Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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T.

(20 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] As an abbreviation in names, T. stands for the Roman given name Titus. Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Tabae

(179 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τάβαι/ Tábai). City in southeastern Caria, in the south of the Plain of T. (Ταβηνὸν πεδίον/ Tabēnòn pedíon, cf. Str. 12,8,13) on a rocky elevation near modern Kale. From the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC onwards, T. had the constitution of a polis (before 269/8: [1. 321 no. 1]). In 189 BC T. capitulated to Manlius [I 24] Vulso (Liv. 38,13,11-13) and after 167 was a 'friend and ally' of Rome (IG XIV 695-696b). T.'s autonomy was confirmed by Rome in 81 BC in thanks for its loyalty in the First Mithridatic War, its territor…

Tabal

(46 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin)
[German version] Name of a region and a principality in the southeast of central Anatolia. On its political role in the late Hittite period see Asia Minor III.C.1. Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) Bibliography S. Aro, T. Zur Gesch. und materiellen Kultur des zentralanatolischen Hochplateaus von 1200-600 v. Chr., 1998.

Tabari

(153 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] Abū Ǧaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Ǧarīr al-Ṭabarī (AD 839-923). Significant Persian-Arab historian, lawyer and Koranic commentator. His 'Universal History' ( Taʾrīḫ) begins with a creation story; histories follow of Israel, ancient Persia and pre-Islamic Arabia. After an account of the life of Muhammad, T.'s chronicle is constructed annalistically and contains a detailed presentation of the Islamic campaigns of conquest and the periods of the Umayyads and the Abbasids up to AD 915. The significance of T.'s hi…

Tabella duplex

(6 words)

see Writing tablets

Tabellaria

(40 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Road station in Etruria (Tab. Peut. 5,1) on the via Aurelia between Centumcellae and Graviscae near the mouth of the Minio. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography C. Corsi, Le strutture di servizio del cursus publicus in Italia, 2000, 143.

Tabellarius

(206 words)

Author(s): Kolb, Anne (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] In the Roman Empire, a tabellarius conveyed letters and written messages of all kinds ( tabellae) on behalf of private and public institutions and individuals. From the correspondence of Cicero in particular, we know of tabellarii of wealthy households and of public tax and duty contractors ( publicani ; [1. 21-27]). They generally came from the ranks of the slaves or were freedmen. In the Imperial period, most imperial messengers, the tabellarii Augusti, were freedmen who were recruited from the imperial household ( familia Caesaris). Because of their great num…

Tabelliones

(631 words)

Author(s): Gröschler, Peter
[German version] (Tabellions). Private professional document scribes, who were responsible for setting down Latin legal documents in writing, beginning in the Roman Imperial era (Notary; [1; 2]). Ulpian (Dig. 48,19,9,4) first mentions the tabelliones around the turn of the 3rd cent. AD as an established institution along with those who studied law ( iuris studiosi) and lawyers ( advocati). They were listed as their own trade on the Edictum [3] Diocletiani of 301 (CIL III p. 831, 7,41). The formulation of documents by literate and legally trained third parties reaches ba…

Taberna

(94 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Type of building Latin term for buildings, both urban and rural, used for storage, craft production, selling goods, offering drinks, meals and lodging, and also as living space. Storage economy; Workshop; Inn Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) [German version] [2] T. Frigida Road station in Etruria on the Via Aemilia Scauri between Pisae and Luna at the crossing over the Frigidus (modern Frigido), modern San Leonardo in Frigido. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography L. Banti, Luni, 1937, 71  G. De Santis Alvisi, Questioni lunensi, in: Centro Studi Lunensi. …

Tabernaculum

(216 words)

Author(s): Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon)
[German version] (derived from trabs, 'tree trunk', 'beam'; diminutive of taberna, 'hut', 'shop'). In the Roman military context, tabernaculum describes all forms of housing for soldiers (Cic. Brut. 37). Provisional shelters could be built from a variety of materials, such as reeds and wood (Liv. 27,3,2-3; Frontin. Str. 4,1,14). Tents were made of leather (Liv. 23,18,5; Tac. Ann. 13,35,3; 14,38,1); in the winter, they were insulated against the cold with straw (Caes. B Gall. 8,5,2). The arrangement of the tents i…

Tabernae

(247 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] [1] Township in the territory of the Nemetes Township in the territory of the Nemetes on the Roman road on the west bank of the Rhenus [2] (It. Ant. 355; Amm. 16,2,12; Not. Dign. Occ. 41,16; Tab. Peut. 3,3), modern Rheinzabern. There is evidence  of brickworks of the legions of upper Germania from about AD 45 until c. AD 80; a fort, however, is not certain. After the withdrawal of the military brickworks, everyday and fine ceramics were made there for civilian needs. In about the middle of the 2nd cent. AD, a factory was developed for t…

Tabernaria

(4 words)

see Togata

Table

(447 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (Latin mensa, also cartibum, cartibulum; Greek τράπεζα/ trápeza, τρίπους/ trípous or τετράπους/ tetrápous). Three forms of table are known from Greek and Roman Antiquity: rectangular with three or four legs, round with a central support or three legs, and oblong with one supports at each end; the last variant was primarily employed in gardens and was of marble, with the outer sides of the supports often decorated with reliefs. The other forms of table were usually made of wood, but the feet c…

Table culture

(3,352 words)

Author(s): Schmitt-Pantel, Pauline (Paris)
[German version] A. General observations and sources In the wider sense, table culture refers to all practices linked to nutrition, to concrete activities as well as their symbolic representations. This new comprehensive approach to ancient TC owes a lot to the advances in anthropology since Claude Levi-Strauss; anthropological research has revealed astonishing interconnections between the TCs of the societies under examination. The task is no longer merely to list the foods produced and consumed, to k…

