Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Tabularium

(249 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] A building in Rome ([III] with map 2, no. 62), probably built or dedicated in 78 BC under the consul Q. Lutatius [4] Catulus, after the fire of 83 BC, as a place of safe-keeping for public and private documents (CIL I2 736; 737). It was originally primarily public monies that were kept here, later numerous archived materials of state and city administration. According to a funerary inscription found in 1971, its architect was probably a certain Lucius Cornelius. The huge structure, almost 74 m long and, together with the…

Tabula Siarensis

(6 words)

see Tabula Hebana

Tacape

(193 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Commerce (Τακάπη/ Takápē, Latin Tacape). City on the Syrtis Minor, possibly a Phoenician or Punic foundation, modern Gabes in Tunisia. Punic remains are scanty [1. 1261]. T., a 'very large trading centre' (Str. 17,3,17), was 'in the middle of the desert' (Plin. HN 18,188). At the time of Augustus T. was a civitas (Plin. HN 5,25; 18,188), later a colonia (Tab. Peut. 6,5; It. Ant. 59,6). Further evidence: Plin. HN 16,115 (?); Ptol. 4,3,11; Stadiasmus maris magni 106 f.; It. Ant. 48,9 f.; 50,4; 73,5; 74,…

Tacfarinas

(175 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] Numidian, deserter from the Roman auxilia ; leader of an uprising against Roman power in Africa (Africa [3]) from c. AD 17 until AD 24. T. led the Musulamii in raids, petty wars and even sieges. In the West, the Moors under Mazippa, who were dissatisfied with Iuba [2] II, followed T. (Tac. Ann. 2,52; [1. 89, 104-106, 127]); even the Romans came to terms with him (Tac. Ann. 4,13). After victories celebrated prematurely by the pro-consuls M. Furius [II 2] Camillus and L. Apronius [II 1], T. recovered q…

Tachos

(159 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Ταχώς, in Manethon Τεώς/ Teṓs; Egyptian Ḏd.ḥr). Second king of the Egyptian 30th Dynasty,  c. 362-360 BC (calculations differ by up to two years), son of his predecessor Nectanebus [1] I and his co-regent during the last three years of his reign (from c. 365). T. tried to exploit the collapse of Persian power in western Asia, and in c. 360 BC, he led a campaign to Syria, with a great number of Greek mercenaries under the Spartan king Agesilaus [2] and a fleet under the Athenian Chabrias. During this campaign, T.'s brother Tjahapimu, who …

Tachygraphy

(1,305 words)

Author(s): Giovè Marchioli, Nicoletta (Triest) | Menci, Giovanna (Florence)
[German version] I. Definition Tachygraphy is the conventional term for the ancient technique of speed writing, which replaced letters, syllables, words or short sentences by symbols, and was practiced by sēmeiográphoi and tachygráphoi (Lat. notarii and exceptores) [1.30-31]. The existence of mutual Greco-Roman influences may be assumed, although the priority of either contemporaneous system is difficult to ascertain. The chronological priority of the Greek system might be attested by a letter of Cicero from 45 BC (Cic. Att. 13,32), in which he uses the Greek expression dià sēmeí…

Tacita

(100 words)

Author(s): Antoni, Silke (Kiel)
[German version] ('the silent', also Dea Muta 'mute goddess'). The name, date (21 February, on the Feralia) and nature of her cult (Ov. Fast. 2,569-582), which is supposed to have been introduced to Rome by the king Numa Pompilius (Plut. Numa 8,65b), suggest an Underworld deity (cf. Ov. Fast. 2,609; 5,422; Verg. Aen. 6,264 f.). T. is identified with the Nymph Lara/Lala or Larunda (Varro Ling. 5,74), who betrays a plan of Iuppiter, and he tears out her tongue. Raped by Mercurius, she becomes the mother of the Lares (Ov. Fast. 2,583-616; Lactant. Div. inst. 1,20,35). Antoni, Silke (Kiel)

Tacitism

(2,412 words)

