Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Sambus

(143 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] [1] Tributary of the Ganges (Σάμβος/ Sámbos). Tributary of the Ganges (Arr. Ind. 4,4: Megasthenes), possibly identical to the Sarabus (Ptol. 7,1,29; 2,13) corresponding to the Sarayū (Agoranis). Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) [German version] [2] Indian king, 4th cent. BC (Σάμβος/ Sámbos in Arr. Anab. 6,16,3 f., Σάβος/ Sábos in Diod. Sic. 17,102,6 f. and Str. 15,1,33, Σάββας/ Sábbas in Plut. Alexander 64, Sambus in Curt. 9,8,13 and 9,8,17, Ambus in Just. Epit. 12,10, etc.). Indian king; his kingdom, with its capital at Sindimana, lay in the mountain …

Sambyke

(17 words)

[German version] [1] Harp (harp) see Musical instruments [German version] [2] Drawbridge (drawbridge) see Siegecraft

Same

(156 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) (Σάμη/ Sámē). In Homer, an island in Odysseus' kingdom (name forms: Sámos, Hom. Il. 2,634; Sámē is more recent, Hom. Od. 1,246); in the historical period, a city in the east of the island of Cephallenia, modern Sami. In 223/2 BC, an Aetolian colony was dispatched to S. (IG IX 12,1, 2); In 189 BC, S. was besieged and destroyed by Fulvius [I 15]  (Liv. 37,50,5; 38,28,5-30,1). Quite recent excavations and (to some extent unpublished Latin) inscriptio…

Samī

(104 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Site of ruins high in the Baḫtiyiārī Mountains (in Iran), c. 25 km north of the city of Īẕe (Malāmīr), in ancient Elymais. Among the numerous Hellenistic marble and bronze fragments found in a sanctuary, a bronze statue, somewhat over life size and almost completely preserved, is particularly noteworthy: it is as yet the only surviving large-scale representation in three dimensions of an Arsacid dignitary (prince?) (2nd cent. AD). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography 1 V.S. Curtis, The Parthian Costume and Headdress, in: J. Wiesehöfer (ed.), Das Partherreic…

Samian Ware

(74 words)

Author(s): Hawkes, Jason
[German version] British term for terra sigillata, a distinctive type of Roman ceramic identified from its pinkish or orange fabric, and characteristic smooth red slipped surface. It was once thought to have originated from the island of Samos, hence the term ‘Samian’, which remains in British usage. Hawkes, Jason Bibliography 1 G. de la Bedoyere, Samian Ware, 1988 2 C. Johns, Arretine and Samian Pottery, 1971 3 P. Webster, Roman Samian Pottery in Britain, 1996

Samia vasa

(60 words)

Author(s): Willers, Dietrich (Berne)
[German version] ('Samian vases'). Clay pots known only from Latin literature (Plaut. Bacch. 202; Plaut. Capt. 291; Cic. Rep. 6,2,2; Tib. 2,3,47; Isid. Orig. 20,3,4.6). Their shape is unknown, so they can not be correlated with pots of surviving Roman ceramics. The clay was high-fired and sherds were sharp; SV were used in sacral and profane contexts. Willers, Dietrich (Berne)

Samicum

(222 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Σαμικόν; Samikón). The biggest fort of Triphylia (western Peloponnese) on the western foothills of Mount Kaiapha, between the modern Agoulinitsa lagoon in the north and lake Kaiapha in the south. This is the location of a cave of the Anigriades [4], spring nymphs of the former river Anigrus ( cf. [2]) with sulphur springs (Str. 8,3,19; Paus. 5,5,11; Schol. Hom. Il. 11,721). Sources: Paus. 5,6,1-3; Pol. 4,77,9; 80,12; Str. 8,3,13; 19 f.; 27. The form Sámos is only attested in Str. 8,3,20 and Schol. Hom. Il. 13,13. S. was probably built by the Eleans in …

Samius

(121 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Σάμιος/ Sámios), also Samus (Σᾶμος/ Sâmos). Epigrammatist of the 'Garland of Meleager' (Anth. Pal. 4,1,14), son of Chrysogonus and contemporary of Philip [7] V of Macedonia (Pol. 5,9,4), who condemned him to death (Pol. 23,10,8-10) perhaps because of his criticism (Plut. Mor. 53e). A poem about Philip V dedicating to Heracles the hide and horns of a bull survives (Anth. Pal. 6,116); a variant (ibid. 6,114) on the same theme can probably also be ascribed to him (the attribution to Simi…

Sammael

(188 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Hebrew Sammāel). Negative angel figure in Jewish tradition, often identified with Satan. S. is mentioned for the first time in Ethiopic Henoch 6, where he is one of a group of angels that rebels against God (cf. the name Σαμμανή/ Sammanḗ or Σαμιήλ/ Samiḗl in the Greek version). According to Greek Baruch 4,9, he planted the vine that led to the fall of Adam; S. was therefore cursed and became Satan. In the 'Ascension of Isaiah', S. is identified with the figure of Beliar (4,11). Rabbinical literature represents S. in the s…