Table manners

(11 words)

see Banquet; Cena; Crockery ; Cutlery; Table utensils

Tablet painting

(5 words)

see Painting

Tablettes Albertini

(117 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Archive of 53 (45 surviving) wooden tablets written in ink  from southern Numidia (between Capsa and Theveste), named after their publisher, E. Albertini: largely legal documents from the Vandal period (484-496 AD), predominantly sales of plots of land, providing important information on legal culture, language and above all the writing of the period. Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography E. Albertini, Documents d'époque vandale découverts en Algérie, in: CRAI 1928, 301-303  Id., Actes de vente du Ve siècle trouvés dans la région de Tébessa (Algérie)…

Table utensils

(821 words)

Author(s): Baratte, François (Paris)
[German version] The succession of courses, the foods presented and the ways of serving them (with sauces of various kinds) made specially-designed TU indispensable at banquets in the Roman world. Social drinking posed similar demands, beverages being an important element in hospitality. TU varied according to region and period, and depended on the design of the table (development from triclinium to stibadium, cf. sigma ) and the seating plan. Our knowledge of TU lacks detail in spite of numerous sources of information, e.g. literary texts…

Tabnit

(4 words)

see Tennes

Taboo

(173 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette
[German version] (linguistic taboo; term taken from Polynesian). In Latin and Greek there is no equivalent technical term; the phenomenon can be observed in ancient texts, but is not explicitly addressed. Depending on various religious, social and societal circumstances, certain words are avoided in speech, especially for two reasons: 1) in the magical or religious spheres sacred, powerful, or dangerous things are not directly mentioned (that would be sacrilege, nefas) for fear that e.g. a god or an event (esp. death, dying) may be conjured up or that an object …

Tabor

(174 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Ταβώρ/ Tabṓr). Conically tapering mountain with a broad plateau at the peak (about 1,200 m × 400 m) in the Plain of Jezreel in Israel. According to Jos 19:22, the territories of the tribes of Zebulun, Issachar and Naphtali bordered on Mount T. In the Biblical texts, no indications are given of any cultic function of the mountain. Neither is there any connection with the cult of the Rhodian god Zeus Atabyrios ([1]; Rhodes). It has been possible to demonstrate Iron Age settlement [2…

Tabula

(196 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] General Latin term for board (Plin. HN 31,128; 33,76; 36,114; Ov. Met. 11,428), then for 'game board' ( tabula lusoria, Games, Board games, Dice (game)), 'painted panel' ( tabula picta, Plin. HN 35,20-28), 'votive tablet' ( tabula votiva, Hor. Carm. 1,5,13; Pers. 6,33). In a special sense, tabula is the term for writing tablets, used for writing and calculating, of wood, whitewashed or with a layer of wax, or metal tablets (Writing materials, Codex ), as were already common among the Greeks. Tabulae were used in the public domain, e.g. as tablets of law ( Tabulae duodecim

Tabula Banasitana

(124 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Bronze inscription from Banasa (in Mauretania Tingitana) with copies ( exempla) of three documents and a list of 12 witnesses, probably members of the imperial consilium. It deals with a conferment of citizenship under Marcus Aurelius on 6 July AD 177: at his own request, Iulianus, a princeps of the Zegrensi tribe, and his family are granted Roman citizenship for extraordinary service ( maxima merita), without prejudice to his tribal rights ( salvo iure gentis). The TB is important evidence of the conditions for conferring citizenship at the end of the …

Tabula Bantina

(273 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Fragments of a bronze tablet, inscribed on both sides, from Bantia (at modern Venosa) in Lucania. The front, written first, contains the sanctio of a Roman statute. Since present and future magistrates are bound in it by oath to refrain from any undertaking against the law, it is often seen as part of a l ex Appuleia ( agraria or maiestatis; Ap(p)uleius [I 11]) of 103 or 100 BC; in any case, it is from the end of the 2nd cent. BC. Listed on the back, used later, are several sections of the municipal law of Bantia (or a draft of it), in the…

Tabulae Caeritum

(280 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] In the TC Roman censors registered citizens from whom they had withdrawn the active or passive right to vote, by means of a nota censoria and/or by transfer into another tribus ( tribu movere). The term TC is explained from the original inclusion in this list of those citizens of the Etruscan city of Caere who were liable for military service. Presumably Caere gave its name to the list because in c. 390 BC it is supposed to have been the first community to receive civitas sine suffragio: Caere had provided help to Rome during the Gaulish attack in c. 390 BC and had in thanks b…

Tabulae censoriae

(6 words)

see Tabulae publicae

Tabulae duodecim

(1,105 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
('Twelve Tables', or, more completely, lex duodecim tabularum, 'Law of the Twelve Tables'), the most important legislation of the Roman Republic. The name originates in the tradition that they were written on twelve oak ( roboreas, as it ought to read, rather than eboreas, 'ivory', in Pompon. Dig. 1,2,2,4) tablets. However, they have not survived in epigraphic form. Text and content must be reconstructed from ancient literature. It may be assumed, in the light of accounts of the legislative process in ancient authors (esp. Liv. 3,32 ff.), that they were written around 450 BC. …

Tabulae honestae missionis

(103 words)

Author(s): Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon)
[German version] Tabulae honestae missionis is the name given to Roman documents certifying the good conduct of soldiers during their period of service; they were issued upon request to veterans at their retirement from military service, enabling them, if they were entitled, to receive the military diploma and thus citizenship. Only a few copies have been found, but these were distributed across the entire Roman Empire. Their structure corresponded to that of military diplomas: 1. confirmation of honesta missio [1], 2. the certifying officer, 3. authentication, 4. date, 5…