Author(s): Muhlack, Ulrich
Muhlack, Ulrich [German version] A. Concept (CT) The term, coined, according to Benedetto Croce [1. 82-3], in 1921 by Giuseppe Toffanin [14], applied originally to Machiavellian literature in Italy at the end of the 16th and beginning of the 17th cent.; its exponents concealed their master, who had been put on the index of forbidden books, behind the figure of Tacitus, although he too was not entirely free from the suspicion of the Church. The scope of the term has since continued to be extended, and i…

Tacitus

(2,881 words)

Author(s): Flaig, Egon (Göttingen) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] (P.?) Cornelius T. Latin historiographer, c. AD 55- c. 120 Latin historiographer, c. AD 55 - c. AD 120. Flaig, Egon (Göttingen) [German version] I. Life (Publius?) Cornelius T. came from Gaul, and had a successful senatorial career under the Flavian emperors (70-96). He was a praetor in 88, consul in 97, proconsul in the province of Asia in 112 (OGIS 487 Mylasa). After the murder of Domitian in 96, controversies emerged as to how senators should relate to an emperor. T. replied to this issue initially with the Agricola, later with his two great works of historiography, the H…

Tactics

(952 words)

Author(s): Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] I. Greece Tactics are understood as the planning and execution of military operations, such as marching and battles. Before the emergence of the phalanx , no tactical organization of the army is discernible. The battle formation of the phalanx, however, required the army to be divided into subunits, with a marching order, an ordered array in file and a clear system of orders. Ancient historians and military writers document various marching orders and possible transitions (often probably rather remote from reality) fr…

Tadinae

(80 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria Municipium in Umbria (Plin. HN 3,114), modern Sant'Antonio della Rasina to the west of Gualdo Tadino. Road station on the via Flaminia. In 552 AD Narses [4] defeated the Goth Totila at T. (Proc. BG 4,29). Later abandoned in favour of the higher-lying Gualdo. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Sigismondi, La battaglia tra Narsete e Totila, in: Bolletino della Deputazione di Storia Patria dell'Umbria 65, 1968, 5-68.

Tadius

(73 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Italian family name, in inscriptions also Taddius. There is literary evidence in the Republican period only of P. T., a businessman and the legate of C. Verres in Sicily 73-71 BC (Cic. Verr. 2,2,49; 2,5,63) - perhaps identical with the acquaintance of T. Pomponius [I 5] Atticus (Cic. Att. 1,5,6; 1,8,1) - and Q. T., his relative (brother?), who also had business with Verres (Cic. Verr. 2,1,128; 2,1,130; 2,4,31). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Tadmor

(4 words)

see Palmyra

Taenarum

(525 words)

Author(s): Lienau | Tausend, Sabine
(Ταίναρον; Taínaron). [German version] [1] Promontory, southernmost point of the Peloponnesus (Ταίναρον/ Taínaron, Ταίναρος/ Taínaros; Lat. Taenarum, Taenaros). Promontory on the southern tip of a peninsula formed by the Taygetus, the southernmost point of the Peloponnesus, modern Tenaron or Matapan. It is a marble mountain of 5 km length (311 m height), without any bays on the rugged west side and with two bays dividing the east side (Ormos Asomaton in the south, Ormos Vathi in the north). It is connected to th…

Taenia

(4 words)

see Tainia

Taesia

(102 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Ταισία; Taisía). City in Bruttium of unknown location near Rhegium (according to [2] near Motta San Giovanni, but cf. [1; 3. 267]). Station of Delphic theōrodókoi (SGDI 2580, Z. 88: 3rd/2nd century BC; [4]), presumably identical with the fortress of Tisia (App. Hann. 188; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τισία) or Isia (Diod. 37,2,13). Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 E. Pais, Tisiae ed Isiae, in: id. (ed.), Italia antica, 1922, 111-122 2 C. Turano, T., in: Klearchos 13, 1971, 19-37 3 P. G. Guzzo, Le città scomparse della Magna Grecia, 1982 4 G. Manganaro, Città di Si…

Tagara

(57 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with (Ταγάρα: Peripl. m. r. 51, Τάγαρα: Ptol. 7,1,82). Inland city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, modern Ter, where excavations have found e.g. lamps of an Hellenistic type. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography H. P. Ray, Monastery and Guild. Commerce under the Sātavāhanas, 1986, 69 f.

