Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Salmona

(26 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Left tributary of the Moselle (Auson. Mos. 366), present-day Salm. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography J. B. Keune, s. v. S., RE 1 A, 1986.

Salmone

(78 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Σαλμώνη/ Salmṓnē). [German version] [1] City in Elean Pisatis City in Elean Pisatis. Location disputed, possibly near modern Néraïda, 12 km north of Olympia (Str. 8,3,31; Diod. Sic. 4,68,1). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) [German version] [2] Main source of the Enipeus [1] Main source of the Enipeus [1] (Str. 8,3,32). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography G. Panayotopoulos, Questions sur la topographie éléenne ..., in: A.D. Rizakis (ed.), Αρχαία Αχαΐα και Ελεία. Ανακοινώσεις κατά το Πρώτο Διεθνές Συμπόσιο (Athens 1989), 1991, 275-281.

Salmoneus

(238 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Σαλμωνεύς/ Salmōneús). Son of Aeolus [1], brother of Athamas, Sisyphus and Cretheus. S. had delusions of grandeur and endeavoured to have himself worshipped as Zeus, driving around on a chariot drawn by horses, producing artificial lightning flashes and making bronzen cauldrons resound to give the impression of thunder. Zeus flung him into Tartarus. S.' daughter Tyro distanced herself from her father, was spared and married Cretheus (Hes. fr. 10a, 25-27 M.-W.; fr. 30,1-30 M.-W.; A…

Salmydessus

(201 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Σαλμυδησσός/ Salmydēssós). [German version] [1] Coastal region Coastal strip of the Pontos Euxeinos [I] without harbours, dangerously shallow for navigation, 700 stadia in length (Ps.-Scymn. 724-727; Ptol. 3,11,4: Σ. ἤτοι Ἁλμυδησσὸς αἰγιαλός ( Salmydēssòs ḗtoi Halmydēssòs aigialós) 'shore of S. or Halmydessus') from the Bosporus [1] to Cape Thynias, where the Astae (Ἀσταί/ Astaí) settled near other Thraci (Str. 7,6,1; cf. 1,3,4; 7). In 513 BC, the Thraci on the S. surrendered without a fight to Darius [1] I on his campaign against the Scythae (Hd…

Salo

(94 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Right tributary of the Iberus [1] (modern Ebro) in Celtiberia (Celtiberi), modern Jalón. In its course, it passes Ocilis, Arcobriga, Aquae Bilbilitanorum, Bilbilis, Nertobriga [1] and Allobone. Its ice-cold water was especially suited for tempering iron (Mart. 1,49,12; 4,55,15; 12,21,1). In the Celtiberian Wars (2nd cent. BC), its valley was the base of operations for the Romans (App. Hisp. 188 ff.; [1]). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 W. V. Harris, Roman Expansion in the West III. Spain, in: CAH 8, 21989, 118-142. Schulten, Landeskunde 2, 314 f.  TIR K 3…

Salodurum

(157 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] In the pre-Roman period a station on the road south of the Jura from Lake Geneva to the Upper Rhine with a bridge over the river Aare and good wharfs for trade, modern Solothurn. After the Roman occupation, S. was a beneficiarii post (CIL XIII 5170; [1. no. 130 ill.]). Out of the road post there grew a vicus , whose leading citizens ( magistri vici) and village inhabitants ( vicani Salodurenses) dedicated a temple to Iuppiter Optimus Maximus [1. no. 141]. The port district of the vicus was rebuilt in the 4th cent. AD as a castle (3,2 m thick walls). The medieval …

Salome

(460 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
(Hebrew šelomṣiyōn, 'Peace of Zion', Aramaic short form šelamṣāh; Σαλώμη/ Salṓmē). [German version] [1] Sister of Herod [1] the Great, 2nd half, 1st cent. BC Sister of Herod (Herodes [1]) the Great ( c. 57 BC - AD 10). Until his death, she played an important role in factional intrigues at the Herodian court: she plotted against Herod's Hasmonaic wife Mariamme [1] I and their sons Alexander and Aristoboulus [4], likewise against her own husbands Iosephus [1] and Costobarus, who were executed (Jos. BI 1,441 ff.; Jos. Ant. Iud. 1…

Salomo

(5 words)

see Solomon [1]

Salona

(407 words)

