Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Sarmizegetusa

(236 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia | Limes | Pertinax | Rome | Balkans, languages Town in Dacia (cf. Ptol. 3,8,9: Ζαρμιζεγέθουσα/ Zarmizegéthousa; Cass. Dio 68,8,7: Ζερμιζεγέθουσα/ Zermizegéthousa; Dig. 50,15,1,9: Zarmizegetusa; Geogr. Rav 4,7: Sarmazege; Tab. Peut. 7,5: Sarmategte; in the inscriptions mainly S.), modern Hunedoara, Haţeg (Romania). In the pre-Roman Period, the centre was a settlement of the Daci and residence of the Dacian kings (S. Regia in Dacia Superior). Owing…

Sarnus

(242 words)

Author(s): Gargini, Michela (Pisa)
[German version] River in Campania (Plin. HN 3,9,62; in Vibius Sequester 138 also a mountain S.; in Oros. 4,15,2 f. erroneously identified with the Arno; Ptol. 3,1,7; Tab. Peut. 6,5 without being called by name; Procop. Goth. 4,35 calls it Δράκων/ Drákōn, 'Dragon'), gently flowing with abundant water (Sil. Pun. 8,537), which empties into the Sinus Puteolanus at Nuceria [1], modern Sarno. Conon [4] traced the name of the S. back to Pelasgians who settled there from the Peloponnese, calling the S. Sarro and themselves Sarrastae (FGrH 26 F 3; cf. Verg. Aen. 7,738; Sil. Pun. 8,536 …

Saron

(112 words)

Author(s): Börm, Henning (Kiel)
[German version] (Σάρων; Sárōn). According to the legend, the third king of Troezen, who founded a temple and a festival to Artemis Saronia. When a stag fled into the sea during a hunting party, S. was drowned while he was chasing it and was buried in the temple. Since then, the 'Phoebian' gulf has been called the Saronian (Paus. 2,30,7; Saronikos Kolpos). According to other sources, S. lived on as a sea god or daemon (Aristid. 2,274); presumably, S. was originally pursuing the goddess Artemis herself instead of an animal, descending only at a later date from the position of a god to that of a heros…

Saronikos Kolpos

(103 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σαρωνικὸς κόλπος/ Sarōnikòs kólpos, πέλαγος/ pélagos, πόντος/ póntos, or πόρος/ póros; also κόλπος Αργείας/ kólpos Argeías, Ptol. 3,16,12, or Σαλαμινιακὸν πέλαγος/ Salaminiakòn pélagos, Str. 8,2,2), modern 'Gulf of Aegina'. Named after the mythical king Saron of Troezen, a generally shallow gulf of the Aegean Sea (Paus. 2,30,7; 2,32,10, cf. 2,34,2; Str. 2,5,21) between Attica in the northeast, Argolis in the southwest and the Isthmus of Corinth in the northwest, with many islands (e.g., Aegina, Salami…

Sarpedon

(481 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Σαρπηδών/ Sarpēdṓn). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and Laodameia [1]. Son of Zeus and Laodameia [1]. In the Trojan War, S. and his cousin Glaucus [4] command the Lycians (Lycii), the strongest and remotest allies of the Trojans (Hom. Il. 2,876-877; the name S. is also of Lycian origin [1]). Zeus' son S. wins a duel with Zeus' grandson Tlepolemus (ibid. 5,628-662) and plays a decisive part in storming the defensive wall around the Greek camp (ibid. 12,290-471). Here his rousing speech to Glaucus (ibid. …

Sarsina

(114 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] (Σάρσινα; Sársina). City in Umbria (Str. 5,2,10; Mart. 9,58; Sil. Pun. 8,463; Sarsinates: Liv. Per. 15; Plin. HN 3,114; Pol. 2,24,7: Σαρσινάτοι; Sarsinátoi), still called S. today. At the end of the 4th cent. BC, it was an Umbrian centre with a sacred district from the 3rd cent. BC. In 266 BC, it was subjected by Rome (Liv. loc.cit.). Municipium, regio VI, tribus Pupinia. City constructed by Romans with a grid of parallel streets, public buildings at the forum and a domus. Necropoleis near Pian di Bezzo. The Roman comic poet Plautus was born in S. (Plaut. Mostell. 770). Morcian…

