates from AD 394 (CIL VI 1793). Thermae are located near Pieve a Bozzona on the Via Cassia. Mo…

Saenianus

(62 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] Roman orator from the Early Imperial Period whose origin and life are obscure. Seneca the Elder, to whom we owe the few testimonies (Sen. Controv. 5,2; 7,5,10; 9,2,28; Sen. Suas. 2,18) denounces him as 'crazy', 'feeble-minded' and 'vulgar'. Allowing for personal animosity on Seneca's part, it still seems that S. preferred abstruse and non-pertinent arguments. Walde, Christine (Basle)

Saenius

(344 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of an Italic gens of Etruscan origin [1. 93; 228]. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] S., L. Senator in 63 BC, obtained evidence against the Catilinarian Manlius [I 1] Senator (from Etruria?) in 63 BC, who obtained evidence from Faesulae against the Catilinarian Manlius [I 1] (Sall. Catil. 30,1). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] S., L. Consul suffectus, 30 BC Probably a son of S. [I 1], possibly recorded as a senator in 39 BC (MRR 3,34). In 30 he became cos. suff. with Octavian (Augustus: InscrIt 13,1,510), possibly as a reward for his services against…

Saepinum

(187 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Oracles Samnite town (Ptol. 3,1,67: Σαίπινον/ Saípinon; Tab. Peut. 6,4: Sepinum), modern Altília north of Sepino (differently [1]). Conquered by the Romans in 293 BC (Liv. 10,44 f.). A municipium beginning in 89 BC (CIL IX 2451 f.; 2457; 2565); a colonia from AD 2 on; regio IV (Plin. HN 3,107; CIL IX 2443), tribus Voltinia. The settlement of the 4th and 3rd cents. (Terravecchia) was surrounded by a wall ( opus polygonale). The remains of the forum, with public buildings such as a tribunal columnatum (CIL IX 6368) and a …

Saepta

(104 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] A large rectangular square, surrounded by porticoes, on the Field of Mars (Campus Martius) in Rome, on which (allegedly since the time of the mythical kings) the citizens fit to bear arms met in the context of the c omitia centuriata in order to elect the magistrates; there is evidence of a structure from the 6th cent. BC onwards. Under Caesar the square (under the name of Saepta Iulia) was remodelled with architectural splendour, just as the political and functional body of the c omitia centuriata was reduced to a pseudo-Republican relic. Assembly buildings Höcker, Christ…

Saetabis

(115 words)

Author(s): Ferrer Maestro, Juan José (Castellón)
[German version] Capital of the Contestani near the eastern coast of Spain on the great coastal road (Geogr. Rav. 304,4) on a high mountain (Sil. Pun. 3,373 celsa arce), in a fertile area, modern Játiva. From the end of the 3rd cent. BC onwards numerous coins with S. or Saiti. Mentioned in Plin. HN 3,25 as a municipium Augustum; in the Imperial period  S. was famous for its linen industry ( sudaria Saetaba, Catull. 12,14; Plin.  HN 19,9; Sil.  Pun.  loc. cit.). Ferrer Maestro, Juan José (Castellón) Bibliography Tovar 3, 211  H. Galsterer, Untersuchungen zum römischen Städtewesen auf d…

Saevinius

(103 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] L. S. Proculus, senator, perhaps of equestrian origin. On his career: AE 1969/70, 601 and IEph VII 1, 3037. After serving as praetor, he became the legate of the procos. of Asia on the insulae Cyclades, probably upon the special request of Marcus Aurelius and Verus, then i uridicus per Flaminiam et Transpadanam, legate of the legio XXX Ulpia in Xanten; praetorian governor of Cilicia, later of Galatia as well. Cos. suff. in c. AD 180. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Alföldy, Konsulat 200; 345  W. Eck, Zur Verwaltungsgeschichte Italiens unter Marc Aurel, in: ZPE …

Saga

(4 words)

see Myth

Sagala

(120 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Σάγαλα/ Ságala, Ptol. 7,1,46; Old Indian Śākala, Middle Indian Sāgala). City in the Punjab east of Hydaspes, the capital city of the Indo-Greek king Menander [6] in Pāli Milindapañha. S. with its rectangular, probably Hellenistic city plan, was also called Euthydemia or Euthymedia, according to Ptol. l.c.. The city is also known in ancient Indo-Iranian literature (Mahābhārata etc.) and was visited in the 7th cent. AD by the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang. Its exact location is not known (perhap…

Sagalassus

(272 words)

Author(s): Brandt, Hartwin (Chemnitz)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Alexander | Pompeius (Σαγαλασσός; Sagalassós). A city to the north of modern Ağlasun at an elevation of about 1500 m in the central Taurus and one of the largest settlements in Pisidia. It had a large territory, well provided with water and praised by Liv. 38,15 as being extremely fertile. By conquering S. in 333 BC, Alexander [4] the Great achieved the subjection of Pisidia (Arr. Anab. 1,28). There is still archaeological evidence of subse…

Sagaritis

(224 words)

Author(s): Antoni, Silke (Kiel)
[German version] (Σαγαρῖτις; Sagarîtis). According to one of the many aetiological versions of the legend of Attis which purport to explain the self-mutilation of the priests of Cybele, Attis fell in love with the Hamadryad S. and broke the promise of chastity he had given Cybele. The nymph then died from the injuries done to her tree by Cybele, whilst Attis went mad and emasculated himself (Ov. Fast. 221-246; without mentioning the name of the nymph: Julian. Or. 8,165a-168c Rochefort; Sall. Philos…