Author(s): Fellmeth, Ulrich (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Commerce | Legio | Limes | Moesi, Moesia | Pilgrimage | Rome | Rome (Σάλων/ Sálōn, Σαλῶναι/ Salônai). City in Dalmatia on Kaštela Bay above the mouth of the Jadro with an important natural harbour protected by islands and peninsulas off the coast. The ancient remains of S. (practically only foundation walls survive) lie to the north and west of modern Solin, a suburb of Split. The first settlement of the Thracian Manii was conquered by Celtic-Illyrian Dalmatae in the 4th cent. B…

Salonina

(78 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Iulia Cornelia S., wife of the emperor Gallienus, elevated to Augusta and mater castrorum in AD 254 (IGR 3, 237; AE 1982, 272; RIC V 1, 63; 105; 107-115; 191-200), perished together with her husband in AD 268 outside of Mediolanum [1] (Zon. 12,25). Her three sons were P. Licinius Cornelius Valerianus, P. Licinius [II 6] Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus and Marinianus [3]. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 2, 222 f.  PIR2 C 1499  PLRE 1, 799.

Saloninus

(73 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] [1] Died after AD 90, known from a funerary epigram by Martialis [1] Known from a funerary epigram by Martialis [1] (6,18), who calls him a friend of his friend Terentius Priscus; therefore, the death of S. must have occurred around AD 90, the date of origin of the 6th book of epigrams by Martialis. Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) [German version] [2] see Licinius [II 6] see Licinius [II 6]

Salpe

(75 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Σάλπη/ Sálpē). Midwife of the Hellenistic era, whose medical and cosmetic recipes were quoted by Plinius [1] in his Historia naturalis (Plin. HN 28,38; 28,66; 28,82; 28,262; 32,135; 32,140). Athenaeus [3] (Ath. 322a) knows a S. as the author of παίγνια/ paígnia (‘light poems’), but it is problematic to consider the two identical [1]. Nutton, Vivian (London) Bibliography 1 D. Bain, Salpe's ΠΑΙΓΝΙΑ; Athenaeus 322a and Plin. H. N. 28,38, in: CQ 48, 1998, 262-268.

Salpensa

(72 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Salpesa). Iberian city, in the Roman era municipium Flavium Salpensanum, modern Cortijo de la Coria (Utrera, province of Sevilla). An inscription with the municipal charter of S. (AD 82/84) was found near Malaca (ILS 6089; [1. 259 ff.]). Lex Salpensana Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 J. L. López Castro, Hispania Poena, 1995. Tovar 1, 145 f.  A. Caballos, W. Eck, F. Fernández, Das Senatus consultum de Cn. Pisone patre, 1996, 245.

Salpia

(285 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] City in Daunia (Str. 6,3,9: Σαλαπία/ Salapía; Plin. HN 3,103: Salapia; It. Ant. 314,7; Tab. Peut. 6,3; Geogr. Rav. 5,1; Guido, Geographia 22). It was established twice; the first site was where remains are to be found on the road from Zapponeta to Torre Pietra, on the Ionios Kolpos northwest of the salterns of Margherita di Savoia on the Lago di Salpi (drained in the modern period). Despite various foundation myths (founded by Trojans, Lycoph. 1129; different account in Vitr. De arch. 1,4,12, cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἐλπία; Str. 14,2,10), it was most probably a pure…

Salpinates

(31 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Community in Etruria, probably near modern Orvieto; allies of the Volsinii against Rome in 392/1, but without success (Liv. 5,31,5; 32,2). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 339.

Salsamenta

(4 words)

see Muria

Salt

(1,504 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Germer, Renate (Hamburg) | Giovannini, Adalberto (Geneva) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East and Egypt Salt (Sumerian mun; Akkadian ṭabtu; Hittite puti; Hebrew mælaḥ; Egyptian sm.t) played an important role in all ancient Near Eastern cultures and in Egypt. In often high temperatures, the supply of salt was essential to life: salt was therefore part of workers' ordinary rations in Mesopotamia and Egypt (Rations). It was esp. used to season foods and to preserve meat and fish. In medicine, too, salt was used internally and externally. Salt was an important ingredient…

Saltus

(478 words)

