Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Sais

(285 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Σάϊς/ Sáïs). City in the western delta of the Rosetta branch of the Nile, Egyptian Zw, capital city of the 5th administrative district of Lower Egypt, the modern (village of) Ṣā l-Hạǧar. As the main cult centre of the goddess Neith, S. was already important in the 1st half of the 3rd millennium. Politically, however, it did not come to the fore until the 1st millennium BC, when the Libyan rulers residing there attempted to expand their area of power beginning c. 730. Initially repelled by the Nubians, their successors Necho [1] I and Psammetichus [1…

Saittai

(256 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σαΐτται; Saḯttai). Town in eastern Lydia (Maeonia [1]; Ptol. 5,2,21: Σέτται, Σάετται), in the rivers' triangle between the upper Hyllus (modern Demirci Çayı, cf. Hyllus [4], c. 12 km on the west) and the Hermus [2]; present-day Sidaskale near İçikler. Representations of the river gods Hyllus and Hermus are found on coins of the Imperial Period . S. was a regional centre for the production of textiles. In AD 124, the town was probably visited by emperor Hadrianus. Cult of the Men Axiottenus. Among others, …

Sakkos

(144 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (σάκκος/ sákkos). Closed bonnet, esp. popular as a headdress of Greek women in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. The evidence from Attic vase paintings and tomb reliefs shows the sákkos worn mainly by female servants, whereas in southern Italian art it appears as the headdress of any woman. Sákkoi frequently had a loop on the calotte for hanging them up and often tassels hanging down. Some sákkoi were unadorned or decorated with simple lines, while others were richly decorated with ornaments of meanders, waves, scrolls and similar. The sákkos was not necessarily the only hea…

Sala

(425 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Σάλα/ Sála). [German version] [1] River in Mauretania Tingitana River in Mauretania Tingitana, flowing into the Atlantic Ocean, modern Oued Bou Regreg (Plin. HN 5,5: S.; 9; 13: Salat; Ptol. 4,1,2; 4: Σάλα/ Sála). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) [German version] [2] Phoenician or Punic foundation This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Commerce | Phoenicians, Poeni (neo-Punic Slt). Phoenician or Punic foundation near the mouth of the river of the same name, modern Chella in Morocco (Mela 3,107: S.; Plin. HN 5,5; 13: S.; Ptol. 4,1,2: Σάλα/ Sála; It. Ant. 6,4: S. colonia; Not. Dign. …

Salacia

(281 words)

Author(s): Börm, Henning (Kiel) | Wardle, David (Cape Town)
[German version] [1] Maiden and worshipper of Apollo (Σαλακία; Salakía). Maiden from Ophionis (her name may derive from the Salbacus mountains), who, according to an etiological legend, carries a box in a procession for Apollo. In the box are cakes in the form of lyre, bow and arrow, which are typical insignia of the god. The wind snatches her sacrificial gifts and blows them out to sea, which carries them to the Lycian Chersonnesus near Patara. A 'refugee from S.' finds them and sacrifices them there  (Steph. Byz. s. v. Πάταρα; Pátara). Börm, Henning (Kiel) [German version] [2] Roman godde…

Sala Consilina

(218 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] Modern town in the Vallo di Diano (province of Salerno, Lucania) whose ancient name was not transmitted. Its fame is due to the necropolis with more than 1,500 tombs from the Early Historical Period (10th to the 6th cents. BC) located to the north west and south east of the town; the location of the corresponding settlement has yet to be determined. The inventories of the tombs as well as the so-called Waffengrab suggest an elite of leading families, esp. due to the absence of princely graves with magnificent and prestigious furnishings. As was the ca…

Salamander

(362 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (σαλαμάνδρα/ salamándra from Persian, Lat. salamandra, identified at an early stage with the gecko, Lat. stellio), presumably the nocturnal fire salamander, Salamandra salamandra, an amphibian of the order Caudata ( Urodela), which is black with large yellow spots. The yellow spots led to the superstition that because of its coldness it could not only live in fire (e.g., Aug. Civ. 21,4) but even extinguish it (Aristot. Hist. an. 5,19,552b 15-17; Plin. HN 10,188; Gp. 15,1,34; cf. Theophr. fr. 3,60 and Ael. NA 2…

