Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Sanquinius

(119 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Q. S. Maximus. Son of a senator of the Augustan period, possibly M. Sanquinius, the Master of the Mint (RIC I 2 337; 342). S. became consul on 1 February AD 39 instead of Caligula, perhaps until the end of  June (Cass. Dio 59,13,2); at the same time he may have been a políarchos [2] ( praefectus urbi). CIL X 905 and Tac. Ann. 6,4,3 are also seen as relating to S.; in that case he would have been cos. suff. by c. 21/2, but  cos. II in 39. This reconstruction must, however, remain uncertain. In c. 46 he was legate of the army of Lower Germany; he also died there (Tac. Ann. 11,18,1). Eck, Wer…

Santoni

(210 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic tribe in southwestern Gaul (Caes. B Gall. 1,10,1; 11,6; 3,11,5; Mela 3,23; It. Ant. 459,3; Str. 4,2,1; 6,11: Σάντονοι/ Sántonoi; Ptol. 2,7,7: Σάντονες/ Sántones), in the modern Saintonge (Dépt. Charente-Maritime, partially Dépt. Charente [1]). The S. participated in the rebellion of Vercingetorix in 52 BC (Caes. B Gall. 7,75,3). Under Roman rule, they formed a civitas of the province of Aquitania (Plin. HN 4,108: S. liberi) with their capital at Mediolan(i)um [4] Santonum (Gallia, with map). Under Diocletianus, this was added to the provi…

Santra

(100 words)

Author(s): Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton)
[German version] A Roman tragic poet and scholar whose floruit should probably be dated to the mid-first century BC. As the author of biographies of literary figures, he was a predecessor of Suetonius [2] (vgl. Jer. Vir. ill., praef.), who cites him as an authority on Terentius (vita Ter. 31,10 ff. Reifferscheid) and Lucilius [I 6] (Suet. gramm. 14,4). Quint. inst. 12,10,16 attributes to him a shrewd observation on the origin of Asianism. S. also composed a work  De antiquitate verborum, in at least three books. Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) Bibliography GRF 384-389  R. Mazzacane, S.,…

Sanzeno

(119 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] Site (in Nonsberg - Val di Non near Trento/South Tyrol) which gave its name to an archaic group of finds (group 'Fritzens-S.') from the Early Iron Age (5th-1st cents. BC); S. was a fortified settlement rich in material finds revealing local South Alpine and Etruscan elements (the adorned bronze containers of the 'Situla Circle,' ceramic forms) as well as Celtic influences (iron gear, weapons). S. and the corresponding group of finds is believed to have belonged to the Raetian population of the central Alpine region. Raeti, Raetia; Situla Pingel, Volker (Bochum) Bibliogr…

Sao

(32 words)

Author(s): Antoni, Silke (Kiel)
[German version] (Σαώ/ Saṓ, ‘protector (fem.)’, ‘saviour’). Daughter of Nereus and Doris [I 1], one of the Nereids (Hes. Theog. 243; Apollod. 1,11). Antoni, Silke (Kiel) Bibliography N. Icard-Gianolio, s.v. S., LIMC 7.1, 666.

Saosduchinus

(176 words)

Author(s): Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig)
[German version] (Σαοσδούχινος/ Saosdoúchinos). Hellenized form of the Assyro-Babylonian royal name Šamaš-šuma-ukīn in the so-called 'Ptolemaic Canon' (Claudius Ptolemaeus [65]; cf. Nabonassar; in Beros(s)us, hypocoristically Samoges; FGrH 680 F 7,34). Though the elder son of Asarhaddon, by his father's decree S. received only Babylonia as his realm, while the younger Assurbanipal assumed the succession in Assyria. Even as king of Babylon, S. was under the suzerainty of his brother, against whom he rebelled in 652 BC, s…

Saoterus

(106 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Cubicularius of Commodus, so a slave. When Commodus returned to Rome as in triumph in AD 180, S. stood behind the emperor on the chariot. According to HA Comm. 3,6, he was his lover. For his home town Nicomedia, S. obtained the Senate's permission to build a temple for Commodus and to establish an agon (Cass. Dio 72,12,2). He is supposed to have been hated by the people of Rome because of his influence; that is why he was killed by frumentarii of the praetorian praefects (HA Comm. 4,5). The evidence on his person, however, is probably considerably distorted. Eck, Werner (Cologn…

Sapaudia

(147 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Territory in Gallia ripariensis. The earliest evidence (Amm. Marc. 15,11,17) is corrupt and cannot be used to support localisation in modern Savoy. Further evidence: Not. Dign. Occ. 42,15 ( praefectus barbaricorum Ebruduni, modern Yverdon-les-Bains on Lake Neuchâtel, Sapaudiae) and 42,179 ( tribunus cohortis Flaviae Sapaudi[ c] ae Calarone). In AD 443, the Burgundiones escaping from their annihilation at the hands of the Hunni were settled here by Aetius [2] (Chron. min. 1, 660,128). Ground studies suggest that S. was in the Swiss highlands north of lacus Lemanus

Saphar

(45 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)
[German version] (Σαφάρ/ Saphár: Periplus maris Erythraei 23; Sapphar: Plin. HN 6,26; Σάπφαρ/ Sápphar: Ptol. 6,7,41). The city of Ẓafār, referred to as ẒFR in an inscription (CIS IV 312,6), located near present-day Yerim. It replaced Mariaba as the capital of the Homeritae. Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)

Saphrax

(70 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Σάφραξ/ Sáphrax). Ostrogoth; he and Alatheus were legal guardians of Vetericus (Viderich) (son of Vidimir; Amm. Marc. 31,3,3); after crossing the Danube (after 375), he fought in the battle near Hadrianopolis [3] in AD 378 (Amm. 31,4,12). In 380 (?), he settled in Pannonia (Zos. 4,34,2 f.; Iord. Get. 140 f.). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 1, 802 2 F. Paschoud (ed.), Zosime, Histoire nouvelle, vol. 2,2, 1979, 406-408 (with French translation).