Sarte

(115 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Σάρτη; Sártē). Mentioned in Hdt. 7,122 as the southernmost of the towns on the east coast of the Chalcidian Sithonia (Chalcidice), S. should be found in the area of present-day Sarti. S. appears in the Athenian registers of the tribute shares only in 434/3 BC (ATL 1,396 f.), after the area was split off from Torone; in 432, at the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, it sided with Athens; in 415/4 it appears once more in the evidence as a member of the Delian League. Since it is not mentioned again in the evidence, S. must have been re-incorporated later by Torone. Zahrnt, Michael…

Sarus

(178 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] [1] (Σάρος/ Sáros). River in Cilicia Pedias, modern Seyhan, rising on the Taurus in Cappadocian Cataonia and flowing through Comana [1], past Adana and ultimately into the sea to the west of Magarsa (this branch has dried up); it is for this reason often conflated with the Pyramus [1]. In the early Byzantine Period, the S. was still navigable as far as Adana (Procop. Aed. 5,5,8 f.; cf. also Xen. An. 1,4,1; Liv. 33,41,7; Str.  12,2,3; Ptol. 5,8,4). Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography W. Ruge, RE 2 A, 34  Hild/Hellenkemper, 28, 398 f. [German version] [2] Rex Gothorum, AD…

Saserna

(327 words)

Author(s): Ruffing, Kai (Münster)
[German version] The two Sasernae, who were probably members of the  gens Hostilia and are described in Columella as pater et filius (Columella 1,1,12), were the authors of a Latin work on agriculture published between 146 and 57 BC; they were considered the earliest Latin agrarian writers after Cato [1] (Columella 1,1,12; Plin. HN 17,199). Columella and Plinius [1] rated their work highly (Columella 1 praef. 32; 1,1,4: “ non spernendus auctor rei rusticae Saserna”; 1,1,12; Plin. HN 17,199: ' peritissimi'). From mentions in Varro, Columella and Pliny it is possible to re…

Saspeires

(118 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Σάσπειρες/ Sáspeires: Hdt. 1,104; 110; 3,94; 4,37; 40; 7,79; Σάπειρες/ Sápeires: Apoll. Rhod. 2,395; Ἑσπερῖται/ Hesperȋtai: Xen. An. 7,8,25; Str. 14,1,39; Latin Sapires: Amm. Marc. 22,8,21). East Kartvelian tribe, according to Herodotus between the Colchians and the Medes, and belonging to the eighteenth satrapy together with the Matienians and the Alarodians (3,18); documented probably from the 3rd century BC onward; on the upper reaches of the Acampsis/Çoruh, it can be identified with the city of Sp…

Sassanids

(3,054 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
In the narrower sense, the term S. designates the members of the Iranian dynasty of the descendants of Sāsān; in the broader sense, it designates the inhabitants of the Sassanid Empire or its political elite (3rd-7th cents. AD). [German version] I. Evidence Among the written sources (discussion and literature in [25. 153-164, 283-287]; cf. also [1; 6; 27]), the contemporary indigenous evidence should have priority, esp.: a) the inscriptions, some multilingual, of kings and dignitaries (of the 3rd cent. AD) of Persis, the ancestral homel…

Sasura

(81 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Place in Africa proconsularis, from the time of Diocletianus in the province of Byzacena (Diocletianus, with map), some 18 km to the north of Thysdrus, modern Henchir el-Ksour (Bell. Afr. 75,3; 76,1: oppidum Sarsura; Ptol. 4,3,36: Σασοῦρα/ Sasoûra; Tab. Peut. 6,3: Sassura vicus). Caesar attacked the Pompeians under Caecilius [I 32] and Iuba [1] there in 46 BC and conquered S. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, p. 73, no. 12  J.-B. Chabot (ed.), Recueil des inscriptions libyques, 1940/1, Nr. 43-45.

Sasychis

(80 words)

Author(s): Quack, Joachim (Berlin)
[German version] (Σάσυχις; Sásychis). According to Diod. Sic. 1,94,3 one of the great legislators of Egypt. The name has been variously connected with Egyptian proper names. It is most likely a variant of Asychis, who is recorded in Hdt. 2,136 as a follower of Mycerinus and whose name corresponds to Egyptian š-ḫ.t. Interpretations as Shoshenq (Sesonchosis) are phonetically problematic. Quack, Joachim (Berlin) Bibliography 1 A. Burton, Diodorus Siculus, Book I. A Commentary, 1972, 273 2 A. B. Lloyd, Herodotus Book II. Commentary 99-182, 1988, 88-90.