Author(s): Krause, Jens-Uwe (Munich)
[German version] The Latin term saltus denotes woodland, fallow land with some degree of tree cover, and pasture; cf. Varro, Ling. 5,36: “quos agros non colebant propter silvas aut id genus, ubi pecus possit pasci, et possidebant, ab usu salvo saltus nominarunt” (“from their practical usefulness, they called saltus those fields which they held but did not cultivate because of the woods, or the type of land where cattle can graze”). In Catullus, the following belong to the saltus Firmanus: “aucupium, omne genus piscis, prata, arva ferasque” (“all manner of fowl, fish, meado…

Saltus Manlianus

(70 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] The narrow passage of Puerto de Morata in the Sierra de Vicor, south-west of Zaragoza, probably named after the praetor P. Manlius [I 5], who passed through there in 195 BC during the conquest of Hispania citerior under the supreme command of the consul Cato [1] (Liv. 40,39,2). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) Bibliography Schulten, Landeskunde 1, 166  TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 146 f.

Saltus Teutoburgiensis

(401 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] The only reference to the ‘Teutoburg Forest’ in ancient sources is Tac. Ann. 1,60,3, mentioning it as the scene of Varus' battle in AD 9 (P. Quinctilius [II 7]; Arminius). On his foray into Germania east of the Rhine in AD 15, Germanicus [2] entered the region between Amisia and Lupia, “... haud procul Teutoburgiensi saltu, in quo reliquiae Vari legionumque insepultae dicebantur” (“not far from the forest of Teutoburg, in which the remains of Varus and the legions were said to lie unburied”). The battle site was then reconnoitred and the fallen buried. In the absence of c…

Salus

(358 words)

Author(s): Wardle, David (Cape Town)
[German version] ('Well-being') was a deified characteristic (Personification) - depicted as a female deity, often enthroned, with a sceptre, bowl, snake or ear of corn - associated primarily with the security and welfare of the Roman state, its citizens and later its rulers. The city of Rome's temple to S. on the Mons Quirinalis, vowed by C. Iunius [I 19] Bubulcus in 311 BC during the second of the  Samnite Wars, was dedicated by him on 5 August (Cic. Att. 4,2,4; Cic. Sest. 131) 302 BC (Liv. 10,1…

Salustius

(665 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
(Σαλούστιος; Saloústios). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian Greek grammarian (perhaps 4th/5th cents. AD [3. 31]); author of a commentary on Callimachus' [3] Hekale (fr. 9; 29; 179 Hollis), the use of which can still be detected in the Suda [4. 13-18]. The attribution of an edition of the hymns of Callimachus [5. 78] and of the hypothesis to Sophocles' Antigone and Oedipus in Colonus [6. 17-20] is probable. Likely identical to the S. mentioned by Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Ἄζιλις. Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) Bibliography Editions: 1 A. S. Hollis, Callimachus. Hekale, 1990 2 R. P…

Salutatio

(446 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] ('Greeting'). The morning reception allowed clients ( cliens, clientes ) to pay their respects to their patronus , and to receive advice (Hor. Epist. 2,1,102) and support, e.g. money ( sportula ). It took place during the first two hours of the morning (Mart. 4,8); the client ( salutator) had to attend in toga (Juv. 3,126 f.); hence Martial (3,46,1) calls the clients' duties the togata opera. The visitors gathered in the vestibulum or atrium of the house of their patronus and awaited admission (Hor. Epist. 1,5,31). Friends and prominent individuals were grant…

Salutius

(4 words)

see Secundus

Salvianus

(171 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
Roman cognomen, extension of Salvius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] S. of Massilia Christian theologian at Massilia, died after 465 (modern Marseille), probably born after AD 400 at Trier, evidence of his presence on the Lérins Islands, married, later ascetic, wrote the treatise Ad Ecclesiam (‘To the Church’; Pseudepigraphy [II]) after 435, exhortating all Christians to donate all inheritance for ascetic reasons for the work of the church. S. then lived at Marseille as a priest until his death (after c. 465), there composing De gubernatione Dei (‘The Government…

Salvidienus

(396 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italian nomen gentile, derived from Salvidius. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Q. S. Rufus Salvius Before Agrippa, Octavian's principal commander (second cognomen indication of adoption or standardized form of S.? [1. 375]), Roman knight (Vell. Pat. 2,76,4; legendary Cass. Dio 48,33,2), friend of the young Octavian (Augustus [1]) and his principal commander before Agrippa. S., then possibly an officer in Caesar's army [1. 398], was in Apollonia with Octavian in 45-44 BC and was his adviser after Caesar's d…