Tabulae Iguvinae

(195 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Seven bronze tablets, found in 1444 in Iguvium (modern Gubbio), between 87 cm × 57 cm and 40 cm × 28 cm in size, some written on one side, some on both. The earlier ones are in a local right-to-left alphabet, borrowed from Etruscan, and the later ones in Roman letters, but all are in the Umbrian language. Their origin is from the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC to the beginning of the 1st, and they represent the sacred archive of a priesthood, the Fratres Atiedii (cf. the Arvales Fratres in Rome), in which details of sacrifices by the priesthood fo…

Tabulae novae

(7 words)

see Debt, Debt redemption

Tabulae nuptiales

(226 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (lit. 'marriage tablets'). Marriage contracts in Roman law, set out in documents from the Imperial period onwards (cf. Tac. Ann. 6,45,5 on Messalina [2] and Silius in AD 48). In Roman law, marriage itself was not a (formal) contract, it was sexual communion with the intention of living a married life ( affectio maritalis). The subject of the TN, by contrast, were question of property connected with marriage, primarily the pledging of a dowry ( Dos ) to the husband for the wife's maintenance, in Late Antiquity probably also the husband's…

Tabulae privatae

(308 words)

Author(s): Gröschler, Peter
[German version] Privately-composed Latin documents, as opposed to official documents ( tabulae publicae ). TP dealt with private legal actions, esp. contracts under the law of obligations including receipts, wills and marriage certificates, also procedural contracts such as the vadimonium . These documents were often twofold, containing the drawn-up text written out twice. The inner text ( scriptura interior) was tied up and sealed (Seals) and was thus protected from subsequent forgery, while the outer text ( scriptura exterior) offered access to the document content at …

Tabulae publicae

(154 words)

Author(s): de Libero, Loretana (Hamburg)
[German version] Official records and proclamations in Rome, which were recorded on tablets. The TP usually consisted of wood with whitewash ( album [2]) or a layer of wax ( tabula cerata). Later papyrus, parchment and bronze (for documents posted outdoors) were added as writing materials. The individual tablets could be bound together into a 'book' ( Codex ). Among the things recorded were Senate resolutions ( Senatus consultum ) and laws ( Lex ), magistrates' edicts, electoral and judicial protocols, commentarii , accounts, census lists and treaties. TP w…

Tabula Hebana

(219 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] The five bronze fragments, belonging together, of the TH (from Heba in Etruria) can - just like the Tabula Siarensis found in Siarum (in the province of Seville) in 1980 and other fragments from Todi and Rome - be related to a dossier containing a senatus consultum and a law, based on it, of the consuls of AD 20 ( lex Valeria Aurelia) with decrees for the honouring of Germanicus [2], who had died in AD 19. The dossier provides insight into the functioning of the comitia centuriata during the Imperial period and into the mobilisation of public loyalty for the imperi…

Tabula Heracleensis

(256 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (Herakleiensis). Bronze tablet (1·84 m × 0·38 m), broken into two parts, found in the area of ancient Heraclea [10] in Lucania. On the front sides of both parts, there are late 4th cent. BC regulations for the administration by public authorities of the estates of two temples, one of Dionysus and one of Athena. The end of a 1st cent. BC Latin text is preserved on the back of one of these tablets. Since the expected sanctio is missing, it can not be a law and therefore also not, as formerly presumed (as e.g. [1. 113-120]), a Caesarian l ex Iulia municipalis. The surviving pa…

Tabula Iliaca

(155 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Archeological technical term for marble plates with illustrations of the Homeric epics (Homerus [1]). The small plates with a height of up to 25 cm are covered on both sides with low reliefs in miniature with accompanying texts. Most of the 22 extant plates refer to the Iliad, one to the Odyssey. The most complete plate, the so-called Tabula Capitolina (Rome, KM), contains parts of the Aethiopís as well. The plates are dated to the early Imperial Period and were all found in Rome. Some are attested to have been produced by T…

Tabula Lugdunensis

(107 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Bronze tablet from Lugdunum (modern Lyon) with part of a speech by the emperor Claudius [III 1] in the Senate in which as censor in AD 47/8 he supports the wish of Gaulish nobles to be accepted into the Senate. Comparison of the original text (CIL XIII 1668 = ILS 212) with the version in Tacitus (Ann. 11,23-25) is revealing of the latter's way of working. Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography H. Freis, Historische Inschriften zur römischen Kaiserzeit, 21994, no. 34 (German translation)  F. Vittinghoff, Zur Rede des Kaisers Claudius über die Aufnahme von 'Gall…

Tabula lusoria

(6 words)

see Board games

Tabula Peutingeriana

(481 words)

Author(s): Fellmeth, Ulrich (Stuttgart)
[German version] Medieval copy (12th/13th cents.) of a map-like representation, named after one of the former owners, K. Peutinger of Augsburg (died in 1547) and based on an ancient model: it shows Pompeiis (destroyed in AD 79; 6,5) as well as Constantinopolis (founded in 328/330; 9,1). The original model must have been created in the 4th cent. with the aid of sources that reach back to the 1st cent. AD. The TP is a parchment role ( c. 680 × 33 cm) in 11 individual sheets (Vienna, Nationalbibliothek; the TP is numbered by these segments with five sub-columns each). It co…

Tabula pontificum

(239 words)

