Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Sanatruces

(216 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Σανατρούκης/ Sanatroúkēs). [German version] [1] Parthian ruler, 1st cent. BC (Greek literary sources: Σινατρούκης/ Sinatroúkēs, Phlegon of Tralleis, fr. 12 in Photius; Σινατροκλῆς/ Sinatroklês, Ps.-Lucian, Macr. 15; or in the genitive: Σιντρίκου/ Sintríkou, App. Mithr. 104). Son of Artabanus [4] I and brother of Mithridates [13] II, Gotarzes I and Orodes [1] I. In 78/7 BC, in his 80th year, S. was elevated to the Parthian throne by the Sacaraucae and ruled a further 7 years (Ps.-Lucian, Macr. 15). In the conflict between Mith…

Sanbulus

(110 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] According to Tac. Ann. 12,13,3 the place where Gotarzes II defeated Mithridates [15], his anti-king sent by Rome; it is also mentioned that the last battle between Alexander [4] the Great and Darius [3] III was fought in the same place. Reference is made to a fortress near Nineveh (Ninus [2]). S. is a mountain on which Gotarzes sacrificed to Hercules and is presumably close to the field of battle. S. has to date not been identified. Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) Bibliography P. Bernard, Heracles, les grottes de Karafto et le sanctuaire du Mont Sambulos en Ira…

Sanchuniathon

(318 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
[German version] (Σαγχουνιάθω/ Sanchouniáthō; Phoenician sknytn, 'Sakon has given'). Phoenician and source for Herennius Philo of Byblus (= P.), who used him for his Phoenician History (Euseb.: Φοινικικὴ Ἱστορία/ Phoinikikḕ Historía; Iohannes Lydus, Steph. Byz.: τὰ Φοινικικά), of which we know only through references in Eusebius [7] (Euseb. Praep. evang. 1,9,20-21; 10,9,12 ff. Mras = FGrH 790). S. is said to have lived at Beirut (Berytus, according to the Suda), Tyrus or Sidon (Ath. 3,100) even 'before the Trojan War', and h…

Sanctio

(163 words)

Author(s): Ebner, Constanze (Innsbruck)
[German version] (from Latin sancire: 'to consecrate', 'render inviolable'), originally in the sacral sense: confirmation by oath of a treaty ( foedus ... sanciendum, Liv. 1,24,6); in the context of a lex ('law'), sanctio means the totality of clauses to ensure implementation (Cic. Att. 3,23,2-3), then generally legal consequence, esp. of prohibitory laws, esp. penalty. The categorization of leges (Ulp. Reg. 1-2, v. here lex, leges D.1.) according to the type of sanctio into leges imperfectae (without sanctio), minus quam perfectae (penalty only) and perfectae (act declared nul…

Sanctuaries

(1,134 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen) | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
[German version] I. General The word 'sanctuary' is derived, like the French sanctuaire, Italian santuario, etc., from the Latin sanctus ('set off'). On the other hand, the German collective term for a wide variety of types of cult places, Heiligtum, traces back to the Germanic adjective * heila-, * heilu- ('whole', 'complete') [1. 78]. In 20th-cent. German-language scholarship of religion, the German term eventually came to be used synonymously with the above-mentioned terms derived from sanctus. This is connected with, among other things, the archaeological and lite…

Sanctus

(392 words)

Author(s): Wardle, David (Cape Town)
[German version] (originally the perfect passive participle of the Lat. verb sancire, 'dedicate, make inviolable'). Sanctus is not identical with sacer , but the use of sanctior as the comparative of sacer and the formation of the compound sacrosanctus point to a connexion going back to the Indo-European *sak- ('endowed with existence'). Three phases of the ancient use of sanctus and the substantive sanctitas can be identified. 1. Sanctus qualifies things, places or offices defined or safeguarded in their existence, usually in a law, by a sanctio  (e.g., walls, …

Sancus

(371 words)

Author(s): Elm, Dorothee
[German version] Semo S. Dius Fidius (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,58,4; CIL VI 30994), also called Dius Fidius, S. or Semo S. A god of mysterious origin and nature, assumed to be of Sabine extraction (Ov. Fast. 6,213-18; Varro, Ling. 5,66). The name S. (also transmitted as Sanctus) is derived from Latin sancire, 'to make steadfast, fix' (but it is also explained as the Sabine word for 'heaven': Lydus, Mens. 4,90; [4. 116]). Semo is of unknown derivation, but is associated with semen ('seed') and understood to indicate a god of sowing ([3] contra [2. 204]). The god, along with Salus Semonia …

Sandalphon

(187 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Hebrew sandālfōn). Name of one of the most important angels in rabbinic angelology. S.'s size spans from earth into the heavenly realm and he surmounts his angel companions by 500 years 'while making wreaths for his creator' (bHag 13b with the interpretation of Ez 1:15; PesR 20 [97a]). Related traditions identified these wreaths with the prayers of Israel that S. presents to God (Bet ha-Midrasch 2,26 Jellinek). It is highly probably that his name is derived from the Greek συνάδελφος/ synádelphos, 'fellow brother' (in the community of angels or specifically o…

Sandals

(579 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (πέδιλον/ pédilon, σανδάλον, -ιον/ sandálon, -ion; Lat. sandalion, solea, all usually plur). Sandals (soles attached with straps to the feet and reaching up to the ankles or just above) were certainly the most common ancient footwear and were made in various variations. Greek sandals were tied with thin laces up to the ankles [2. 270, fig. 5]; only in the Roman Imperial Period did there emerge ribbon-like leather straps, crossing or running diagonally over the foot. The straps were often …