Sagartii

(210 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Σαγάρτιοι/ Sagártioi; Old Persian asagarta 'Sagartia', asagartiya 'Sagartian', 'Sagartians'). In an inscription of Darius [1] I from Persepolis that lists the lands/peoples of the empire, the S. precede the Parthians, Drangianians, Arians and Bactrians [3. DPe 15-16]. In the inscription of Bīsutūn, the same ruler reports that two 'pretenders to the throne' - the Mede Fravartiš (Phraortes [3]) and the Sagartian Ciçantaḫma (who was later executed in Arbela) - had passed themselves off as …

Sagis

(75 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River branch in the delta of the Padus (Po), splitting from the main stream west of Spina, where the Tab. Peut. 5,1 places the statio of Sacis ad Padum. In the Etruscan period, the city of Atria diverted the S. to fill the Venetian swamps (Septem Maria), thereby obtaining a navigable channel, which the Romans under Vespasian (AD 69-79) remodelled into the fossa [3] Flavia (Plin. HN 3,120). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Sagmen

(69 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] Sagmina (pl.) were the herbs which were pulled out of the ground with their soil in Rome on the Arx on behalf of the fetiales (Plin. HN 22,5; 25,105; Fest. 424-426 L.). These herbs were used during the appointment ritual of the pater patratus (Liv. 1,24,4-6); the fetiales also took them along on their missions (Liv. 30,43,9). Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) Bibliography J. Rüpke, Domi militiae, 1990, 100-103.

Sagra

(133 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] ( Sagra, -ae, fem.). Small river in Bruttium, south of Caulonia, modern Turbolo, where, c. 560 BC, the Locri [2] were victorious over a numerically far superior force from Croton, allegedly with the assistance of the Dioscuri (Str. 6,1,10; Cic. Nat. D. 2,6; 3,11; Plin. HN 3,95; Plut. Aemilius Paullus 25,1); hence the saying 'truer than the events at the S.' (Paroem. 1,36). Str. (loc. cit.) mentions the existence of altars of the Dioscuri on the S. Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography R. van Compernolle, Ajax et les Dioscures au sécours des Locriens sur les rives de la S., in: J…

Sagrus

(90 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Samnium, modern Sangro (Str. 5,4,2: Σάγρος/Ságros; Ptol. 3,1,19: Σάρος/Sáros). It passed through the territory of the Carricini past Aufidena and Trebula, then through the territory of the Frentani between Iuvanum and Pallanum, and flowed into the Ionios Kolpos between Ortona and Histonium. Below Castel di Sangro it could be crossed by a bridge that was part of the Roman road which went from Sulmo to Aesernia. Samnites, Samnium Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography L. Mariani, Aufidena, in: Monumenti antichi dei Lincei 10, 1901, 225-638, espe…

Sagum

(150 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Male garment of a rectangular cloth (felt or loden) with a triangular or circular section cut out, sometimes also with hood. Worn as a shawl or cape and fixed at the right shoulder with a buckle or fibula (Pins), thus leaving the right side of the body uncovered. The sagum originally came from Gaul (Diod. Sic. 5,30,1: σάγος/ ságos; Varro, Ling. 5,167; Caes. B Gall. 5,42,3: sagulum) but was also worn by Germans and Iberians and in Italy and North Africa. It belonged to the garb of slaves and workers and to the battle dress of Roman navy and infan…

Saguntia

(31 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town in western Hispania Baetica (Liv. 34,19,10; Plin. HN 3,15) on the Guadalete; modern Baños de Gigonza (Paterna de Rivera). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 1, 54 f.

Saguntum

(334 words)

Author(s): Ferrer Maestro, Juan José (Castellón)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia | Punic Wars | Punic Wars | Pyrenean peninsula (Greek Σάγουντος/ Ságountos, Ζάκανθα/ Zákantha; residents Latin Saguntini, Saguntii; Greek Ζακανθαῖοι/ Zakanthaȋoi; Iberian name of the city apparently Arse, cf. the coins). City in the territory of the Edetani on the last foothill of the northeastern edge of the mountain range (170 m above normal zero), today 5 km from the eastern coast of Spain (the ancient sources provide divergent i…

Sahak

(308 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Isaac). S. I (the Great), born between AD 340 and 350, died AD 438/9. Patriarch of Armenia, son of the patriarch Nerses the Great; last representative of the Gregorians (descendants of Gregory the Illuminator, Armenia [B]). S. grew up in Constantinople and studied there. Named patriarch of the Armenian Church in 387 in a time of internal conflict after Armenia was divided between Byzantium and Persia, his election was intended to reinforce Armenia's ties to Byzantium to counter t…

Sahara

(364 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (from Arabic ṣaḥrā, 'desert'; cf. Hdt. 2,32: τὰ ἐρῆμα τῆς Λιβύης/ tà erêma tês Libýēs, 'the desert region of Libya'; Mela 1,50: deserta Africae). The indigenous people today call only individual parts of the S. by their own name. The largest desert on earth, situated in North Africa, with an expanse from the Atlantic in the west to the Red Sea in the east ( c. 6000 km; c. 8 million km2). The S. underwent several cyclical climatic changes (Climate) in prehistoric times that shaped the vegetation and the natural profile; the last of these changes in…

Sahr-e Kōmiš

(5 words)

see Comisene

Saii

(122 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Thracian tribe (Σάϊοι/ Sáïoi). Thracian tribe on the northern coast of the Aegeis across from Samothrace (cf. Archil. fr. 6 Diehl; Str. 10,2,17; 12,3,20). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography E. Oberhummer, s. v. Saii (1), RE 1 A, 1757  T. Spiridonov, Istoričeska geografija a n trakijskite plemena do 3. v.pr.n.e., 1983, 51, 101. [German version] [2] Celtic tribe Celtic tribe, later the name of its main city, present-day Sées, Dépt. Orne (Notitia Galliarum 2,6: civitas Saiorum; Commentarii notarum Tironianarum 87,63; cf. CIL XIII 630),…