Salvium

(142 words)

Author(s): Cabanes, Pierre (Clermont-Ferrand)
[German version] City in the territory of the Dalmatae (CIL XIII 6538; 14249,2: S. [1. 121]; Ptol. 2,17,9: Σαλουία/Salouía; It. Ant. 269,4: Salviae). After the Roman conquest in AD 6-9, it was in the province of Dalmatia on the Salona - Servitium road, modern Podgradina near Glamoc̆polje or Halapić (in Bosnia). Municipium from the time of Hadrianus onwards (CIL XIII 6538). Cult of Silvanus Silvestris (CIL XIII 13985; cf. [2]). Cabanes, Pierre (Clermont-Ferrand) Bibliography 1 C. Patsch, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der römischen Provinz Dalmatia, in: Wissenschaftli…

Salvius

(1,168 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Common given name of Oscan or Umbrian origin not used by the Roman upper class (abbreviated in inscriptions as Sa. or Sal.), later appears as a nomen gentile; also a slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Era [German version] [I 1] Slave leader (Slave leader) see Tryphon [2]. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] Centurion named only by Plutarch as one of Pompeius' murderers Centurion named only in Plut. Pompeius 78,1 and 79,4 as one of Pompey's murderers. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 3] Freedman and probable agent of Caesar Freedman probably active as …

Samara

(101 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] River in Picardy (France), modern Somme, rises north-east of St. Quentin and flows into the mare Britannicum (English Channel) at Abbeville. The form S. itself is not attested but reconstructed from the name of the city Samarobriva. Other forms of the name: Sambra (Not. Dign. Occ. 38,8: classis Sambrica), Somena (Ven. Fort. 7,4,15), Sumena (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,9), Sumina, Sumna, Summana ( cf. [1. 1335 f.]). In Not. Dign. Occ. loc. cit., the modern Somme is referred to as Sambra [2]; in Ptol. 2,9,2, the river is called Φροῦδις/ Phroûdis. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliog…

Samaria, Samaritans

(1,265 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin) | Zangenberg, Jürgen
[German version] I. Samaria (Hebrew Šomron, LXX Σαμάρεια/ Samáreia), seat of government of the kings of the Northern Kingdom of Israel from the reign of Omri (882-871 BC; Judah and Israel). The newly-founded city, whose name (root šmr, 'to guard, protect; watch-tower') refers to its strategic location, was not, as is often assumed, a Canaanite city-state alongside Jezreel as the Israelite centre. S. was the Israelite royal seat, and Jezreel a royal demesne. As is evident from Assyrian and OT texts, the rulers of S. were compelled to deliver tribute to the Assyrians b…

Samaria ware

(111 words)

Author(s): Docter, Roald Fritjof (Amsterdam)
[German version] Modern technical term for typical Iron Age luxury crockery of the Phoenician Levant. The name is taken from the unusual finding place of Samaria. SW keeled bowls and dishes, which had very thin walls, were produced in mould dishes and engraved with lines. Red slip painting (Red slip ware) was usually combined with a blanked area. Finds of SW on Cyprus, in Carthage and in southern Spain mark the earliest horizon of Phoenician western expansion. There are local adaptations of SW in Carthage. Phoenicians Docter, Roald Fritjof (Amsterdam) Bibliography P. Bikai, The Pott…

Samaritan

(200 words)

Author(s): Müller-Kessler, Christa (Emskirchen)
[German version] Special form of Hebrew, in which the Samaritans (Samaria) wrote the Pentateuch and a revised version of the book of Joshua. The Samaritan Pentateuch, which is distinguished from the Masoretic Hebrew text by orthographic variants and religiously based textual changes, was earlier occasionally considered to represent a more original version; yet proto-Samaritan Hebrew text versions have been found in Qumran. The texts from Qumran - which are, with the exception of the Masada Fragmen…

Samarkand

(4 words)

see Maracanda

Samarobriva

(526 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Gallia/Gaul Principal town of the civitas of the Ambiani, Late Antique Ambianis, modern Amiens (Dépt. Somme) at a crossing ( -briva) over the Samara (Caes. B Gall. 5,24,1; 47,2; 53,3; Cic. Fam. 7,11,2; 12,1,16; Tab. Peut. 2,3; CIL XIII 3490; Notae Tironianae 73 Zangenmeister; Honorius, Cosmographia 36 B1 Riese; in Ptol. 2,9,4 alternatively: Σαμαρόβριγα/ Samaróbriga; ILS 5839; It. Ant. 379,9 f.; 380,1: Samarabriva). No evidence of a preceding Celtic settlement has been found [1]. Its geographical charact…