Tagaste

(106 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Numidian settlement in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3]), whose Punic past is to date attested only by a Neo-Punic inscription [1], modern Souk-Ahras in Algeria (It. Ant. 44,6; oppidum Tagesense: Plin.  HN 5,30?). T. was a municipium ( ordo, decuriones: ILAlg 1, 875; 880), and a bishopric as early as the 3rd cent. AD; birthplace of Augustinus. Inscriptions: ILAlg 1, 866-927; Bull. archéologique du Comité des trauvaux historiques 1932-1933, 476 f.; 1934-1935, 227-229; 351 f.; 362; RIL 524-529. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J.-B. Chabot, Punica, in: Jour…

Tages

(325 words)

Author(s): Aigner-Foresti, Luciana (Vienna)
[German version] Legendary Etruscan cultural hero, son of Genius and grandson of Iuppiter (Fest. 359; Commenta Bernensia on Luc. 1,636) or of Hermes Chthonius (Procl. in Lyd. de ostentis 3). According to Etruscan tradition, he had the appearance of a child combined with the wisdom of old age (Cic. Div. 2,50). After a farmer who was plowing near Tarquinia (Tarquinii) or Tarchon had lifted him from the clod, T. supposedly proclaimed the Etruscan discipline ( disciplina Etrusca, Etrusci, Etruria III. D.) and then disappeared or died. The tomb of a ritually worshipped child…

Tagonius

(50 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] River in the territory of the Carpetani (Plut. Sertorius 17,2), modern Tajuña. It rises in the extreme east of the Sierra de Guadalajara at Maranchón, flows past Caracca and into the Tagus (Tajo) on its right side. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 216.

Tagos

(144 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (ταγός; tagós). Tagos (etymologically from táxis, cf. German Herzog) is usually seen as an elected (originally for life, later in the event of war: IG IX 2,257) highest official of the Thessalian League [1. 237-249; 2]. The effect of the dominance of the noble 'clans' (Aleuadae; Echecratidae; Scopadae) in the 5th cent. BC was that the office of tageía lost its significance [3. 125-127]; under Iason [2] the office temporarily gained a new prestige [5]. Recent studies, in contrast, see tagos as a genuinely local official (the official term for a high office instead being a…

Tagus

(88 words)

Author(s): Stepper, Ruth
[German version] (Τάγος/ Tágos). A gold-bearing (Mela 3,8) river, at 1008 km the longest (Str. 3,2,3; 3,1; 3; Plin. HN 3,19; 25; Ptol. 2,5,4) in the Iberian peninsula, modern Tagus (Spanish Tajo, Portugese Tejo). It rises in the modern Universales mountains, flows through Toletum, Caesarobriga, Augustobriga and into the Oceanus at Olisippo; first mentioned during the campaign Hannibal [4] conducted against the Carpetani in 218 BC (Pol. 3,14,5; Liv. 21,5,8). Stepper, Ruth Bibliography Schulten, Landeskunde 1, 341-349 P. Barceló, Aníbal de Cartago, 2000, 81 TIR K 30 Madrid, 199…

Taharka, Taharko

(5 words)

see Taracus

Taht-i Suleyman

(5 words)

see Šīs

Taifali

(199 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ταΐφαλοι/ Taḯphaloi, Suda s. v. Τ.; also Taifruli). Semi-nomadic Eastern Germanic equestrian people, recorded in the mid-3rd cent. AD in Dacia (Daci) and Moesia (Moesi; Iord. Get. 91) and then with the Tervingi in the north of Transylvania (Eutr. 8,2,2). In the middle of the 4th cent., they probably settled to the east of Muntenia (in modern Romania) as far west as the Alutus (modern Olt) with their core in the Muntenian Baragan Steppe. Earliest mention in literature: Pan. Lat. 11…