Sandhi

(887 words)

Author(s): Haebler, Claus (Münster)
[German version] The Indian word sandhi- (masc.) 'putting together, linking', a term used by Indian grammarians, was adopted by European linguistics in the middle of the 19th cent. in view of the lack of a corresponding term from Classical Antiquity. It describes (1) the 'coming together' of word-final phonemes with word-initial phonemes, esp. of words in a syntactic relationship (hence also the term 'sentence phonetics'), and also words occurring as members of nominal and verbal compounds; (2) (m…

Sandon

(334 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Σάνδων/ Sándōn, also Σάνδας/ Sándas, Σάνδης/ Sándēs, Lat. Sandan) was probably originally a Luwian god of weather and vegetation with characteristics of a war god and, to a lesser extent, of a sun god. In the Zarpiya ritual of Kizzuwatna in southeastern Asia Minor (KUB IX 31 II 22 f.; [7. 141; 8. 340]) he appears as d ša-an-ta-aš- LUGAL-uš, 'king Šantaš'. He is identified with Marduk, written ideographically as d AMAR.UD. A rock relief at Ivriz on the northern slopes of the Taurus (7th/6th cent. BC [6. 331; 1. 21] contains a pictorial representat…

Sandracottus

(181 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Arr. Anab. 5,6,2: Σανδράκοττος/ Sandrákottos, Str. 15,1,36: Σανδρόκοττος/ Sandrókottos, Plut. Alexander 62: Ἀνδράκοττος/ Andrákottos, Just. Epit. 15,4: Sandracottus, Old Indo-Iranian Tschandragupta). Indian king ( c. 320-298 BC) of the Mauryan Dynasty, king of the Prasii and founder of the Mauryan Empire (Mauryas with map). In Indian sources, his life is connected with legends, and parts of a S. legend are also found in Justin (15,4). He concluded a peace with Seleucus following a conflict of which no d…

Sane

(205 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Σάνη/ Sánē). [German version] [1] Colony of Andros This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Persian Wars | Delian League Colony of Andros on the south side of the isthmus of the Chalcidian Acte (Chalcidice) at the end of the canal built by Xerxes (Hdt. 7,22 f.; 123). As a member of the Delian League, S. paid on average one talent a year in the 5th cent. BC (ATL 1,396 f.). In 432 BC, at the onset of the Peloponnesian War, S. remained on Athens' side and in the winter of 424/423 resisted the attack b…

Sangala

(66 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Alexander | Graeco-Bactria (Σάγγαλα/ Sángala). Capital and fortress of the Indian Cathaei in the Punjab, to the east of Hydraotes (modern Irāvatī). The city was conquered and destroyed in 326 by Alexander [II 4] the Great after a fierce battle (Arr. Anab. 5,22-24; Polyaenus, Strat. 4,3,30). Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography A. Herrmann, s. v. Σάγγαλα, RE 1 A, 1740.

Sangarius

(233 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Σαγγάριος/ Sangários). River in Asia Minor, modern Sakarya, c. 520 km long, source (according to Str. 12,3,7; cf. 12,4,4; 5,3) 150 stadia from Pessinus (according to Liv. 38,18,8 at mons Adoreus) in Phrygia (Phryges). The headwaters of the upper course collect the water of the Phrygian highlands. In the prehistoric era, the southern river system of the S. was more significant; it carried away the precipitation from the area around Ilgın in the south to Yunak and today has left evidence of itself in a heavily…

San Giovenale

(213 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] Swedish excavations, 1956-1967, uncovered large sections of an Etruscan settlement on a high plateau at the confluence of two water courses in the northeastern foothills of the Tolfa Mountains. The floor plans of houses from three settlement phases are important for the study of the architecture of archaic Etruscan houses (cf. House [II C]): a late Bronze Age hut settlement with timber-framed buildings smaller than the long houses in Luni sul Mignone was located under the courtyar…

Sanhedrin

(4 words)

see Synhedrion

San Marco: Horses/Quadriga

(1,360 words)

Author(s): Schweizer, Stefan (Kassel RWG)
Schweizer, Stefan (Kassel RWG) [German version] A. Horses of San Marco (CT) The four bronze horses of San Marco, originally gilded, constitute the only known example of a free-standing quadriga from Antiquity. Stolen from Constantinople by Venetian mercenary soldiers in 1204, during the Fourth Crusade under the Doge E. Dandolo, the group of horses was set up soon after the mid-13th cent. on a terrace fronting the square above the portal area of the San Marco Basilica, where it is documented by a mosaic in t…

Sanni

(34 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Σάννοι; Sánnoi). In Str. 12,3,18 a term for the tribe formerly called Macrones, to the southwest of Trapezus. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography O. Lordkipanidze, Das alte Georgien in Strabons Geographie, 1996, 158-163.

Sannyrion

(126 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Σαννυρίων/ Sannyríōn). Attic comedic poet of the end of the 5th cent. BC, mocked by his competitors for his skinniness [1. test. 3]. The titles of three plays and 13 fragments with a total of eight and a half verses have been handed down: the Γέλως ( Gélōs, 'Laughter') featured a talking god (fr. 1) and mocked the tragedian Meletus [3] (fr. 2) and Aristophanes [3] (fr. 5); in the Δανάη ( Danáē), dated to 407-404 BC, Zeus considers what shape would be best for him to get to his Danae and in the process makes fun of the tragedic actor Hegelochus (fr. 8); the Ἰώ ( Iṓ), also on a mythical…
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