Saint Petersburg, Hermitage

(2,015 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG)
Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG) [German version] A. Institution (CT) Address: The State Hermitage Museum, Dvortsovaya Naberezhnaya, 32-38, St. Petersburg, Russia. http://www.hermitagemuseum.org/ Along with the Louvre (Paris, Louvre), the British Museum (London, British Museum) and like institutions, the Hermitage stands in the tradition of the great art museums and houses ca. three million objects in its various departments. Due to financial shortfalls and the economic situation in Russia, the museum has been seeking new…

Saints, Veneration of saints

(1,619 words)

Author(s): Fröhlich, Roland (Tübingen)
The veneration of saints began early in the development of Christianity. In the Catholic Church, 'saint' is a title conferred by the pope (since 1234), permitting liturgical veneration throughout the Church. Prerequisites for sainthood are an individual's 'saintly life' and at least two answers of a miraculous character to prayer (for the procedural order leading to canonization, see the Apostolic Constitution Divinus perfectionis magister: [1]). 'Beatification' precedes canonization. This permits public veneration ( cultus publicus) in a specific region or part of th…

Sais

(285 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Σάϊς/ Sáïs). City in the western delta of the Rosetta branch of the Nile, Egyptian Zw, capital city of the 5th administrative district of Lower Egypt, the modern (village of) Ṣā l-Hạǧar. As the main cult centre of the goddess Neith, S. was already important in the 1st half of the 3rd millennium. Politically, however, it did not come to the fore until the 1st millennium BC, when the Libyan rulers residing there attempted to expand their area of power beginning c. 730. Initially repelled by the Nubians, their successors Necho [1] I and Psammetichus [1] I in th…

Saittai

(256 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σαΐτται; Saḯttai). Town in eastern Lydia (Maeonia [1]; Ptol. 5,2,21: Σέτται, Σάετται), in the rivers' triangle between the upper Hyllus (modern Demirci Çayı, cf. Hyllus [4], c. 12 km on the west) and the Hermus [2]; present-day Sidaskale near İçikler. Representations of the river gods Hyllus and Hermus are found on coins of the Imperial Period . S. was a regional centre for the production of textiles. In AD 124, the town was probably visited by emperor Hadrianus. Cult of the Men Axiottenus. Among others, …

Sakkos

(144 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (σάκκος/ sákkos). Closed bonnet, esp. popular as a headdress of Greek women in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. The evidence from Attic vase paintings and tomb reliefs shows the sákkos worn mainly by female servants, whereas in southern Italian art it appears as the headdress of any woman. Sákkoi frequently had a loop on the calotte for hanging them up and often tassels hanging down. Some sákkoi were unadorned or decorated with simple lines, while others were richly decorated with ornaments of meanders, waves, scrolls and similar. The sákkos was not necessarily the only hea…

Sala

(425 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Σάλα/ Sála). [German version] [1] River in Mauretania Tingitana River in Mauretania Tingitana, flowing into the Atlantic Ocean, modern Oued Bou Regreg (Plin. HN 5,5: S.; 9; 13: Salat; Ptol. 4,1,2; 4: Σάλα/ Sála). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) [German version] [2] Phoenician or Punic foundation This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Commerce | Phoenicians, Poeni (neo-Punic Slt). Phoenician or Punic foundation near the mouth of the river of the same name, modern Chella in Morocco (Mela 3,107: S.; Plin. HN 5,5; 13: S.; Ptol. 4,1,2: Σάλα/ Sála; It. Ant. 6,4: S. colonia; Not. Dign. …

Salacia

(281 words)

Author(s): Börm, Henning (Kiel) | Wardle, David (Cape Town)
[German version] [1] Maiden and worshipper of Apollo (Σαλακία; Salakía). Maiden from Ophionis (her name may derive from the Salbacus mountains), who, according to an etiological legend, carries a box in a procession for Apollo. In the box are cakes in the form of lyre, bow and arrow, which are typical insignia of the god. The wind snatches her sacrificial gifts and blows them out to sea, which carries them to the Lycian Chersonnesus near Patara. A 'refugee from S.' finds them and sacrifices them there  (Steph. Byz. s. v. Πάταρα; Pátara). Börm, Henning (Kiel) [German version] [2] Roman godde…

Sala Consilina

(218 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] Modern town in the Vallo di Diano (province of Salerno, Lucania) whose ancient name was not transmitted. Its fame is due to the necropolis with more than 1,500 tombs from the Early Historical Period (10th to the 6th cents. BC) located to the north west and south east of the town; the location of the corresponding settlement has yet to be determined. The inventories of the tombs as well as the so-called Waffengrab suggest an elite of leading families, esp. due to the absence of princely graves with magnificent and prestigious furnishings. As was the ca…

Salamander

(362 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (σαλαμάνδρα/ salamándra from Persian, Lat. salamandra, identified at an early stage with the gecko, Lat. stellio), presumably the nocturnal fire salamander, Salamandra salamandra, an amphibian of the order Caudata ( Urodela), which is black with large yellow spots. The yellow spots led to the superstition that because of its coldness it could not only live in fire (e.g., Aug. Civ. 21,4) but even extinguish it (Aristot. Hist. an. 5,19,552b 15-17; Plin. HN 10,188; Gp. 15,1,34; cf. Theophr. fr. 3,60 and Ael. NA 2…