Author(s): Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne)
[German version] From the 4th cent. BC at the latest (going back too far: Cic. De or. 2,52) to the period of P. Mucius [I 5] Scaevola (from 130 BC), the pontifex maximus published notes about current events - the type and length of which are contested - in front of the regia on a white-washed wooden plate ( album: Cic. De or. 2,52; tabula dealbata: Serv. Auct. Aen. 1,373): along with price increases (due to bad harvests) and solar or lunar eclipses (Cato Orig. fr. 77 P.; cf. Cic. Rep. 1,25) probably prodigies, vota, temple consecrations and other items of re…

Tabularium

(249 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] A building in Rome ([III] with map 2, no. 62), probably built or dedicated in 78 BC under the consul Q. Lutatius [4] Catulus, after the fire of 83 BC, as a place of safe-keeping for public and private documents (CIL I2 736; 737). It was originally primarily public monies that were kept here, later numerous archived materials of state and city administration. According to a funerary inscription found in 1971, its architect was probably a certain Lucius Cornelius. The huge structure, almost 74 m long and, together with the…

Tabula Siarensis

(6 words)

see Tabula Hebana

Tacape

(193 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Commerce (Τακάπη/ Takápē, Latin Tacape). City on the Syrtis Minor, possibly a Phoenician or Punic foundation, modern Gabes in Tunisia. Punic remains are scanty [1. 1261]. T., a 'very large trading centre' (Str. 17,3,17), was 'in the middle of the desert' (Plin. HN 18,188). At the time of Augustus T. was a civitas (Plin. HN 5,25; 18,188), later a colonia (Tab. Peut. 6,5; It. Ant. 59,6). Further evidence: Plin. HN 16,115 (?); Ptol. 4,3,11; Stadiasmus maris magni 106 f.; It. Ant. 48,9 f.; 50,4; 73,5; 74,…

Tacfarinas

(175 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] Numidian, deserter from the Roman auxilia ; leader of an uprising against Roman power in Africa (Africa [3]) from c. AD 17 until AD 24. T. led the Musulamii in raids, petty wars and even sieges. In the West, the Moors under Mazippa, who were dissatisfied with Iuba [2] II, followed T. (Tac. Ann. 2,52; [1. 89, 104-106, 127]); even the Romans came to terms with him (Tac. Ann. 4,13). After victories celebrated prematurely by the pro-consuls M. Furius [II 2] Camillus and L. Apronius [II 1], T. recovered q…

Tachos

(159 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Ταχώς, in Manethon Τεώς/ Teṓs; Egyptian Ḏd.ḥr). Second king of the Egyptian 30th Dynasty,  c. 362-360 BC (calculations differ by up to two years), son of his predecessor Nectanebus [1] I and his co-regent during the last three years of his reign (from c. 365). T. tried to exploit the collapse of Persian power in western Asia, and in c. 360 BC, he led a campaign to Syria, with a great number of Greek mercenaries under the Spartan king Agesilaus [2] and a fleet under the Athenian Chabrias. During this campaign, T.'s brother Tjahapimu, who …

Tachygraphy

(1,305 words)

Author(s): Giovè Marchioli, Nicoletta (Triest) | Menci, Giovanna (Florence)
[German version] I. Definition Tachygraphy is the conventional term for the ancient technique of speed writing, which replaced letters, syllables, words or short sentences by symbols, and was practiced by sēmeiográphoi and tachygráphoi (Lat. notarii and exceptores) [1.30-31]. The existence of mutual Greco-Roman influences may be assumed, although the priority of either contemporaneous system is difficult to ascertain. The chronological priority of the Greek system might be attested by a letter of Cicero from 45 BC (Cic. Att. 13,32), in which he uses the Greek expression dià sēmeí…

Tacita

(100 words)

Author(s): Antoni, Silke (Kiel)
[German version] ('the silent', also Dea Muta 'mute goddess'). The name, date (21 February, on the Feralia) and nature of her cult (Ov. Fast. 2,569-582), which is supposed to have been introduced to Rome by the king Numa Pompilius (Plut. Numa 8,65b), suggest an Underworld deity (cf. Ov. Fast. 2,609; 5,422; Verg. Aen. 6,264 f.). T. is identified with the Nymph Lara/Lala or Larunda (Varro Ling. 5,74), who betrays a plan of Iuppiter, and he tears out her tongue. Raped by Mercurius, she becomes the mother of the Lares (Ov. Fast. 2,583-616; Lactant. Div. inst. 1,20,35). Antoni, Silke (Kiel)

Tacitism

(2,412 words)

Author(s): Muhlack, Ulrich
Muhlack, Ulrich [German version] A. Concept (CT) The term, coined, according to Benedetto Croce [1. 82-3], in 1921 by Giuseppe Toffanin [14], applied originally to Machiavellian literature in Italy at the end of the 16th and beginning of the 17th cent.; its exponents concealed their master, who had been put on the index of forbidden books, behind the figure of Tacitus, although he too was not entirely free from the suspicion of the Church. The scope of the term has since continued to be extended, and i…

Tacitus

(2,881 words)

Author(s): Flaig, Egon (Göttingen) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] (P.?) Cornelius T. Latin historiographer, c. AD 55- c. 120 Latin historiographer, c. AD 55 - c. AD 120. Flaig, Egon (Göttingen) [German version] I. Life (Publius?) Cornelius T. came from Gaul, and had a successful senatorial career under the Flavian emperors (70-96). He was a praetor in 88, consul in 97, proconsul in the province of Asia in 112 (OGIS 487 Mylasa). After the murder of Domitian in 96, controversies emerged as to how senators should relate to an emperor. T. replied to this issue initially with the Agricola, later with his two great works of historiography, the H…

Tactics

(952 words)

Author(s): Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] I. Greece Tactics are understood as the planning and execution of military operations, such as marching and battles. Before the emergence of the phalanx , no tactical organization of the army is discernible. The battle formation of the phalanx, however, required the army to be divided into subunits, with a marching order, an ordered array in file and a clear system of orders. Ancient historians and military writers document various marching orders and possible transitions (often probably rather remote from reality) fr…

Tadinae

(80 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria Municipium in Umbria (Plin. HN 3,114), modern Sant'Antonio della Rasina to the west of Gualdo Tadino. Road station on the via Flaminia. In 552 AD Narses [4] defeated the Goth Totila at T. (Proc. BG 4,29). Later abandoned in favour of the higher-lying Gualdo. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Sigismondi, La battaglia tra Narsete e Totila, in: Bolletino della Deputazione di Storia Patria dell'Umbria 65, 1968, 5-68.

