Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Probably originally a Roman personal name, recorded as a cognomen ('left-handed') e.g. in the Iunii Bruti (Iunius [I 17]) family. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 17; 105; 243 2 Schulze, 419.


(303 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Probably originally a Roman family name, recorded as a cognomen ('left-handed'), in the Republican period in the Mucii family (Mucius [I 2; 4-10; II 2]); for the legend of origin see Mucius [I 2]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Q. Cervidius S. Roman lawyer, 2nd cent. Roman lawyer, who under Marcus [2] Aurelius (AD 161-180) was a member of his consilium (SHA Aur. 11,10) and from AD 175 was praef. vigilum (CIL XIV 4502); he also remained active under Commodus and Septimius Severus (until c. AD 200) [5. 113 f.]. As a respondent with a practical bent he wrote Digesta


(5 words)

see Stairs; Stairways


(202 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] River in Gallia Belgica (Caes. B Gall. 6,33; Plin. HN 4,98; 105; Geogr. Rav. 263,6: Scaldea; Ptol. 2,9,3; 9: Ταβούλλα/ Taboúlla), modern Schelde (in French Escaut). It rises on Mont Saint Martin near Augusta Viromanduorum (modern Saint Quentin in the department of Oise), flows through Camaracum (modern Cambrai) and Turnacum (modern Tournai) and separates the civitates of the Atrebates [1] and the Menapii on its left bank from that of the Nervii on its right bank. In the region near its mouth (Plin. loc. cit.), which was settled by Ge…

Scaldis Pons

(48 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Roman station on the Turnacum-Bagacum road at a bridge over the river Scaldis, which formed the boundary between the Menapii and the Nervii (It. Ant. 376,8; Tab. Peut. 2,3). Cf. the modern place name Escau(t)pont (in the département du Nord). Schön, Franz (Regensburg)


(222 words)

Author(s): M.PU.
[German version] In Antiquity only beam (or balance) scales (σταθμός/ stathmós, τάλαντον/ tálanton; Latin libra, also statera, trutina) were known; they are first documented for Egypt (Old Kingdom, 5th dynasty) and were used in Greece in the Archaic period. Black Figure vase pictures (Arcesilas Bowl, Paris, CM; amphora by the Taleides Painter, New York, MMA, cf. Beazley, ABV, 174,1) show equal-armed beam scales with two bowls for the goods being weighed and for graded weights. Already in Homer's epic poems scale…


(203 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Σκάμανδρος/ Skámandros, Latin Scamander). River in Troas, modern River Menderes, which rises below the highest peak of the Ida [2]. Together with the Simoeis it forms the Plain of Troy (cf. Hom. Il. 5,77). Below Scepsis and Cebren a road leads along its bank into the interior of Asia Minor. In the Iliad the S. appears as a god; it is named S. only by humans, the gods call it Xanthus (Hom. Il. 20,73). As a son of Zeus (ibid. 14,434) and Idaea it is the father of  Teucer and hence an …


(61 words)

Author(s): Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle)
(Σκαμάνδριος). [German version] [1] Son of Hector and Andromache See Astyanax. Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) [German version] [2] Trojan, son of Strophius Trojan, son of Strophius; skilled huntsman, taught by Artemis personally, but this did not save him from death at the hands of Menelaus (Hom. Il. 5,49-58). Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, 1988, No. 308.


(85 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Σκαμβωνίδαι; Skambōnídai). Attic asty deme of the Leontis phyle, from 126/7 AD of the Hadrianis phyle, with three (four) bouleutaí, in the northwest of Athens. The Lex Sacra IG I3 244 of the S. deme records a dḗmarchos [3], an eúthynos ( Eúthynai ), métoikoi , an agora and participation in the synoíkia festival in Athens, possibly also a tamías . Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography Traill, Attica, 18, 44, 59, 62, 68, 112 Nr. 127, Tab. 4, 15  Whitehead, Index s. v. S.


(149 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Σκάνδεια/ Skándeia). Port settlement, 10 stadia to the east of the city of Cythera (Paus. 3,23,1) in the southeast of the island of Cythera, modern Kastri on the bay of Avlemonas. Settlement from the Early Helladic on; first mentioned in Hom. Il. 10,268. On a steep rock above S., there was an acropolis with a temple of Aphrodite Ourania. In 424 BC the Athenians conquered S., which had been occupied by the Spartans shortly before (Thuc. 4,…

Scapegoat rituals

(740 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] 'SR' take their name from an ancient Israelite ritual sequence described in Lv 16,5-10 and 20-22, in which every year at Yom Kippur a ram was sacrificed to Yahweh and a second, on to which all the guilt of the people of Israel had been transferred, was driven into the wilderness "to take away divine anger"( ăzāzēl: [1. 159-162]). Post-Exile and, later, Jewish Rabbinic tradition explain Azazel as a demon or fallen angel, whereas early Christian theology interprets the ram as an allegory for Christ, who by his death is supposed to hav…


