Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Sabinius Barbarus

(70 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] T. Sabinius Barbarus. Praetorian legate (of the legio III Augusta?) in Africa in AD 116/7 [1. 361 f.], cos. suff. in 118. Not to be identified with a Barbarus who is called ὑπατικός/ hypatikós (Latin consul) in IGR IV 494; cf. Syme, RP 3, 1303; PIR2 B 46. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 W. Eck, Jahres- und Provinzialfasten der senatorischen Statthalter von 69/70 bis 138/139, in: Chiron 12, 1982, 281-362.

Sabinum

(239 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Country estate of the poet Horace (Horatius [7], cf. Hor. Carm. 2,18,14; Hor. Epist. 1,16), probably a gift from Maecenas [2] (Hor. Sat. 2,3,305 ff.). It was located in the territory of the Sabini on the stream Digentia (Hor. Epist. 1,18,104; present-day Licenza), a right tributary of the Anio, north of Varia (present-day Vicovaro) from where the estate obtained agrarian products (Hor. Carm. 1,20,1; 22,9; 2,18,14; 3,1,47; 4,22; Hor. Sat. 2,7,118), above the village of Mandela (Hor…

Sabinus

(1,149 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] A. Greek (Σαβῖνος; Sabînos) [German version] [1] Hippocratic physician and commentator on Hippocrates, 1st-2nd cent. AD Hippocratic physician and commentator on Hippocrates, who was active in the 1st to 2nd cent. AD. He was the teacher of Metrodorus [8] and Stratonicus, who in turn was the teacher of Galen; the latter regarded S. as a more careful and concise interpreter of Hippocrates [6] than his predecessors had been (CMG 5,10,2,1, p. 17, 329-330; 5,10,2,2, p. 510). S.' weakness lay mainly in …

Sabis

(253 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] River in northern Gaul River in northern Gaul (Caes. B Gall. 2,16,1; 2,18), where in 57 BC Caesar fought against the Nervii and their allies, the Atrebates [1] and Viromandui ( ibid. 2,16-27), on his way from Samarobriva. The river's identification and location are contested. Older scholarship identified the S. with the Sambra [1] (modern Sambre), suggesting that the battle took place 6 km outside of Maubeuge near Hautmont-Boussières [1; 2]. Recently these claims have been countered by topological, historica…

Saboraeans

(71 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] (from Hebrew śābar, 'consider', 'verify', 'reason' ). Term for those Jewish Talmud scholars of the 6th/7th cents. AD who carried out the final editing of the Babylonian Talmud (Rabbinical literature) and copiously amplified it with more extensive chapters. The Saboraeans followed the Tannaites (late 1st - early 3rd cents. AD) and the Amoraim (3rd-5th cents. AD). Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) Bibliography G. Stemberger, Einleitung in Talmud und Midrasch, 81992, 205-207.

Sabouroff Painter

(274 words)

Author(s): Oakley, John H. (Williamsburg, VA)
[German version] Attic red-figure vase painter, named after the former owner of one of his lébētes gamikoí ( lébēs [2]) in Berlin, SM (F 2404). The SP, a productive artist to whom well over 330 vases are ascribed, worked in various workshops. Early in his career (470-460 BC) and in a transitional period (460-455), he was primarily a bowl painter, connected to the workshops of the Brygus Painter, Duris [2] and the Penthesilea Painter. Through most of his middle period (455-440), he decorated red-figured Nolan amphorae, pelikes and lekythoi (Pottery, shapes and types of, figs. A5, …

Sabratha

(497 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Colonization | Limes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars (Neo-Punic Ṣbrt[]n). [German version] I. History One of the three Phoenician cities of African Tripolis, 65 km west of Tripoli, Libya (Ps.-Scyl. 110 and Str. 17,3,18: Ἀβρότονον/ Abrótonon (?); Steph. Byz. s. v. Ἀβρότονον (?); Plin. HN 5,25; 35: Sabrata; 27: Habrotonum; Sil. Pun. 3,256: S.; Ptol. 4,3,12: Σάβραθα/ Sábratha; Stadiasmus maris magni 99 f.: Σαράθρα/ Saráthra or Ἀλάθρα/ Aláthra; It. Ant. 61,3: Sabrata colonia; Solin. 27,8 and Tab. Peut. 7,2: Sabrat…