Tadius

(73 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Italian family name, in inscriptions also Taddius. There is literary evidence in the Republican period only of P. T., a businessman and the legate of C. Verres in Sicily 73-71 BC (Cic. Verr. 2,2,49; 2,5,63) - perhaps identical with the acquaintance of T. Pomponius [I 5] Atticus (Cic. Att. 1,5,6; 1,8,1) - and Q. T., his relative (brother?), who also had business with Verres (Cic. Verr. 2,1,128; 2,1,130; 2,4,31). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Tadmor

(4 words)

see Palmyra

Taenarum

(525 words)

Author(s): Lienau | Tausend, Sabine
(Ταίναρον; Taínaron). [German version] [1] Promontory, southernmost point of the Peloponnesus (Ταίναρον/ Taínaron, Ταίναρος/ Taínaros; Lat. Taenarum, Taenaros). Promontory on the southern tip of a peninsula formed by the Taygetus, the southernmost point of the Peloponnesus, modern Tenaron or Matapan. It is a marble mountain of 5 km length (311 m height), without any bays on the rugged west side and with two bays dividing the east side (Ormos Asomaton in the south, Ormos Vathi in the north). It is connected to th…

Taenia

(4 words)

see Tainia

Taesia

(102 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Ταισία; Taisía). City in Bruttium of unknown location near Rhegium (according to [2] near Motta San Giovanni, but cf. [1; 3. 267]). Station of Delphic theōrodókoi (SGDI 2580, Z. 88: 3rd/2nd century BC; [4]), presumably identical with the fortress of Tisia (App. Hann. 188; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τισία) or Isia (Diod. 37,2,13). Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 E. Pais, Tisiae ed Isiae, in: id. (ed.), Italia antica, 1922, 111-122 2 C. Turano, T., in: Klearchos 13, 1971, 19-37 3 P. G. Guzzo, Le città scomparse della Magna Grecia, 1982 4 G. Manganaro, Città di Si…

Tagara

(57 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with (Ταγάρα: Peripl. m. r. 51, Τάγαρα: Ptol. 7,1,82). Inland city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, modern Ter, where excavations have found e.g. lamps of an Hellenistic type. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography H. P. Ray, Monastery and Guild. Commerce under the Sātavāhanas, 1986, 69 f.

Tagaste

(106 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Numidian settlement in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3]), whose Punic past is to date attested only by a Neo-Punic inscription [1], modern Souk-Ahras in Algeria (It. Ant. 44,6; oppidum Tagesense: Plin.  HN 5,30?). T. was a municipium ( ordo, decuriones: ILAlg 1, 875; 880), and a bishopric as early as the 3rd cent. AD; birthplace of Augustinus. Inscriptions: ILAlg 1, 866-927; Bull. archéologique du Comité des trauvaux historiques 1932-1933, 476 f.; 1934-1935, 227-229; 351 f.; 362; RIL 524-529. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J.-B. Chabot, Punica, in: Jour…

Tages

(325 words)

Author(s): Aigner-Foresti, Luciana (Vienna)
[German version] Legendary Etruscan cultural hero, son of Genius and grandson of Iuppiter (Fest. 359; Commenta Bernensia on Luc. 1,636) or of Hermes Chthonius (Procl. in Lyd. de ostentis 3). According to Etruscan tradition, he had the appearance of a child combined with the wisdom of old age (Cic. Div. 2,50). After a farmer who was plowing near Tarquinia (Tarquinii) or Tarchon had lifted him from the clod, T. supposedly proclaimed the Etruscan discipline ( disciplina Etrusca, Etrusci, Etruria III. D.) and then disappeared or died. The tomb of a ritually worshipped child…

Tagonius

(50 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] River in the territory of the Carpetani (Plut. Sertorius 17,2), modern Tajuña. It rises in the extreme east of the Sierra de Guadalajara at Maranchón, flows past Caracca and into the Tagus (Tajo) on its right side. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 216.

Tagos

(144 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (ταγός; tagós). Tagos (etymologically from táxis, cf. German Herzog) is usually seen as an elected (originally for life, later in the event of war: IG IX 2,257) highest official of the Thessalian League [1. 237-249; 2]. The effect of the dominance of the noble 'clans' (Aleuadae; Echecratidae; Scopadae) in the 5th cent. BC was that the office of tageía lost its significance [3. 125-127]; under Iason [2] the office temporarily gained a new prestige [5]. Recent studies, in contrast, see tagos as a genuinely local official (the official term for a high office instead being a…

Tagus

(88 words)

Author(s): Stepper, Ruth
[German version] (Τάγος/ Tágos). A gold-bearing (Mela 3,8) river, at 1008 km the longest (Str. 3,2,3; 3,1; 3; Plin. HN 3,19; 25; Ptol. 2,5,4) in the Iberian peninsula, modern Tagus (Spanish Tajo, Portugese Tejo). It rises in the modern Universales mountains, flows through Toletum, Caesarobriga, Augustobriga and into the Oceanus at Olisippo; first mentioned during the campaign Hannibal [4] conducted against the Carpetani in 218 BC (Pol. 3,14,5; Liv. 21,5,8). Stepper, Ruth Bibliography Schulten, Landeskunde 1, 341-349 P. Barceló, Aníbal de Cartago, 2000, 81 TIR K 30 Madrid, 199…