Sammai, Shammai

(150 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] ( c. 50 BC-AD 30). Significant representative of Pharisaic Judaism (Pharisaei). Š. figures in the traditional rabbinical chain from the revelation of the Torah of Moses (Pentateuch) to the 'Five Pairs' ( zugot; cf. mAvot 1,15); his counterpart is Hillel, to whom Š. is opposed in a cliché fashion in rabbinical literature: in questions of law, whereas Hillel made rather lenient decisions, Š. is characterized by strictness and rigour (cf. bShab 31a). Rabbinical tradition sees Š. as the founder of a school of scholars (Hebrew bēt-Šammai) that is likewise contrasted wi…

Sam(m)onium

(133 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Greek: Σαμ(μ)ώνιον/ Sam(m)ṓnion). Promontory on the northeastern tip of Crete, modern Kavo Sidero. Strong winds often prevented seafarers from rounding the cape. S. served ancient authors as a fixed point of reference for geographical information and the communication of distances between the islands of the Aegean Sea (cf. Str. 2,4,3; 10,3,20; 10,4,2 f.; 10,4,5; 10,4,12; 10,5,18; Dionys. Per. 110; Mela 2,112; Plin. HN 4,58; 60 f.; 71: promunturium Samonium; Ptol. 3,17,5; Stadiasmus maris magni 318 f.; 355; Acts 27:7: Σαλμώνη/ Salmṓnē in connection with the…

Sammurammat

(4 words)

see Semiramis

Samnites, Samnium

(1,710 words)

Author(s): Vanotti, Gabriella (Novara)
[German version] I. Name, ethnos, geography The S. called their country Safinim, and themselves probably Safineis (inscriptions: Vetter 149; coins: [1. 149 f.]); the Greeks, respectively, Saunîtis (Σαυνῖτις, Pol. 3,90,7) and Saunîtai (Σαυνῖται, Philistus FGrH 556 F 41 f.; according to Fest. 436 L, derived from saúnion, 'spear'); the Romans called them S. (ILS 1). While etymologically related, these terms do not have the same geographical meaning. Common to Safineis and the ethnics Sabini and Sabelli is the Indo-European root * Sabh (cf. the god Sabus, Cato HRR fr. 50 f.).…

Samnite wars

(6 words)

see Samnites, Samnium

Samos

(1,590 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Theatre | Ionic | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Phoenicians, Poeni | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (ἡ Σάμος/ hē Sámos, Lat. also Samus). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] I. Geography Island in the southeastern Aegean Sea, only c. 2 km from the mainland of Asia Minor (at Mycale); connected in prehistoric times; total area 476 km2. The island is crossed by a chain of mountains (Ampelus according to …

Samos

(1,981 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Kienast, Hermann J.
Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Archaeological investigations on Samos (S.) date back to the 18th cent. They were initially superficial, and limited to finding and identifying the few remains still standing. As the sources provide very little in the way of concrete information, the quest at first concentrated on the monuments described by Herodotus (3,60) as the greatest structures in all Hellas: Eupalinus' tunnel, the harbour mole and the temple of Hera. The ancient …

Samosata

(191 words)

Author(s): Hausleiter, Arnulf (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Syria | Xenophon | Zenobia | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Legio | Limes | Limes | Pompeius (Σαμόσατα; Samósata), modern Samsat Hüyüğu (in Turkey), city on the northern bank of the Euphrates [2]; today submerged. A Hittite stele from S. and Assyrian sources attest the name of Kummuḫu (an Assyrian provincial town from the time of Sargon II onwards). Capital city of the Commagene under king Antiochus [16] I. Occupied in AD 72 by Vespa…

Samothrace

(1,617 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Tsochos, Charalampos (Erfurt)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Peloponnesian War | Pompeius | Education / Culture (Σαμοθράκη; Samothrákē). [German version] I. Geography and history Island (178 km2, with Mount Phengari, 1161 m) in the northern Aegean Sea, 30 km out from the Tracian coast, rich in water, with a narrow and flat beach and lacking in natural harbours. There are isolated traces of Neolithic settlements (near Karyotai and Mikro Vuni), in the Bronze Age it was occupied by Thracians. In c. 700 BC, S. was settled by Greek colonists, probably by Aeolis [1] of Lesbos, who fou…

Sampsigeramus

(184 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Σαμψιγέραμος; Sampsigéramos) [German version] [1] Prince of Emesa and Arethusa, 1st cent. BC The prince of Emesa and Arethusa (Str. 16,2,11) in Syria; was an (unfaithful) ally of Antiochus [14] XIII, whom he captured twice and killed in 64 BC (Diod. Sic. 40,1b). His good relationship with Pompeius [I 3] prompted Cicero to use his exotic Aramaic name as a nickname for Pompey (Cic. Att. 2,14,1; 16,2; 17,1-2; 23,2-3). S. was named among the princes who supported the rebellion of the Pompeian Caecilius [I 5] Bassus, which began in 46 BC (Str. 16,2,10). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) …

Samus

(159 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Σάμος/ Sámos). [German version] [1] King of Armenia, 3rd cent. BC King of Armenia first half of the 3rd cent. BC, appears among the paternal ancestors of Antiochus [16] I of Commagene as the father of king Arsames [4] (OGIS 394). S. (and not his homonymous descendant) founded Samosata, later the capital of Commagene, and Samokart in the Armenian region of Arzanene. In c. 255 BC he hosted the Bithynian prince Ziaelas. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] S. Theosebes Dicaeus (Σ. Θεοσεβὴς Δίκαιος/ S. Theosebḕs Díkaios). Great-grandson of S. [1], son of Ptolemaeus [III…
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