(104 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Σκάψα; Skápsa). The Scapsaei, who feature in the Athenian tribute lists (ATL 1, 408 f.) from 452/1 BC onwards, may be identified with the inhabitants of the city of Campsa, located by Hdt. 7,123,2 in Crusis, to the northwest of modern Nea Iraklia. In 432 they seceded from Athens, but were won back and there is evidence of their being members of the Delian League in 415/4. In the middle of the 4th century S. was a member of the Chalcidian League, before the city was conquered by Philippus [4] II. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. Zahrnt, Olynth und die Chalkidier, 197…


(110 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] [1] S., M. Praef. of Ap. Claudius [I 24] Pulcher who had five members of the council of Salamis in Cyprus starve when he was to enforce a loan repayment for M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus. In 51 BC Cicero put an end to this and in 50 achieved repayment at an annual interest rate of 12 %, but S. rejected this and insisted on an annual rate of 48 %  (Cic. Att. 5,21,10 ff.; 6,1,5 ff.; 6,2,7 f.). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] S., M. In 50 BC agent for M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus' loans to king Ariobarzanes [5] (Cic. Att. 6,1,4; 3,5). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) Bibliography W. Will, Julius …


(457 words)

Author(s): Hölbl, Günther
[German version] (possibly a corruption of κάραβος; Latin scarabaeus, cf. Plin. HN 30,30). Finds of dried beetles and (initially undecorated) replicas in stone, Egyptian faience and other materials show that the scarab (Scarabaeus sacer L.) and related beetles were used as amulets in Egypt from the late Predynastic Period (beginning of the 3rd millennium BC) onwards. The beetle's practice of rolling large balls of dung was a metaphor for the motion of the sun; the scarab (Egyptian ḫprr) was considered a manifestation of the morning, i.e. rising, Sun god ( ḫprj, also ḫpr 'come into bein…


(107 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] City in Pannonia on the Amber Road, modern Sopron (in Hungary). A late Celtic hilltop settlement,  it was used as a place of relocation of veterans in the early 1st cent. AD (Plin. HN 3,146); from the time of Domitianus (AD 81-96) municipium Flavium S. (Ptol. 2,14,4). Destroyed in the war against the Marcomanni (AD 167-182), it was fortified and had a Christian congregation from the beginning of the 4th cent. AD. The forum, castle wall, amphitheatre and necropoleis have been investigated. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography J. Gömöri, Recent Archaeological Find…


(244 words)

Author(s): Cabanes, Pierre (Clermont-Ferrand)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia (Σκάρδων/ Skárdōn). City of the Liburni (Str. 7,5,5: Λιβυρνὴ πόλις, cf. Plin. HN 3,141; Ptol. 2,17,3; Procop. Goth. 1,7) on the right bank of the river Titius (also Titus, Tityus, Catarbates, modern Krka), about 20 km from the sea in the hinterland of Šibenik, modern Skradin (Croatia). The river was navigable as far as there. A Roman soldier, whose grave (ILS 2258) provides us with evidence of his being in S., probably belonged to an outpost of Burnum, where the legio XI Claudia was stationed. There is also evid…


(185 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Natural catastrophes (Σκάρφεια/ Skárpheia). City in Locris Epicnemidia (Hom. Il. 2,532;  cf. Str. 9,4,4; Tab. Peut. 8,1; Geogr. Rav. 375,6), near modern Molo in a seismically active zone, seriously affected by tsunamis in 426 BC (Demetrius of Callatis FGrH 85 F 6; Thuc. 2,32) and AD 551 (Procop. Goth. 4,25,16-23). Initially in rivalry with Thronium for dominance in the region (cf. the conflict over the number of Delphic hieromnḗmones and border conflicts: FdD vol. 3, 38,3; 42,7), in Late Anti…


(270 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Roman bridge station, modern Scarponne near Dieulouard in the département of Meurthe et Meuse, on a route from the Rhodanus (Rhone) to the Rhenus (Rhine) between Divodurum (modern Metz) and Tullum (modern Toul), where the Roman road crossed the four branches of the Mosella on bridges (It. Ant. 365,5; Tab. Peut. 3,1; Geogr. Rav. 4,26: Scarbonna; CIL XIII 9050). The beginning of the Gallo-Roman vicus of the civitas of the Mediomatrici (no traces of pre-Roman settlement) can be viewed in the context of the extension of the traffic network at the beg…


(29 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('with prominent ankles'), in the Republican period in the Aemilii (Aemilius [I 37-38]) and Aurelii (Aurelius [17-18]) families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 242.


(127 words)

Author(s): Börm, Henning (Kiel)
[German version] (Σκέδασος; Skédasos). Hero of Leuctra to whom the Thebans sacrificed a white foal before waging battle. S.' daughters (and those of Leuctrus/Leucter, Diod. Sic. 15,54) are violated by Spartans passing through; in vain S. demands justice in Sparta and takes his own life (as his daughters had already done), after cursing the homeland of the perpetrators and prophesying a defeat for its army. S. is said to have appeared to Pelopidas before the battle of 371 BC against the Spartans; th…
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