Salambo

(192 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Σαλαμβώ; Salambṓ). S. is one of the goddesses who mourn the dying vegetation god Adonis, a version of the Syro-Phoenician Astarte. Hesychius s. v. Σαλαμβώ calls her 'the Aphrodite of (the) Babylonians'; for her role in the midsummer festival of the Adonia, cf. EM s.v. Σαλαμβώ), also SHA Heliogab. 7,3, Acta Sanctorum Bollandia for 19 July (p. 585 Florez) and Breviarium Eborense [1. 332 f.]. A Phoenician reference to S. is behind the phrase mqdš bt ṣdmbl ('the holiest of the temples of S.'), on an inscription from Gaulus (modern Gozo in Malta, KAI 62,2),…

Salaminia

(247 words)

Author(s): Rutherford, Ian C. (Reading)
[German version] (Σαλαμινία; Salaminía). One of the two Athenian ambassadorial ships ( theōrídes) used by festival ambassadors ( theōroí), recorded in the Classical period; the other was the Paralus [1; 2. 153 ff.]. The S. was replaced by the Ammonia in the 4th century AD, shortly before the writing of the ps.-Aristotelian Athenaíōn Politeía; the change presumably shows the significance of the Zeus-Ammon oracle  in this period. Later Athenian ambassadorial ships were the Demetrias, the Antigonis and the Ptolemais (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 61,7; [2. 160, 163 f.]). The S. and the other theōr…

Salaminii

(204 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Σαλαμίνιοι; Salamínioi). Athenian génos from Salamis [5], which was divided into the 'S. of Seven Phyles' and the 'S. in Sunium'. In the 4th cent. BC, it primarily acted as a cult alliance in charge of some of the oldest cults in the polis (Athena Skiras, Aglaurus, Pandrosus, Ge Kourotrophos among others). Both branches had sanctuaries of Heracles, one in Sunium, the other 'on the Porthmus', that is, the strait of Salamis ([4]; pace [1; 2; 3]) where, along with Phalerum and Athens, the cultic activities of the S. were concentrated. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 W. …

Salamis

(5 words)

see Battlefields

Salamis

(1,094 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum)
(Σαλαμίς/ Salamís). [German version] [1] Largest island in the Saronic Gulf This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Natural catastrophes | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture Largest island (93 km2) in the Saronic Gulf (Saronikos Kolpos), with a deeply punctuated coastline, 0.5 km from the coast of Attica at the nearest point; three main mountainous massifs with hilly valleys between them; the highest elevations (366 m) are on the central massif (modern Mavrovouni). The island was original…

Salampsio

(108 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (from the Hebrew šelōmṣiyōn, Aramaic short form Šelamṣah, 'Peace of Zion'; Greek Σαλαμψιώ/ Salampsiṓ). Eldest daughter of Herod (Herodes [1]) the Great and his Hasmonaic wife Mariamme [1]; b. c. 33 BC. After Herod's brother Pheroras had refused marriage with her, in 20 BC, she wed her cousin Phasael II, son of Phasael [1] I, by whom she had five children (Herod IV, Alexander III, Antipater IV, Alexandra and Cyprus III) (Ios. Ant. Iud. 16,7,6; 17,1,3; 18,5,4). Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) Bibliography N. Kokkinos, The Herodian Dynasty. Origins, Role in Society and Ec…

Salarium

(164 words)

Author(s): de Libero, Loretana (Hamburg)
[German version] Originally ‘salt-money’ (Plin. HN 31,89), the regular remuneration of expenses (hence English ‘salary’) for magistrates of senatorial and equestrian status working outside Rome in the imperial administration ( e.g. Cass. Dio 53,15,5). The salary of a proconsul, salarium proconsulare (Tac. Agr. 42,2), e.g., at the time of the emperor Macrinus (AD 217/8), came to 1 million sesterces per year (Cass. Dio 78,22,5). The comites ( comes ) of a governor and a princeps also received a salarium (Suet. Tib. 46; Dig. 1,22,4 et passim). Furthermore, impoverished senators of …

Salas

(149 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σάλας; Sálas). River in Germania magna (Strab. 7,1,3), the modern Thuringian Saale, a left-bank tributary of the Elbe. The name derives from the salt deposits found in the areas through which the river runs. It has been argued that the Franconian Saale, which flows into the Main, was referred to in Tac. Ann. 13,57; this, however, must be the Werra. In the pre-Roman Iron Age, the Thuringian-Saale region was mostly a settlement area of the Celts, although southern fringes of the Jas…

Salassi

(207 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Celtic tribe in the valley of the Duria Maior (modern Dora Baltea); according to Cato in Plin. HN 3,134, part of the Taurisci. The S. controlled the western passes of the Alps (Liv. 21,38,7; Str. 4,6,11) and collected road tolls (Str. 4,6,7; App. Ill. 17). Rich gold deposits allowed them to mint their own coins, but led to conflicts with neighbouring tribes and Roman publicani ('tax farmers'; Plin. HN 18,182). In 143 BC, Claudius [I 22] subjugated the S. (Cass. Dio 22 fr. 74,1; Liv. per. 53; Obseq. 21; Oros. 5,4,7). When the…

Saldae

(163 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Commerce | Punic Wars | Punic Wars City and harbour of Mauretania Caesariensis, later of Sitifensis, near the mouth of the Oued Soummam, present-day Bejaïa in Algeria (Ps.-Scyl. 111: Σίδα πόλις/ Sída pólis (?); Ptol. 4,2,9: Σάλδαι κολωνία/ Sáldai kolōnía; It. Ant. 5,2: Saldis; 17,3: Saldis colonia; 31,6: Saldas; 32,3: Saldis; 39,2: Saldis; 39,6: Saldis colonia; 39,7: Saldis; Notitia episcoporum Mauretaniae Sitifensis 41: Saldae). S. was on the boundary between the kingdom of Juba [2] and the Roman…