Sabrina

(60 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] River rising in Mid-Wales and flowing into the Bristol Channel (Tac. Ann. 12,31; Ptol. 2,3,3), modern Severn. Its valley played an important role in the period of the Roman conquest, with legionary bases at Glevum and Viroconium (modern Wroxeter). Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain, 1979, 450 f.

Sabucius

(73 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] C. S. Maior Caecilianus. Senator; after the praetorship, he took six praetorian offices, including the office of a praef. aerarii militaris, of a praetorian imperial governor of Gallia Belgica shortly after AD 180, and of a procos. of Achaia. C os. suff. in 186 (RMD 1, 69). His grandson, C. S. Maior Faustinus, also had senatorial rank (CIL VI 1510 = ILS 1123a). PIR S 34. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Saburra

(69 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] ( Saborra). Military commander of Juba [1] of Numidia, in 49 BC he helped to bring about the defeat of Caesar's governor C. Scribonius Curio, but was himself defeated and killed in 46 by the Caesarean P. Sittius (Caes. B Civ. 2,38-42; Bell. Afr. 48,1; 93,3; 95,1; App. B Civ. 2,181-186; 4,232; Frontin. Str. 2,5,40). For reasons of metre, Lucan (4,722) wrote Sabbura. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Sacadas

(194 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle)
[German version] (Σακάδας; Sakádas). Poet and famous aulos player from Argos. He participated in the second organisation ( katástasis) of music in Sparta (Plut. Mor. 1134bc) and won the Pythian agṓn (Pythia [2]) three times in a row from 586 BC in Delphi, when solo performances of the aulos were introduced there (Paus. 10,7,3-5; 6,14,10; cf. Musical instruments V.B.1.). His winning piece, which described Apollo's fight with the dragon in five parts, became known as the ‘Pythian nomos’ (Nomos [3]; ibid. 2,22,8; [1]). S. also wrote elegiac verses (Plut. Mor. 1134a), a nomos for choir in …

Sacae

(338 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Σάκαι/ Sákai, Σάκκαι/ Sákkai: different variants of the name, e.g., in Aristoph. Av. 31; Xen. Cyr. 8,3,25-32; 8,3,35-50; Hdt. 7,64; Sacae: Plin. HN 6,50, among others). Derived from the Persian name for the nomads of central Asia, possibly called after the tribal group's name for itself. For Str. 11,8,2, “most of the Scythians” east of the Caspian Sea are S. According to the ancient Persian inscriptions, there were several leagues, the Sakā haumavargā (= Σκύθαι Ἀμύργιοι/ Skýthai Amýrgioi, approximately ‘haoma-drinking S.’) and the Sakā tigraḫaudā (Σκύθαι Ὀρθοκορ…

Sacaraucae

(212 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Σακαραῦκαι/ Sakaraûkai; on the name [2. 68]). A people originally living on the borders of Transoxiana, regarded by Str. 11,8,2 ( cf. Just. Epit. prol. 41), together with the Asii, Pasiani and Tochari, among the conquerors of Bactria (in the 2nd cent. BC). After Parthian kings had already been forced at the end of the 2nd cent. BC into conflict with nomadic peoples on the eastern border of the empire, in 78/77 BC the S. even succeeded in placing Sanatruces [1] on the Parthian throne, an Arsacid acce…