Sapientia

(4 words)

see Wisdom

Sapis

(83 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] A river, which gives its name to the tribus Sapinia, modern Savio; rises in the Appennines in the north of Umbria (Plin. HN 3,115;  Str. 5,1,11: Σάπις; Sápis); Sarsina is in its upper reaches. It flows through the region of Caesena into the Aemilia and joins the Ionian Sea (Ionios Kolpos) to the south of Ravenna. It was crossed by the via Popilia at the road station S. between Ariminum and Ravenna (Tab. Peut. 5,1: Sabis). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Sapor

(558 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Persian Šāpūr, Greek Σαπώρης/ Sapṓrēs). [German version] [1] I Son of Ardashir [1] and Great King of Persia AD 240/242-272, of the dynasty of the Sassanids. The main source for his reign is the trilingual inscription (Middle Persian, Parthian, Greek) discovered in 1936-1939 on the Kaba-ye Zardošt in Naqš-e Rostam (near Persepolis), the so-called Res Gestae Divi Saporis (= RGDS; [1. 284-371]; Trilingual inscriptions). S. defeated Gordianus [3] III in 244 at Misichē (Pirisabora) in Assyria; Gordianus died under suspicious circumstances. S. compelled t…

Sapphire

(71 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (σάπφειρος/ sáppheiros, Latin sapp(h)irus). A precious stone, identical not with our modern sapphire, but with the speckled lapis lazuli (Theophr. 8; 23 and 37 Eichholz; Plin. HN 33,68 and 161; 37,119 f.), which was introduced from Egypt by the Greeks. It was not until the 3rd cent. AD onwards that it was used by the Romans for jewellery or amulets. Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) Bibliography 1 D. E. Eichholz (ed.), Theophrastus De lapidibus, 1965.

Sappho

(1,601 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto)
(Σαπφώ/ Sapphṓ; in her self-designation, fr. 1: Ψάπφω/ Psápphō). Greek poet c. 600 BC. [German version] A. Life Lyric poet, born at Mytilene or Eresus on Lesbos. Was regularly synchronized in Antiquity with the poet Alcaeus [4] and the statesman Pittacus (e.g., Str. 13,617). The date recorded in the Suda s.v. Σ. - the 42nd Olympiad = 612-609 BC - could refer either to her birth or to her akme. The latter is the more likely and accords with the notice in the Marmor Parium that she went into exile in Sicily between 603/02 and 596/95 (FGrH 239,36), when she s…

Sappho Painter

(201 words)

Author(s): Mommsen, Heide (Stuttgart)
[German version] Late Attic black-figure vase painter, c. 510-490 BC, named for the depiction of Sappho (with epigraph) on a kalpis in Warsaw (National Museum Inv. 142333). To date, 95 vessels have been ascribed to the SP, 70% of them lekythoi, in addition to other small vessels, some large vessels, tomb slabs and epinetra (Epinetron). Almost half of his paintings are white-ground. The SP did not use the red-figure technique predominant at the time, but he did occasionally use what is known as Six's technique, in which the figures were painted, co…

Sapropelite

(114 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] A dark-brown raw material of organic sapropel carbon with a dull shine, similar to jet or lignite, occurring in Bohemia and Moravia; it was worked, primarily by the Celts (6th-1st cents. BC), for jewel rings. Unworked and half-worked pieces in workshop finds, e.g. on the Heuneburg (6th cent.) and in the oppidum of Manching (2nd/1st cents. BC) show that jewellery was produced by cutting and carving and by turning on a lathe. Crafts, trade; Celtic archaeology; Jewellery Pingel, Volker (Bochum) Bibliography O. Rochna, Zur Herkunft der Manchinger Sapropelit-Ring…

Saqqara

(325 words)

Author(s): Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] Necropolis area with a length of c. 7.5 km at the edge of the Libyan desert south of Cairo. The heartland (S. north) was laid out in the 1st Dynasty (around 3000 BC) as a necropolis of Memphis on a hill above the newly founded city with a cemetery for the highest officials and members of the royal house. From the 2nd Dynasty (and right through to the 1st Intermediate Period), royal tomb complexes were repeatedly built in S., for example the pyramid complex of Djoser whose proximity was …

Sarabaitae

(149 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Lat. Sarabaitae). Certainly without direct evidence, Benedict of Nursia criticizes the Sarabaitae (Coptic: 'living scattered away from the monastery'?) in his classification of monasticism: they do not subject themselves to rules and live together in twosomes or threesomes as they see fit (Regula Benedicti, ch. 1). His source is the Regula Magistri, which in turn refers to the only authentic witness, Cassianus (Cassian. Conlationes patrum 18,7). A similar group, the Remnuoth (Coptic, probably: 'living individually'), is mentioned…

Saraca

(190 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] City in Arabia Felix to the northwest of Adan (Σάρακα/ Sáraka). City in Arabia [II] Felix to the northwest of Adan. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Desert in the Sinai Peninsula (Σάρακα/ Sáraka, Σαρακήνη/ Sarakḗnē, Ptol. 5,17,3). Desert in the Sinai Peninsula (modern al-Tīḥ) inhabited by the Σαρακηνοί/ Sarakēnoí. There is probably a connexion with the Sarakēnoí who, according to Ptol. 6,7,21, lived in the Ḥiǧāz in Arabia. There has been no explanation of the etymology of this designation, used from the 3rd cent. AD on synonymously with Sceni…
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