Salambo

(192 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Σαλαμβώ; Salambṓ). S. is one of the goddesses who mourn the dying vegetation god Adonis, a version of the Syro-Phoenician Astarte. Hesychius s. v. Σαλαμβώ calls her 'the Aphrodite of (the) Babylonians'; for her role in the midsummer festival of the Adonia, cf. EM s.v. Σαλαμβώ), also SHA Heliogab. 7,3, Acta Sanctorum Bollandia for 19 July (p. 585 Florez) and Breviarium Eborense [1. 332 f.]. A Phoenician reference to S. is behind the phrase mqdš bt ṣdmbl ('the holiest of the temples of S.'), on an inscription from Gaulus (modern Gozo in Malta, KAI 62,2),…

Salaminia

(247 words)

Author(s): Rutherford, Ian C. (Reading)
[German version] (Σαλαμινία; Salaminía). One of the two Athenian ambassadorial ships ( theōrídes) used by festival ambassadors ( theōroí), recorded in the Classical period; the other was the Paralus [1; 2. 153 ff.]. The S. was replaced by the Ammonia in the 4th century AD, shortly before the writing of the ps.-Aristotelian Athenaíōn Politeía; the change presumably shows the significance of the Zeus-Ammon oracle  in this period. Later Athenian ambassadorial ships were the Demetrias, the Antigonis and the Ptolemais (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 61,7; [2. 160, 163 f.]). The S. and the other theōr…

Salaminii

(204 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Σαλαμίνιοι; Salamínioi). Athenian génos from Salamis [5], which was divided into the 'S. of Seven Phyles' and the 'S. in Sunium'. In the 4th cent. BC, it primarily acted as a cult alliance in charge of some of the oldest cults in the polis (Athena Skiras, Aglaurus, Pandrosus, Ge Kourotrophos among others). Both branches had sanctuaries of Heracles, one in Sunium, the other 'on the Porthmus', that is, the strait of Salamis ([4]; pace [1; 2; 3]) where, along with Phalerum and Athens, the cultic activities of the S. were concentrated. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 W. …

Salamis

(5 words)

see Battlefields

Salamis

(1,094 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum)
(Σαλαμίς/ Salamís). [German version] [1] Largest island in the Saronic Gulf This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Natural catastrophes | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture Largest island (93 km2) in the Saronic Gulf (Saronikos Kolpos), with a deeply punctuated coastline, 0.5 km from the coast of Attica at the nearest point; three main mountainous massifs with hilly valleys between them; the highest elevations (366 m) are on the central massif (modern Mavrovouni). The island was original…

Salampsio

(108 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (from the Hebrew šelōmṣiyōn, Aramaic short form Šelamṣah, 'Peace of Zion'; Greek Σαλαμψιώ/ Salampsiṓ). Eldest daughter of Herod (Herodes [1]) the Great and his Hasmonaic wife Mariamme [1]; b. c. 33 BC. After Herod's brother Pheroras had refused marriage with her, in 20 BC, she wed her cousin Phasael II, son of Phasael [1] I, by whom she had five children (Herod IV, Alexander III, Antipater IV, Alexandra and Cyprus III) (Ios. Ant. Iud. 16,7,6; 17,1,3; 18,5,4). Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) Bibliography N. Kokkinos, The Herodian Dynasty. Origins, Role in Society and Eclipse, 1998  P. Richardson, Herod: King of the Jews and Friend of the Romans, 1996.