Samarra

(509 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
[German version] ( Sāmarrā; Theophanes Continuatus 3,36: Σάμαρα/ Sámara). Area of ruins of c. 60 km2 and modern town on the left bank of the Tigris, 100 km north of Baghdad (cf. map). At this site, known since the neo-Assyrian Period (Mesopotamia III D), the emperor Julian [11] the Apostate fell in AD 363 in battle against the Sassanids. It was in this area, mainly inhabited by Nestorians (Nestorius), that the Nahrawān canal, dug in the time of Chosroes [5] Anushirvan (period of rule 531-579) began, which be…

Samaš

(5 words)

see Sun god

Samaš-šuma-ukīn

(4 words)

see Saosduchinus

Sambation

(177 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] (also Sanbation or Sabbation; Greek Σαββατικός/ Sabbatikós, Jos. BI 7,5). Mythical river, behind which the ten tribes of Israel (Judah and Israel) were said to have been exiled by the Assyrian king Salmanassar. According to Jewish legend, this river had the miraculous property of resting on the Sabbath, while on all other days its current was so strong that it hurled stones (among others, BerR 11,5; cf. already Plin. HN 31,24). Iosephus [4] Flavius describes the river, which according t…

Sambethe

(259 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (Σαμβήθη/ Sambḗthē or Σάββη/ Sábbē). Name, probably derived from Hebrew šabbat (Sabbath) [7. 622 ff.], of the Jewish Sibyl, who can be identified with the Egyptian, Persian and Babylonian Sibyls [2. 317 ff.]. A Sabbe is first recorded in Pausanias' [8] list of four Sibyls ( c. AD 160) (Paus. 10,12,1-9), drawing on Alexander [23] Polyhistor. She can be identified with a prophetess known as a 'Noah's daughter' in Or. Sib. 3,823 ff., Or. Sib. prooemium 33 and Or. Sib.  1,289. The 12 books of the Oracula Sibyllina, pseudepigraphic apocalyptic literature (Apocalypse…

Sambra

(132 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] River in Gallia Belgica River in Gallia Belgica, mentioned in ancient saints' legends (e.g., MGH Scriptorum rerum Merovingiorum 5,634,12; 5,643,12; details in [1. 1338]), modern Sambre, rising on the western edge of the Ardennes and flowing into the Mosa [1] (Meuse/Maas) near Namur. Identification with the Sabis [1] (Caes. B Gall. 2,16,1; 2,18) is uncertain. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 Holder. [German version] [2] Modern Somme Besides the modern Sambre (= S. [1]), the Samara was also called the S.  (cf. Not. Dign. Occ. 38,8). T…

Sambus

(143 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] [1] Tributary of the Ganges (Σάμβος/ Sámbos). Tributary of the Ganges (Arr. Ind. 4,4: Megasthenes), possibly identical to the Sarabus (Ptol. 7,1,29; 2,13) corresponding to the Sarayū (Agoranis). Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) [German version] [2] Indian king, 4th cent. BC (Σάμβος/ Sámbos in Arr. Anab. 6,16,3 f., Σάβος/ Sábos in Diod. Sic. 17,102,6 f. and Str. 15,1,33, Σάββας/ Sábbas in Plut. Alexander 64, Sambus in Curt. 9,8,13 and 9,8,17, Ambus in Just. Epit. 12,10, etc.). Indian king; his kingdom, with its capital at Sindimana, lay in the mountain …

Sambyke

(17 words)

[German version] [1] Harp (harp) see Musical instruments [German version] [2] Drawbridge (drawbridge) see Siegecraft

Same

(156 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) (Σάμη/ Sámē). In Homer, an island in Odysseus' kingdom (name forms: Sámos, Hom. Il. 2,634; Sámē is more recent, Hom. Od. 1,246); in the historical period, a city in the east of the island of Cephallenia, modern Sami. In 223/2 BC, an Aetolian colony was dispatched to S. (IG IX 12,1, 2); In 189 BC, S. was besieged and destroyed by Fulvius [I 15]  (Liv. 37,50,5; 38,28,5-30,1). Quite recent excavations and (to some extent unpublished Latin) inscriptio…