Taharka, Taharko

(5 words)

see Taracus

Taht-i Suleyman

(5 words)

see Šīs

Taifali

(199 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ταΐφαλοι/ Taḯphaloi, Suda s. v. Τ.; also Taifruli). Semi-nomadic Eastern Germanic equestrian people, recorded in the mid-3rd cent. AD in Dacia (Daci) and Moesia (Moesi; Iord. Get. 91) and then with the Tervingi in the north of Transylvania (Eutr. 8,2,2). In the middle of the 4th cent., they probably settled to the east of Muntenia (in modern Romania) as far west as the Alutus (modern Olt) with their core in the Muntenian Baragan Steppe. Earliest mention in literature: Pan. Lat. 11…

Tainia

(303 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Greek ταινία/ tainía). Term for bindings of all kinds. [German version] [1] Headband for festivals (Head)band, worn at Greek festivals (Pl. Symp. 212d.e, 213d; Xen. Symp. 5,9). Even gods wore, or bound their heads with, tainiai. (Paus. 1,8,4). Furthermore, cult images (Paus. 8,31,8; 10,35,10), trees (Theocr. 18,44), monuments [3], urns, sacrificial animals and deceased (Lucian, Dial. mort. 13,4) had tainiai wound round them. The Romans adopted tainiai from the Greeks (e.g. Ov. Met. 8,724 f.). As a sign of a victor and of success (Paus. 4,16,6; 6,20,10; 9,22,3…

Taktika

(326 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Military handbook Byzantine term for military handbook, cf. Taktika [2]; cf. also stratēgikón . Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) [German version] [2] Taktika of Leo Military handbook ( stratēgikón) in 20 books, written c. AD 905 by the emperor Leo [9] VI or at his command. It is to some extent based on earlier sources such as writings by Onasander [2] and the stratēgikón of Mauricius, but it also contains many contemporary passages, e.g. on the Arabs and Hungary. The work, which is preserved in two different versions, exer…

Taktikon Beneševič

(6 words)

see Taktika [3]

Taktikon Uspenskij

(6 words)

see Taktika [3]

Talarius ludus

(331 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle)
[German version] (from Latin talus, 'ankle', 'dice'). The four secure written records about the TL allow no final conclusion as to whether it was a Roman game of dice (thus [7. 1842]) or a type of staged presentation in which the performers wore a toga that reached down to their ankles. For Cicero (Cic. Att. 1,16,3; Cic. Off. 1,150), the TL was immoral and the lowest profession next to 'salve vendors' and 'dancers' (Entertainers); Quintilianus (Inst. 11,3,58) emphasises its frolicsomeness and implies song as an accompaniment…

Talassio

(7 words)

see Wedding customs and rituals

Talaus

(97 words)

Author(s): Börm, Henning (Kiel)
[German version] (Τάλαος; Tálaos). Mythical king of Argos, son of Bias [1] and Pero [1], brother of Perialces and Arius, husband of Lysimache. T., who was probably originally a mountain daimon, in the earlier legend is made to lose his life and rule by Amphiaraus (Pind. N. 9,13) and appears in later literature as one of the Argonauts (Apoll. Rhod. 1,118) and as the father (Hyg. Fab. 70) of Adrastus, Aristomachus, Hippomedon, Mecisteus, Parthenopaeus, Pronax and Eriphyle (Seven against Thebes). His grave was worshipped in the market place of Argos (Paus. 2,21,2). Börm, Henning (Kiel)

Taleides Painter

(215 words)

Author(s): Mommsen, Heide (Stuttgart)
[German version] Attic Black Figure vase painter, c. 550-530 BC, named after the potter Taleides, most, perhaps all, of whose signed pots (15) he decorated: various shapes, mainly Little-Master cups. In addition he painted two hydriai for the potter Timagoras. The TP also had connexions with Amasis (Amasis Painter); the authenticity of an Amasis signature on the foot of a TP lekythos in Malibu (GM 76.AE.48), however, is disputed. The more than 30 pots ascribed to the TP show that among his contemporari…

Talent

(445 words)

Author(s): Hitzl, Konrad (Tübingen)
[German version] (τάλαντον/ tálanton; Latin talentum). The talent was the biggest Greek unit of measurement for the monetary system and for commercial weights. Thus, the word tálanton was used in the Greek Bible translation as a synonym for the highest weight level of the Hebrew text (Hebrew kikkar, cf. 2 Sam 12,30; 1 Kings 9,14; 9,28 et alibi; cf. Mt 25,14-30), without any connection to its actual weight. A talent was always worth 60 minai ( mína [1]) regardless of their weight. The silver coin-talents from Aegina, Euboea, Attica and probably Corinth, too, consistently…

Talion

(631 words)

Author(s): Hengstl, Joachim (Marburg/Lahn) | Völkl, Artur (Innsbruck)
(Latin talio, 'equal retribution') means that the penalty must be appropriate to the evil committed against the victim. [German version] I. General points Talion is found in many ancient laws, e.g. Cod. Hammurapi 229 (killing the son of the builder because of the builder's responsibility for the death of the landlord's son) or Ex 21:22-25 ("An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, blood for blood"). From a historical perspective, talion can be regarded as a mitigation compared to the unrestricted right of revenge of th…