Sacastane

(149 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques (Liege)
[German version] (Σακαστανή/ Sakastanḗ: Isidorus of Charax, Stathmoí Parthikoí 18 = GGM 1,253). The land on the middle course of the Etymander (Helmand), between Arachosia and Drangiana, occupied since the 2nd cent. BC by Sacae, also called Paraetacene by Isidorus of Charax. When the Indo-Parthian king Gondophares conquered the Indian land of the Saces, it appears that he also occupied Arachosia and Sacastane. Ardašīr (Ardashir [1] I), the first Sassanid king (224-241), conquered the land of Sacast…

Saccarius

(206 words)

Author(s): Konen, Heinrich (Regensburg)
[German version] The Latin word saccarius describes both the sack-makers and traders in sacks as well as the dockworkers who were responsible for the loading and unloading of cargo ships in the ports (Dig. 18,1,40,3); besides saccarii, the terms baiuli and geruli are also commonly found in the literary tradition (in Greek σακκοφόροι/ sakkophóroi and φορτηγοί/ phortēgoí ('porter')). In various towns the saccarii set up collegia ( C ollegium [1]) or corpora (ILS 7292); the phalangarii or falancarii, who had specialised in transporting amphorae and barrels, were probably cl…

Saccharon

(239 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] (σάκχαρον/ sákcharon, Lat. sacc[ h] aron). Sugar obtained from the pith of sugarcane, a plant not native to the Mediterranean region. The Greeks first came to know of sugarcane and its sweet juice with the Indian campaign of Alexander [II 4] (Str. 15,1,20; Theophr. Hist. pl. 3,15,5). Sugar does not appear to have reached the Mediterranean region in crystalline form before the beginning of the 1st cent. AD, when direct sea trade from Egypt to India got under way (Peripl. maris Erythraei 14 Casson). In any case, the word saccharon entered the sources (Plin. HN 12,32) a…

Sacellarius

(61 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (σακελλάριος/ sakellários). From the 5th cent. AD, a chamberlain at the Roman-Byzantine imperial court (Court D), from the 8th-12th cents. the senior custodian of the state finances (last reference 1196), from 1094 sometimes called mégas logariastḗs . Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography P. Schreiner, s.v. Finanzwesen, -verwaltung (A. I.f.), LMA 4, 456  P. Magdalino, s.v. Sacellarius, ODB 3, 1828 f.

Sacellum

(117 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] (“small sanctuary”). Diminutive form of the Latin sacrum. Distinct from it was the sacrarium, the storage room for the sacred gear ( sacra supellex), which did not necessarily have to be consecrated (Consecratio). Sacellum could describe public Roman cult sites consisting of an open altar with an enclosure (Trebatius in Gell. NA 7,12,5; cf. Fest. 422 L.), as well as private sanctuaries. It had the form of a chapel, with the divine image standing in a niche ( aedicula ) in front of which the offering was made (cf. Paul. Fest. 319 L.). In everyday speech, sacellum also referred…

Sacer

(219 words)

Author(s): Rives, James B. (Toronto)
[German version] That which is withdrawn from everyday use and is given over to the gods (cf. sacrare, 'to make sacer': sacrifice [I A]). In the earliest Latin sources, the adjective sacer is used in connection with sacrificial animals (Plaut. Men. 290) and objects dedicated to a deity (CIL I2 47; 365; 396; 580). In archaic Roman law, a person guilty of certain crimes could be declared sacer. The person concerned was excluded from human society and could be killed without punishment (CIL I2 2; cf. Fest. 424 L.). Although over the course of time Roman jurists insisted that only…

Sacerdos

(465 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Rives, James B. (Toronto)
[German version] [1] Name Rare Roman cognomen (‘priest’), in the Republican period attested for the Licinii (Licinius [I 41]), in the Imperial period for Marius Plotius [II 5] Claudius S. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 319. [German version] [2] Priest (plur. sacerdotes). The second part of the Latin word is derived from the Indo-European *dhe- (cf. Greek tithénai, Lat. facere, English do): a sacerdos was thus 'someone who performed sacra '. Sacerdotes became the umbrella term for all religious functionaries, but its meaning as a tech…
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