Sale

(104 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σάλη; Sálē). City on the northern shore of the Aegean Sea, west of Doriscus in the south east of the foothills of the Serrheum, probably at present-day Alexandrupolis. Built as part of the peraia of Samothrace (Hdt. 7,59,2), S. belonged to the territory of Maronea [1] in 188 BC at the time of the Syrian Wars (Liv. 38,41,8: vicus Maronitarum). In the Roman Imperial Period, S. was a road-station ( mutatio) on the road from Traianopolis to Philippi (It. Burd. 602). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography B. Isaac, The Greek Settlements in Thrace until th…

Salebro

(72 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Harbour in Etruria (It. maritimum 500,6: Scabris), modern Portiglione di Scarlino in the Gulf of Follonica opposite Ilva (Elba). Station on the via Aurelia between the mouth of the Umbro and Populonia (It. Ant. 292,3: Salebrone; Tab. Peut. 4,3: Saleborna), where parts of road paving survive. Labrone in Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 2,5,8 is probably the corruptly transmitted placename S. (amended by Wesseling to Salebrone). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Saleius Bassus

(56 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] Renowned Latin epic poet (Quint. Inst. 10,1,90) of the late 1st cent. AD (Tac. Dial. 9,2-5; 10,2; Juv. 7,80 f.), friend of Iulius [IV 21] Secundus ( ibid. 5,2 f.). Works do not survive; the attribution of the Laus Pisonis to him is not justified. Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) Bibliography Schanz/Hosius, vol. 2, 545.

Salernitan Medical School

(7 words)

see Medicine

Salernum

(407 words)

Author(s): Gargini, Michela (Pisa)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | | Coloniae City on the Sinus Paestanus in the territory of the Picentes deported there in 268 BC (Str. 5,4,13), modern Salerno on the Irnio in the northeast of the gulf; a colonia (Coloniae), castrum Salerni, by resolution of the Roman Senate in 197 BC, settled in 194 BC  (Liv. 32,29,3; 34,45,2; Vell. Pat. 1,15,3;  cf. Ptol. 3,1,7: Σάλερνον/ Sálernon) on the land of an earlier Oscan-Etruscan settlement (individual finds and necropoleis of the Archaic Period in the quarter of F…

Saletio

(377 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Small town between the Seltzbach and the Sauer, at the mouth of these two rivers as they flow into the Rhine (today one of the Rhine arms), present-day Sel(t)z (Département Bas-Rhin southeast of Wissembourg). S. was situated on the border of the civitates of the Triboci and the Nemetes and was classified as belonging to them at least in late antiquity. The roads Mogontiacum-Argentorate and Saravus-Vosegus-Agri Decumates crossed here (It. Ant. 354,6; Tab. Peut. 3,3). There are traces of settlements dating to the Bronze Age; a Celtic oppidum from the pre-Roman era is …

Salgama

(121 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] (Greek ἁλμαῖα/ halmaîa). Collective term for pickled vegetables, herbs, and fruit. From the Greek period on, people enjoyed preserving plant foodstuffs by pickling them in brine (Colum. 12,4,4), often with the addition of vinegar, spices and other ingredients such as milk and honey (Plin. HN 19,153; Dioscorides 2,174 Wellmann). Columella (10,117; 12,9 f.) has recipes for pickling capers, lettuce, herbs, onions, European cornels, plums and various kinds of apples and pears. In simple cuisine, salgama were eaten with bread or cereal porridge; at more lavish meals, sa…

Salganeus

(189 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] (Σαλγανεύς/ Salganeús). Site on the east coast of Boeotia between Chalcis [1] and Anthedon, on a hill whose modern name is Lithosoros (documented as Solganiko until the 19th cent.), 2.5 km west of modern Drosiá (Ephor. FGrH 70 F 119; Heracl. 1,26). S. was the name of the Boeotian pilot who guided the Persians through the Strait of Euripus [1] (Str. 9,2,9; cf. [1.13-15]) and whom they rashly executed there in 480 BC. The site was settled from the Neolithic until the Late Mycenean Period [2.79 f.; 3]; in the Hellenistic Period it played a role…

Salii

(1,051 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Linderski, Jerzy (Chapel Hill, NC)
[German version] [1] Sub-tribe of the Franci According to the prevailing view, the S. are considered a sub-tribe of the Franci originally from the north of the Rhine delta, later in Toxandria (modern Belgian Brabant; Amm. Marc. 17,8,3); the Merovingians are also supposed to have begun their rise as kings of the S. or ‘Salian Franks’ [1. 524-541; 2; 4; 5. 55-57 and fig. 39]. The S. are first mentioned by Julian. Ep. 361 for the year AD 358: according to his account, some of the S. subjected themselves t…

Salinae

(172 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
A number of towns or townships in Italy had this name, derived from the production of salt there. [German version] [1] Town on the Adriatic coastal road S. is recorded in Tab. Peut. (5,1; cf. Geogr. Rav. 327; [1]) as on the Adriatic coastal road 5 Roman miles north of Ostia Aterni (modern Pescara) and 13 Roman miles south of Hadria on the left bank of the River Salino, which, formed by the confluence of the Tavo and the Fino, marked the border between the Vestini and the Praetuttii, near modern Montesilvano Marina. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [2] Place south of Mons Garganus Place…

Salinator

(31 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (from sal, ‘salt’) in the family of the Livii (Livius [I 11-13]); legend of its origin in Liv. 29,37,4. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 322.