Satala

(99 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Christianity | Xenophon | Zenobia | | Legio | Limes | Limes (τὰ or ἡ Σάταλα [ or hē Sátala]; Cass. Dio 68,19,2; Procop. Pers. 1,15,9 f.). Important communications node in Armenia Minor during the Imperial Period and hence a long-standing Roman garrison town. In the Christian period it was a see (remains at modern Sadağ). A fragment (face) of an Anahita-Artemis sculpture was found here. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography B. N. Arakeljan, Ocerki po istorii iskusstva drevnej Armenii (VI v. do n.E. - I…

Satan

(386 words)

Author(s): Kundert, Lukas (Basle)
[German version] (from Hebrew satan, 'treat with hostility, be hostile';  cf. also sitna, 'hostility') in its basic sense describes an 'adversary, enemy, political opponent', and persons who by their inimical behaviour set out to prevent an undertaking. From the variant satam there is a noun mastema, 'hostility' (Hos 9,7 f.), which is the origin of Mastema, the name of a mythical S. figure in the  Book of Jubilees. A S. character proper has been documented for the first time c. 520 BC. He is part of the heavenly assembly, is subordinate to the will of God and is described …

Sataspes

(103 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Σατάσπης; Satáspēs). According to Hdt. 4,43 a maternal nephew of Darius [1] I, who was to be impaled for the violation of the daughter of Zopyrus. He was released upon the intercession of his mother, and as atonement he was given the task of circumnavigating Libya (Africa). He started from Egypt and left the Mediterranean through the 'Pillars of Heracles' (i.e. the Straits of Gibraltar), but turned back without having fulfilled his task; as a result Xerxes I had the originally imposed punishment carried out. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography F. Colin, Le récit…

Satem languages

(242 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] In phonetics and phonology, the term satem (Avest. satəm, ‘hundred’) is employed to characterize those Indo-European languages which - unlike centum languages - preserve the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) series of palatal stops , , g̑h as independent phonemes. The change of palatal tectals (Gutturals) into affricates (such as č, ć) or fricatives is a common phenomenon in the history of languages. Not all languages did necessarily take the same path in the development from PIE * k̑ṃtó- to Avestan satəm, Sanskrit śatám, Lithuanian šim̃tas or Old Church Slavonic sto. …

Satibarzanes

(137 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Σατιβαρζάνης; Satibarzánēs). [German version] [1] Chamberlain of Artaxerxes [1] I 'Eunuch'/chamberlain in the entourage of Artaxerxes [1] I (Plut. Artaxerxes 12,4. Plut. Mor. 173e; Ktes. FGrH 688 F 30). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Satrap of Areia, 4th cent. BC Persian satrap of Areia [1], fought in the battle of Gaugamela on the left flank (Arr. Anab. 3,8,4), follower of Bessus and one of the assassins of Darius [3] III (Arr. Anab. 3,21,9 f.). He surrendered in 330 to Alexander  [4] the Great (Arr. Anab. 3,25,1 f.; …

Saticula

(155 words)

Author(s): Gargini, Michela (Pisa)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Coloniae Fortified city in Samnium (Samnites), probably near modern Sant'Agata dei Goti on the right bank of the Isclero, a left-hand tributary of the Volturnus. Bitterly fought over during the 2nd Samnite War, S. was conquered by the Romans in 315 BC (Liv. 9,21 f.; Diod. Sic. 19,72,4: Σατικόλα/ Satikóla) and in 313 secured by the establishment of a colony (Liv. 27,10; Vell. Pat. 1,14,4; Plin. HN 3,107; Fest. 340). Two km from Sant'Agata dei Goti, a necropolis with numerous red-figure…

Saties

(88 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Important Etruscan gens, known from the Tomba François in Volci/Vulci, 4th/3rd cent. BC. Several family members are named in inscriptions there, the founder of the tomb, Vel S., is depicted richly robed. An Avele Sataiies, dedicator of an Attic vase of unknown provenance in Heidelberg (end of the 6th cent. BC), and a Fasti S., mentioned by name on an Hellenistic urn from Clusium (modern Chiusi), were probably members of the same gens. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography F. Buranelli (ed.), La Tomba François di Vulci, 1987, 147-161.
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