Talmud

(142 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] ('study, learning', from Hebrew lamad, 'learn'). The central work within rabbinical literature, consisting of a) the Mishnah, the oldest authoritative collections of laws of rabbinical Judaism ( c. AD 200) and b) the Gemara, i.e. interpretations of and discussions on the material of the Mishnah. Since in the rabbinical period there were two centres of Jewish scholarship, i.e. Palestine and Babylonia (Sura, Pumbedita), two different Talmudim came into being: the Palestinian (= Jerusalem Talmud; essentially finalized c. AD 450) and the Babylonian (essentiall…

Talmudic law, Talmud schools

(8 words)

see Judaic law

Talos

(308 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Τάλως/ Tálōs). [German version] [1] Crete's iron guardian Myth of various versions in Apollod. 1,140 f.: T. was one of the bronze race or was given to Minos by Hephaestus (by Zeus to Europe [2]: Apoll. Rhod. 4,1643); he is a bronze man (triple giant: Orph. A. 1351) or a bull; he has a single vein from the neck to the ankles which is sealed at the end by a bronze nail (a membrane: Apoll. Rhod. 4,1647 f.); he runs all the way around Crete three times a day and keeps the Argonauts from landing by throwing…

Talos Painter

(186 words)

Author(s): Böhr, Elke (Wiesbaden)
[German version] Attic vase painter of the late Classical period, c. 410-390 BC, successor of the Meidias Painter and the Dinos Painter, named after a volute krater in Ruvo with a rare depiction of the death of the mythical bronze giant Talos [1]. The TM is known exclusively by large pots: kraters, a loutrophoros and a stand for a lebes. Typical of the TM is his unusual way of depicting mythological themes: wedding of Theseus and Helena, feast of Dionysus and Hephaestus in a vine arbour, apotheosis of Hera…

Talpa

(4 words)

see Mole

Talthybius

(130 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Ταλθύβιος; Talthýbios). Herald and follower of Agamemnon (Hom. Il. 1,320 f.), at whose command he and Eurybates [1] unenthusiastically go and fetch from Achilles [1] the object of their dispute, Briseis (ibid. 1,327-347). T. also acts in the service of all Greeks, e.g. when he and the Trojan herald Idaeus [3a] interrupt the single combat between Ajax [1] and Hector (ibid. 7,273-312); as a general Greek herald he also appears in Euripides (Hec., Tro.), who makes the idea of the "un…

Tamarus

(79 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Right-bank tributary of the Calor (modern Calore) in the territory of the Hirpini, modern Tammaro. It rises in the region of Saepinum, crosses the Ager Taurasinus, touches Forum Novum (modern Sant' Arcangelo) and into the Calor at Beneventum; stretches of it are flanked by the via Minucia (station Super Thamari fluvium:  It. Ant. 103,1) and the via Traiana. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Miller, 370 G. De Benedittis, L'alta valle del T., in: Studi Beneventani 4-5, 1991, 3-38.

Tamassus

(278 words)

Author(s): Senff, Reinhard (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Kypros | | Phoenicians, Poeni | Aegean Koine (Ταμασ[σ]ός/ Tamas(s)ós). City in the centre of Cyprus at the eastern fringes of the Troodus Mountains at the modern village of Politiko to the southwest of Nicosia. T. was known in Antiquity for its wealth of copper (Hom. Od. 1,184: Τεμέση; Str. 14,6,5). The settlement can be traced back as far at the Bronze Age. T. is first mentioned as an autonomous city kingdom in 673/2 BC in an Assyrian inscription [1]. …

Tamesa

(54 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Tamesis). River in southeastern Britain, modern Thames (Caes. Gall. 5,11,8; Tac. Ann. 14,32; Cass. Dio 40,3,1; 60,20 f.; 62,1). At the mouth of the T., an excellent natural harbour, was Londinium (modern London). Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography M. Förster, Der Flußname Themse, 1942 A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain, 1979, 466.

Tamia

(66 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ταμία/ tamía). In a well-to-do Greek house the tamia managed provisions and objects of value stored in the house, usually in a lockable closet ( Tamieion ; Thalamos ). Among the servants she had a special status and enjoyed the trust of the owner of the house (Hom. Od. 2,345; Pind. Ol. 13,7; Xen. Oec. 9,10-13; 10,10; Lib. Or. 16,47). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)

Tamias

(870 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ταμίας/ tamías, pl. ταμίαι/ tamíai). Administrator of temple coffers or state coffers. In Athens the tamiai of Athena (ταμίαι. τῆς θεοῦ, tamíai tȇs theoû) held the most important treasury office. The ten tamiai were appointed by lot from the property class of the pentakosiomédimnoi , one from each phylḗ . At the beginning of their year of office, in the presence of the council ( boulḗ ) the tamiai were handed the gold-ivory image of Athena, the bronze statues of Nike, covered in silver and gold leaves, the votive offerings and the balance of cash …

Tamieion

(163 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ταμιεῖον, tamieîon). Cash office or strong-room in which monies and objects of value belonging to temples, the polis or private individuals were kept by a bursar or treasurer, a servant of the household (ταμίας/ tamías, ταμία/ tamía). For the Athenian symmachia (Delian League), the Sanctuary of Apollo on Delos was the treasury (κοινὸν ταμιεῖον/ koinón tamieion) for incoming dues (φόροι/ phóroi; Thuc. 1,96,2; Diod. Sic. 11,47,1). In Athens, the ὀπισθόδομος/ opisthódomos was the place in which the financial resources of the polis were kept. Tamieion is also the t…