Salinum

(106 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] (ἁλία/ halía). Small salt container (Plin. HN 33,153) made of silver, occasionally of clay. It belonged in every Roman household and was used for adding salt during dinner, but had a special function in the domestic cult as well: Up to the Imperial Period, the salinum was used in food offerings between the main course and dessert (Liv. 26,36,6; Stat. Silv. 1,4,130 f.). This cultic significance explains why the salinum was handed down from father to son (Hor. Carm. 2,16,13 f.). Mola salsa Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) Bibliography M. Besnier, s. v. S., DS IV/2, 1022  A. Hug, s.…

Salla

(94 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] City in Pannonia on the amber road, present-day Zalalövő (Hungary; [1. 14]). After the construction of a fort for auxiliary troops in the 1st cent. AD, the civil infrastructure was developed ( municipium Aelium S.). Destroyed in the Marcomannic War (AD 167-182), it was rebuilt later, in the 4th cent., with a villa publica. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography 1 F. Redö, Zalalövö - Municipium Aelium S., in: G. Hajnóczy et al. (eds.), Pannonia Hungarica Antiqua, 1999, 14 f. 2 J. Šašel, Rimske ceste v Sloveniji (Roman Roads in Slovenia), in: Arheolos̆ka naj…

Sal(l)entini

(336 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] Indigenous name of the Messapians in the southernmost part of regio II, near the Cape of Iapygia (Cape Leuca) (Str. 6,3,1; cf. Mela 2,66; but Degrassi, FCap. XX: de Sallentineis Messapieisque). According to legend, the S. under Idomeneus [1] came with the Illyrii and the Locri [1] (Varro, Rust. 3,6; Verg. Aen. 3,400; Verrius Flaccus in Fest. 440; Solin. 2,10; cf. Str. 6,3,5: ápoikoi from Crete) from Lyctus to Italy, where the Cape of Iapygia was called Promunturium Sallentinum after them (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,51; Serv. Aen. 3,400; cf. Tab. Peut. 7,2). In …

Sallienus

(45 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] T. S. Clemens. Senator who was praetor in AD 56 (AE 1960,64). In the year 65, he attacked Iunius [II 14] Gallio, the brother of the deceased Seneca, in the Senate, but the Senate rebuffed him (Tac. Ann. 15,73,3). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Sallius

(209 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] S. Aristaenetus Senator, governor of Thracia between AD 253 and 260 Senator; governor of Thracia between AD 253 and 260 (AE 1978, 724); descendant of S. [2]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. S. Aristaenetus Senator, imperial legate of Moesia inferior under Caracalla or Elagabalus Senator, possibly from Byzantium. There are records of his career in CIL VI 1511 = ILS 2934 up to his office as iuridicus of Picenum and Apulia; later, he became a consul [1. 163]. Probably he was governor of Pontus-Bithynia, and afterwards probably imperial legate…

Sallustia

(109 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Gnaea Seia Herennia S. Barbia Orbiana. Daughter of Sallustius [II 5] Macrianus, according to Herodianus (6,1,9) from a patrician line, wedded to the emperor Severus Alexander in AD 225. She received the title of Augusta. Apparently, conflicts with the emperor's mother Iulia [9] Mamaea soon emerged, a fact which is claimed to have led S.'s father to attempt an overthrow. S. was divorced from Severus at the end of 227 at the latest and banished to Africa. Her name was removed from inscriptions. Regarding the name s. especially [1; 2. 179]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliograph…

Sallustius

(3,055 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
Italian nomen gentile, see also Salustius. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] S., Cn. Friend and correspondent of Cicero Close friend of Cicero, with whom he demonstrably exchanged letters between 67 and 45 BC (Cic. Att. 11,11,2; Cic. Fam. 14,11). In 58, he accompanied Cicero on the first leg of his journey into exile, in 47, he lent him money, and they were together pardoned by Caesar (Cic. Fam. 14,4,6; Cic. Div. 1,59). S. read the draft of Cicero's De re publica and urged him - in vain - to state his views clearly and unambiguously (Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 3,5,1), a request…

Salluvii

(303 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] Ligurian Celtic tribe (Liv. 5,35,2; Liv. Per. 60 f.; 73: S.; Str.  4,1,3; 4,1,5 f.; 4,1,9; 4,1,11 f.; 4,6,3 f.: Σάλυες/ Sályes; Plin. HN 3,36: S.; 3,47; 124: Sallui; Flor. Epit. 1,19,5: S.; App. Celt. 12,1; Avien. 701: Salyes; Ptol. 2,10,15: Σάλυες/ Sályes; Obseq. 90; 92: Sallyes; Amm. Marc. 15,11,15: S.) in the hinterland of Massalia between the Rhodanus (modern Rhône) and the Alpes Maritimae. Their central oppidum has been excavated near Entremont; there was probably a local cult connected with the têtes coupées ( cf. the cephalophoric stones in the Museum of A…

Salmacis

(174 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] (Σαλμακίς/ Salmakís, Lat. Salmacis). Name of a Greek nymph and a spring in Caria (Cares, Caria) not far from Halicarnassus; the city had a homonymous suburb with a sanctuary to Hermaphroditus. The name is probably derived from a local language of Asia Minor. The myth of S. is associated with a late and secondary version of the legend of Hermaphroditus: S. falls in love with the son of Hermes and Aphrodite (for the first time in this form in Diod. Sic. 4,6). He, however, resists her c…

Salmanassar III

(220 words)

Author(s): Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig)
[German version] (Assyrian Šulmānu-ašarēd). Assyrian king (858-824 BC), resided in Kalḫu like his father Assurnaṣirpal (883-859 BC), the actual founder of the Neo-Assyrian empire. His inscriptions report countless military campaigns and battles against the surrounding regions, esp. Syria, which was ultimately subjugated (853 BC: battle of Qarqar against a coalition under Adad-idri/Ben-Hadad of Damascus supported by Arab camel riders; undecided; tribute received from Byblus, Tyre and Sidon). S. adva…