Salarium

(164 words)

Author(s): de Libero, Loretana (Hamburg)
[German version] Originally ‘salt-money’ (Plin. HN 31,89), the regular remuneration of expenses (hence English ‘salary’) for magistrates of senatorial and equestrian status working outside Rome in the imperial administration ( e.g. Cass. Dio 53,15,5). The salary of a proconsul, salarium proconsulare (Tac. Agr. 42,2), e.g., at the time of the emperor Macrinus (AD 217/8), came to 1 million sesterces per year (Cass. Dio 78,22,5). The comites ( comes ) of a governor and a princeps also received a salarium (Suet. Tib. 46; Dig. 1,22,4 et passim). Furthermore, impoverished senators of …

Salas

(149 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σάλας; Sálas). River in Germania magna (Strab. 7,1,3), the modern Thuringian Saale, a left-bank tributary of the Elbe. The name derives from the salt deposits found in the areas through which the river runs. It has been argued that the Franconian Saale, which flows into the Main, was referred to in Tac. Ann. 13,57; this, however, must be the Werra. In the pre-Roman Iron Age, the Thuringian-Saale region was mostly a settlement area of the Celts, although southern fringes of the Jastorf culture can also …

Salassi

(207 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Celtic tribe in the valley of the Duria Maior (modern Dora Baltea); according to Cato in Plin. HN 3,134, part of the Taurisci. The S. controlled the western passes of the Alps (Liv. 21,38,7; Str. 4,6,11) and collected road tolls (Str. 4,6,7; App. Ill. 17). Rich gold deposits allowed them to mint their own coins, but led to conflicts with neighbouring tribes and Roman publicani ('tax farmers'; Plin. HN 18,182). In 143 BC, Claudius [I 22] subjugated the S. (Cass. Dio 22 fr. 74,1; Liv. per. 53; Obseq. 21; Oros. 5,4,7). When they revo…

Saldae

(163 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Commerce | Punic Wars | Punic Wars City and harbour of Mauretania Caesariensis, later of Sitifensis, near the mouth of the Oued Soummam, present-day Bejaïa in Algeria (Ps.-Scyl. 111: Σίδα πόλις/ Sída pólis (?); Ptol. 4,2,9: Σάλδαι κολωνία/ Sáldai kolōnía; It. Ant. 5,2: Saldis; 17,3: Saldis colonia; 31,6: Saldas; 32,3: Saldis; 39,2: Saldis; 39,6: Saldis colonia; 39,7: Saldis; Notitia episcoporum Mauretaniae Sitifensis 41: Saldae). S. was on the boundary between the kingdom of Juba [2] and the Roman province (Str. 17,3,12). Augustus founded the colonia Iulia Augusta Salditana legionis VII immunis there (CIL VIII 2, 8929; 8931; 8933; suppl. 3, 20638). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 2728; 2, 8923-8983; 9328; suppl. 3, 20680-20704/5; 21032; 21112; 21558; AE 1991, 1732. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) B…

Sale

(104 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σάλη; Sálē). City on the northern shore of the Aegean Sea, west of Doriscus in the south east of the foothills of the Serrheum, probably at present-day Alexandrupolis. Built as part of the peraia of Samothrace (Hdt. 7,59,2), S. belonged to the territory of Maronea [1] in 188 BC at the time of the Syrian Wars (Liv. 38,41,8: vicus Maronitarum). In the Roman Imperial Period, S. was a road-station ( mutatio) on the road from Traianopolis to Philippi (It. Burd. 602). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography B. Isaac, The Greek Settlements in Thrace until the Mace…

Salebro

(72 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Harbour in Etruria (It. maritimum 500,6: Scabris), modern Portiglione di Scarlino in the Gulf of Follonica opposite Ilva (Elba). Station on the via Aurelia between the mouth of the Umbro and Populonia (It. Ant. 292,3: Salebrone; Tab. Peut. 4,3: Saleborna), where parts of road paving survive. Labrone in Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 2,5,8 is probably the corruptly transmitted placename S. (amended by Wesseling to Salebrone). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Saleius Bassus

(56 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] Renowned Latin epic poet (Quint. Inst. 10,1,90) of the late 1st cent. AD (Tac. Dial. 9,2-5; 10,2; Juv. 7,80 f.), friend of Iulius [IV 21] Secundus ( ibid. 5,2 f.). Works do not survive; the attribution of the Laus Pisonis to him is not justified. Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) Bibliography Schanz/Hosius, vol. 2, 545.
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