Tammuz

(303 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (Thammuz; Sumerian Dumu-zi, 'legitimate son', Aramaic  Tham(m)uza, Hebrew Thammûz, Greek  Θαμμουζ/ Thammouz). Prehistoric king of Uruk and husband of the city goddess Inanna (Ishtar; Hieros Gamos). She hands T. over to the forces of the Underworld when she - having failed in her attempt to seize the rule over the Underworld for herself - is released from the Underworld on condition of the promise of a (human) substitute. Dumu-zi is captured by the demons of the Underworld; however, his siste…

Tamos

(95 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (Τάμως /Támōs) from Memphis in Egypt, representative ( hýparchos) of Tissaphernes in Ionia (Thuc. 8,31,2; 8,87,1 and 3; for the year 411), took part in Cyrus [3]'s rebellion in 401 BC as a commissioner ( epimelētḗs) for Ionia/Aeolis (Diod. 14,19,6) and a naval leader (Xen. An. 1,2,21; 1,4,2) and after the death of Cyrus at Cunaxa fled to Egypt, where he and his sons were killed by Psammetichus [6] (according to Diod. Sic. 14,35,3-5; probably a royal name for Amyrtaeus [2]), who intended to take possession of T.'s fleet and wealth. Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Tamphilus

(9 words)

Roman cognomen, see Baebius [I 1; 10-13; II 13].

Tamsapor

(66 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] Commander of Sapor [2] II, entrusted with the defence of the Persian western frontier. He spoke in favour of peace negotiations with Rome in AD 357 (Amm. Marc. 16,9,3 f.; 17,5). When the Persian War flared up again in 359, T. and Nohodares successfully led small, highly manoeuvrable divisions against the Romans (Amm. Marc. 18,8,3; 19,9,7; cf. Them. Or. 4,57). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Tamuda

(61 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Small Mauretanian rural town (3rd to 1st cents. BC) at Tétouan (in Morocco) near the coast (of the Mare Ibericum), with strong Carthaginian influences (forms of burial, coin minting). Earliest archaeological evidence from the 6th cent. BC; in the Roman Imperial period the site of a military camp. Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography M. Ponsich, s. v. T., DCPP, 436.

Tamynae

(168 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Τάμυναι/ Támynai, also Ταμῦναι/ Tamŷnai). Township in the territory of Eretria [1] (Str. 10,1,10) about 14 km to the north of Porthmus [2] at modern Avlonari, settled from the Early Helladic until the Roman Imperial period (remains of the city wall and a 4th cent. BC Doric temple). The assumption that the Persians landed at T. in 490 BC (textual conjecture on Hdt. 6,101) is untenable. Inscriptions of the 3rd cent. BC record T. as a demos of Eretria (cf. IG XII 9, 191). In the conflicts between Athens and Philippus [4] II over influence on Euboea [1], Ph…

Tanager

(51 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Tributary of the Silarus, modern Torrente Tanagro in Lucania (Verg. Georg. 3,151 and Serv.: siccus T.; Plin.  HN 2,225 without giving a name; Vibius Sequester 151 R.; ad Tanarum, the station at the river crossing:  It. Ant. 109,5). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Philipp, s. v. T., RE 4 A, 2153.

Tanagra

(743 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Macedonia, Macedones | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Pompeius | Attica | Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians (Τάναγρα/ Tánagra). City in east Boeotia on the eastern foothills of the Ceryceum mountains, north of the point where the Laris flowed into the Asopus [2], c. 4,5 km southeast of modern T. (formerly Vratsi). The extensive remains have not been systematically excavated [1; 6]. The Mycenaean settlement and the necropolis near Vratsi, with its many la…

Tanagra figurines

(6 words)

see Tanagra; Terracottas

Tanais

(391 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Τάναϊς/ Tánaïs). [German version] [1] River A 1970 km long river forming the border between the Scythae and the Sarmatae (Hdt. 4,21; according to Plin. HN 6,20 called Silis by the Scythae) and flowing into the Maeotis, modern Don. Sarmatian tribes lived around its lower reaches from the 4th cent. BC onwards; some 15 ancient settlements are known from archaeology there. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] City This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Commerce | Colonization | Patricius | Patricius | Rome City founded in the 3rd …

Tanaquil

(281 words)

Author(s): Amann, Petra
[German version] According to Roman tradition, T. was a noble Etruscan lady from Tarquinii and the wife of the fifth King of Rome (Pol. 6,11a,7; Fabius Pictor in Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,6,3 and 30,2 f.; Liv. 1,34,4 ff.), the half-Greek L. Tarquinius [11] Priscus who also came from Tarquinia. Familiar with the art of prophecy, she predicted, upon the couple's arrival in Rome, her husband's rise to the throne (Liv. 1,34,8 f.; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,47,3 f.) and, after he was murdered, cunningly procu…

Tanarus

(65 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] River rising in the Alpes Maritimae (Plin. HN 3,118) and flowing from the right-hand side into the Padus (modern Po) near Valentia and Forum Fulvi, modern Tanaro. Hasta [4], Alba Pompeia, Pollentia [1] and Augusta [1] Bagiennorum are on its course. Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography A. Costanzo, La romanizzazione nel bacino idrografico padano, 1975, 98  E. Panero, La città romana in Piemonte, 2000, 25.

Tang-e Sarvak

(111 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Gorge midway between Ramhor, Hormuz and Behbahan in ancient  Elymais (region in southwestern Iran), where rock reliefs (some with Elymaean inscriptions) were carved on four stone blocks in the 2nd/3rd cents. AD. Some of the reliefs show the dynasts Abar-Basi and Orodes with dependants and dignitaries in rites of legitimization or rulership (in the presence of deities and divine symbols), and on Block III a cavalry battle (with minor characters) is depicted. The identification of t…
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