Samī

(104 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Site of ruins high in the Baḫtiyiārī Mountains (in Iran), c. 25 km north of the city of Īẕe (Malāmīr), in ancient Elymais. Among the numerous Hellenistic marble and bronze fragments found in a sanctuary, a bronze statue, somewhat over life size and almost completely preserved, is particularly noteworthy: it is as yet the only surviving large-scale representation in three dimensions of an Arsacid dignitary (prince?) (2nd cent. AD). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography 1 V.S. Curtis, The Parthian Costume and Headdress, in: J. Wiesehöfer (ed.), Das Partherreic…

Samian Ware

(74 words)

Author(s): Hawkes, Jason
[German version] British term for terra sigillata, a distinctive type of Roman ceramic identified from its pinkish or orange fabric, and characteristic smooth red slipped surface. It was once thought to have originated from the island of Samos, hence the term ‘Samian’, which remains in British usage. Hawkes, Jason Bibliography 1 G. de la Bedoyere, Samian Ware, 1988 2 C. Johns, Arretine and Samian Pottery, 1971 3 P. Webster, Roman Samian Pottery in Britain, 1996

Samia vasa

(60 words)

Author(s): Willers, Dietrich (Berne)
[German version] ('Samian vases'). Clay pots known only from Latin literature (Plaut. Bacch. 202; Plaut. Capt. 291; Cic. Rep. 6,2,2; Tib. 2,3,47; Isid. Orig. 20,3,4.6). Their shape is unknown, so they can not be correlated with pots of surviving Roman ceramics. The clay was high-fired and sherds were sharp; SV were used in sacral and profane contexts. Willers, Dietrich (Berne)

Samicum

(222 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Σαμικόν; Samikón). The biggest fort of Triphylia (western Peloponnese) on the western foothills of Mount Kaiapha, between the modern Agoulinitsa lagoon in the north and lake Kaiapha in the south. This is the location of a cave of the Anigriades [4], spring nymphs of the former river Anigrus ( cf. [2]) with sulphur springs (Str. 8,3,19; Paus. 5,5,11; Schol. Hom. Il. 11,721). Sources: Paus. 5,6,1-3; Pol. 4,77,9; 80,12; Str. 8,3,13; 19 f.; 27. The form Sámos is only attested in Str. 8,3,20 and Schol. Hom. Il. 13,13. S. was probably built by the Eleans in …

Samius

(121 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Σάμιος/ Sámios), also Samus (Σᾶμος/ Sâmos). Epigrammatist of the 'Garland of Meleager' (Anth. Pal. 4,1,14), son of Chrysogonus and contemporary of Philip [7] V of Macedonia (Pol. 5,9,4), who condemned him to death (Pol. 23,10,8-10) perhaps because of his criticism (Plut. Mor. 53e). A poem about Philip V dedicating to Heracles the hide and horns of a bull survives (Anth. Pal. 6,116); a variant (ibid. 6,114) on the same theme can probably also be ascribed to him (the attribution to Simi…

Sammael

(188 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Hebrew Sammāel). Negative angel figure in Jewish tradition, often identified with Satan. S. is mentioned for the first time in Ethiopic Henoch 6, where he is one of a group of angels that rebels against God (cf. the name Σαμμανή/ Sammanḗ or Σαμιήλ/ Samiḗl in the Greek version). According to Greek Baruch 4,9, he planted the vine that led to the fall of Adam; S. was therefore cursed and became Satan. In the 'Ascension of Isaiah', S. is identified with the figure of Beliar (4,11). Rabbinical literature represents S. in the s…

Sammai, Shammai

(150 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] ( c. 50 BC-AD 30). Significant representative of Pharisaic Judaism (Pharisaei). Š. figures in the traditional rabbinical chain from the revelation of the Torah of Moses (Pentateuch) to the 'Five Pairs' ( zugot; cf. mAvot 1,15); his counterpart is Hillel, to whom Š. is opposed in a cliché fashion in rabbinical literature: in questions of law, whereas Hillel made rather lenient decisions, Š. is characterized by strictness and rigour (cf. bShab 31a). Rabbinical tradition sees Š. as the founder of a school of scholars (Hebrew bēt-Šammai) that is likewise contrasted wi…
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