Salmantica

(106 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Hispania, Iberia City of the Vaccaei (Pol. 3,14,1; 3,14,3: Ἑλμαντική/ Helmantikḗ; Liv. 21,5,6: Hermandica; Polyaenus, Strat. 7,48: Σαλμαντίς/ Salmantís; Ptol. 2,5,9: Σαλμάντικα/ Salmántika; It. Ant. 434,4: Salmatice; CIL II 857; 859; 870: S.), modern Salamanca. Conquered by Hannibal [4] in 220 BC to secure a grain supply for his army. Roman municipium on the army road from Augusta [2] Emerita to Asturica Augusta. A Roman bridge over the Tormes still stands there today. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography P. Barceló, A…

Salmon

(161 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] Of the Salmonidae family, Antiquity was familiar with: 1. the salmon proper, Salmo salar L., as ἴσοξ/ ísox ( isox Isid. Orig. 20,2,30), mentioned in Plin. HN 9,44 for the Rhine and Sulp. Sev. Dialogi 2,10,4 for the Liger (Loire). Auson. Mos. 97-105 describes it accurately; 2. the sea trout, Salmo trutta trutta, as fario (Auson. Mos. 128-130 and Isid. Orig. 12,6,6: varii) or salmo marinus (Plin. HN 9,68, but according to [1. 119] no. 1); 3. the brown trout, Salmo trutta fario, may be meant by salmo fluviatilis (Plin. HN 9,68) in Aquitania. Auson. Mos. 88 characterizes the sala…

Salmona

(26 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Left tributary of the Moselle (Auson. Mos. 366), present-day Salm. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography J. B. Keune, s. v. S., RE 1 A, 1986.

Salmone

(78 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Σαλμώνη/ Salmṓnē). [German version] [1] City in Elean Pisatis City in Elean Pisatis. Location disputed, possibly near modern Néraïda, 12 km north of Olympia (Str. 8,3,31; Diod. Sic. 4,68,1). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) [German version] [2] Main source of the Enipeus [1] Main source of the Enipeus [1] (Str. 8,3,32). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography G. Panayotopoulos, Questions sur la topographie éléenne ..., in: A.D. Rizakis (ed.), Αρχαία Αχαΐα και Ελεία. Ανακοινώσεις κατά το Πρώτο Διεθνές Συμπόσιο (Athens 1989), 1991, 275-281.

Salmoneus

(238 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Σαλμωνεύς/ Salmōneús). Son of Aeolus [1], brother of Athamas, Sisyphus and Cretheus. S. had delusions of grandeur and endeavoured to have himself worshipped as Zeus, driving around on a chariot drawn by horses, producing artificial lightning flashes and making bronzen cauldrons resound to give the impression of thunder. Zeus flung him into Tartarus. S.' daughter Tyro distanced herself from her father, was spared and married Cretheus (Hes. fr. 10a, 25-27 M.-W.; fr. 30,1-30 M.-W.; A…

Salmydessus

(201 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Σαλμυδησσός/ Salmydēssós). [German version] [1] Coastal region Coastal strip of the Pontos Euxeinos [I] without harbours, dangerously shallow for navigation, 700 stadia in length (Ps.-Scymn. 724-727; Ptol. 3,11,4: Σ. ἤτοι Ἁλμυδησσὸς αἰγιαλός ( Salmydēssòs ḗtoi Halmydēssòs aigialós) 'shore of S. or Halmydessus') from the Bosporus [1] to Cape Thynias, where the Astae (Ἀσταί/ Astaí) settled near other Thraci (Str. 7,6,1; cf. 1,3,4; 7). In 513 BC, the Thraci on the S. surrendered without a fight to Darius [1] I on his campaign against the Scythae (Hd…

Salo

(94 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Right tributary of the Iberus [1] (modern Ebro) in Celtiberia (Celtiberi), modern Jalón. In its course, it passes Ocilis, Arcobriga, Aquae Bilbilitanorum, Bilbilis, Nertobriga [1] and Allobone. Its ice-cold water was especially suited for tempering iron (Mart. 1,49,12; 4,55,15; 12,21,1). In the Celtiberian Wars (2nd cent. BC), its valley was the base of operations for the Romans (App. Hisp. 188 ff.; [1]). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 W. V. Harris, Roman Expansion in the West III. Spain, in: CAH 8, 21989, 118-142. Schulten, Landeskunde 2, 314 f.  TIR K 3…

Salodurum

(157 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] In the pre-Roman period a station on the road south of the Jura from Lake Geneva to the Upper Rhine with a bridge over the river Aare and good wharfs for trade, modern Solothurn. After the Roman occupation, S. was a beneficiarii post (CIL XIII 5170; [1. no. 130 ill.]). Out of the road post there grew a vicus , whose leading citizens ( magistri vici) and village inhabitants ( vicani Salodurenses) dedicated a temple to Iuppiter Optimus Maximus [1. no. 141]. The port district of the vicus was rebuilt in the 4th cent. AD as a castle (3,2 m thick walls). The medieval …

Salome

(460 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
(Hebrew šelomṣiyōn, 'Peace of Zion', Aramaic short form šelamṣāh; Σαλώμη/ Salṓmē). [German version] [1] Sister of Herod [1] the Great, 2nd half, 1st cent. BC Sister of Herod (Herodes [1]) the Great ( c. 57 BC - AD 10). Until his death, she played an important role in factional intrigues at the Herodian court: she plotted against Herod's Hasmonaic wife Mariamme [1] I and their sons Alexander and Aristoboulus [4], likewise against her own husbands Iosephus [1] and Costobarus, who were executed (Jos. BI 1,441 ff.; Jos. Ant. Iud. 1…

Salomo

(5 words)

see Solomon [1]

Salona

(407 words)

Author(s): Fellmeth, Ulrich (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Commerce | Legio | Limes | Moesi, Moesia | Pilgrimage | Rome | Rome (Σάλων/ Sálōn, Σαλῶναι/ Salônai). City in Dalmatia on Kaštela Bay above the mouth of the Jadro with an important natural harbour protected by islands and peninsulas off the coast. The ancient remains of S. (practically only foundation walls survive) lie to the north and west of modern Solin, a suburb of Split. The first settlement of the Thracian Manii was conquered by Celtic-Illyrian Dalmatae in the 4th cent. B…

Salonina

(78 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Iulia Cornelia S., wife of the emperor Gallienus, elevated to Augusta and mater castrorum in AD 254 (IGR 3, 237; AE 1982, 272; RIC V 1, 63; 105; 107-115; 191-200), perished together with her husband in AD 268 outside of Mediolanum [1] (Zon. 12,25). Her three sons were P. Licinius Cornelius Valerianus, P. Licinius [II 6] Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus and Marinianus [3]. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 2, 222 f.  PIR2 C 1499  PLRE 1, 799.

Saloninus

(73 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] [1] Died after AD 90, known from a funerary epigram by Martialis [1] Known from a funerary epigram by Martialis [1] (6,18), who calls him a friend of his friend Terentius Priscus; therefore, the death of S. must have occurred around AD 90, the date of origin of the 6th book of epigrams by Martialis. Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) [German version] [2] see Licinius [II 6] see Licinius [II 6]

Salpe

(75 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Σάλπη/ Sálpē). Midwife of the Hellenistic era, whose medical and cosmetic recipes were quoted by Plinius [1] in his Historia naturalis (Plin. HN 28,38; 28,66; 28,82; 28,262; 32,135; 32,140). Athenaeus [3] (Ath. 322a) knows a S. as the author of παίγνια/ paígnia (‘light poems’), but it is problematic to consider the two identical [1]. Nutton, Vivian (London) Bibliography 1 D. Bain, Salpe's ΠΑΙΓΝΙΑ; Athenaeus 322a and Plin. H. N. 28,38, in: CQ 48, 1998, 262-268.

Salpensa

(72 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Salpesa). Iberian city, in the Roman era municipium Flavium Salpensanum, modern Cortijo de la Coria (Utrera, province of Sevilla). An inscription with the municipal charter of S. (AD 82/84) was found near Malaca (ILS 6089; [1. 259 ff.]). Lex Salpensana Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 J. L. López Castro, Hispania Poena, 1995. Tovar 1, 145 f.  A. Caballos, W. Eck, F. Fernández, Das Senatus consultum de Cn. Pisone patre, 1996, 245.

Salpia

(285 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] City in Daunia (Str. 6,3,9: Σαλαπία/ Salapía; Plin. HN 3,103: Salapia; It. Ant. 314,7; Tab. Peut. 6,3; Geogr. Rav. 5,1; Guido, Geographia 22). It was established twice; the first site was where remains are to be found on the road from Zapponeta to Torre Pietra, on the Ionios Kolpos northwest of the salterns of Margherita di Savoia on the Lago di Salpi (drained in the modern period). Despite various foundation myths (founded by Trojans, Lycoph. 1129; different account in Vitr. De arch. 1,4,12, cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἐλπία; Str. 14,2,10), it was most probably a pure…

Salpinates

(31 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Community in Etruria, probably near modern Orvieto; allies of the Volsinii against Rome in 392/1, but without success (Liv. 5,31,5; 32,2). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 339.

Salsamenta

(4 words)

see Muria

Salt

(1,504 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Germer, Renate (Hamburg) | Giovannini, Adalberto (Geneva) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East and Egypt Salt (Sumerian mun; Akkadian ṭabtu; Hittite puti; Hebrew mælaḥ; Egyptian sm.t) played an important role in all ancient Near Eastern cultures and in Egypt. In often high temperatures, the supply of salt was essential to life: salt was therefore part of workers' ordinary rations in Mesopotamia and Egypt (Rations). It was esp. used to season foods and to preserve meat and fish. In medicine, too, salt was used internally and externally. Salt was an important ingredient…

Saltus

(478 words)

Author(s): Krause, Jens-Uwe (Munich)
[German version] The Latin term saltus denotes woodland, fallow land with some degree of tree cover, and pasture; cf. Varro, Ling. 5,36: “quos agros non colebant propter silvas aut id genus, ubi pecus possit pasci, et possidebant, ab usu salvo saltus nominarunt” (“from their practical usefulness, they called saltus those fields which they held but did not cultivate because of the woods, or the type of land where cattle can graze”). In Catullus, the following belong to the saltus Firmanus: “aucupium, omne genus piscis, prata, arva ferasque” (“all manner of fowl, fish, meado…

Saltus Manlianus

(70 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] The narrow passage of Puerto de Morata in the Sierra de Vicor, south-west of Zaragoza, probably named after the praetor P. Manlius [I 5], who passed through there in 195 BC during the conquest of Hispania citerior under the supreme command of the consul Cato [1] (Liv. 40,39,2). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) Bibliography Schulten, Landeskunde 1, 166  TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 146 f.

Saltus Teutoburgiensis

(401 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] The only reference to the ‘Teutoburg Forest’ in ancient sources is Tac. Ann. 1,60,3, mentioning it as the scene of Varus' battle in AD 9 (P. Quinctilius [II 7]; Arminius). On his foray into Germania east of the Rhine in AD 15, Germanicus [2] entered the region between Amisia and Lupia, “... haud procul Teutoburgiensi saltu, in quo reliquiae Vari legionumque insepultae dicebantur” (“not far from the forest of Teutoburg, in which the remains of Varus and the legions were said to lie unburied”). The battle site was then reconnoitred and the fallen buried. In the absence of c…
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