Tainia

(303 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Greek ταινία/ tainía). Term for bindings of all kinds. [German version] [1] Headband for festivals (Head)band, worn at Greek festivals (Pl. Symp. 212d.e, 213d; Xen. Symp. 5,9). Even gods wore, or bound their heads with, tainiai. (Paus. 1,8,4). Furthermore, cult images (Paus. 8,31,8; 10,35,10), trees (Theocr. 18,44), monuments [3], urns, sacrificial animals and deceased (Lucian, Dial. mort. 13,4) had tainiai wound round them. The Romans adopted tainiai from the Greeks (e.g. Ov. Met. 8,724 f.). As a sign of a victor and of success (Paus. 4,16,6; 6,20,10; 9,22,3…

Taktika

(326 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Military handbook Byzantine term for military handbook, cf. Taktika [2]; cf. also stratēgikón . Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) [German version] [2] Taktika of Leo Military handbook ( stratēgikón) in 20 books, written c. AD 905 by the emperor Leo [9] VI or at his command. It is to some extent based on earlier sources such as writings by Onasander [2] and the stratēgikón of Mauricius, but it also contains many contemporary passages, e.g. on the Arabs and Hungary. The work, which is preserved in two different versions, exer…

Taktikon Beneševič

(6 words)

see Taktika [3]

Taktikon Uspenskij

(6 words)

see Taktika [3]

Talarius ludus

(331 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle)
[German version] (from Latin talus, 'ankle', 'dice'). The four secure written records about the TL allow no final conclusion as to whether it was a Roman game of dice (thus [7. 1842]) or a type of staged presentation in which the performers wore a toga that reached down to their ankles. For Cicero (Cic. Att. 1,16,3; Cic. Off. 1,150), the TL was immoral and the lowest profession next to 'salve vendors' and 'dancers' (Entertainers); Quintilianus (Inst. 11,3,58) emphasises its frolicsomeness and implies song as an accompaniment…

Talassio

(7 words)

see Wedding customs and rituals

Talaus

(97 words)

Author(s): Börm, Henning (Kiel)
[German version] (Τάλαος; Tálaos). Mythical king of Argos, son of Bias [1] and Pero [1], brother of Perialces and Arius, husband of Lysimache. T., who was probably originally a mountain daimon, in the earlier legend is made to lose his life and rule by Amphiaraus (Pind. N. 9,13) and appears in later literature as one of the Argonauts (Apoll. Rhod. 1,118) and as the father (Hyg. Fab. 70) of Adrastus, Aristomachus, Hippomedon, Mecisteus, Parthenopaeus, Pronax and Eriphyle (Seven against Thebes). His grave was worshipped in the market place of Argos (Paus. 2,21,2). Börm, Henning (Kiel)

Taleides Painter

(215 words)

Author(s): Mommsen, Heide (Stuttgart)
[German version] Attic Black Figure vase painter, c. 550-530 BC, named after the potter Taleides, most, perhaps all, of whose signed pots (15) he decorated: various shapes, mainly Little-Master cups. In addition he painted two hydriai for the potter Timagoras. The TP also had connexions with Amasis (Amasis Painter); the authenticity of an Amasis signature on the foot of a TP lekythos in Malibu (GM 76.AE.48), however, is disputed. The more than 30 pots ascribed to the TP show that among his contemporari…

Talent

(445 words)

Author(s): Hitzl, Konrad (Tübingen)
[German version] (τάλαντον/ tálanton; Latin talentum). The talent was the biggest Greek unit of measurement for the monetary system and for commercial weights. Thus, the word tálanton was used in the Greek Bible translation as a synonym for the highest weight level of the Hebrew text (Hebrew kikkar, cf. 2 Sam 12,30; 1 Kings 9,14; 9,28 et alibi; cf. Mt 25,14-30), without any connection to its actual weight. A talent was always worth 60 minai ( mína [1]) regardless of their weight. The silver coin-talents from Aegina, Euboea, Attica and probably Corinth, too, consistently…

Talion

(631 words)

Author(s): Hengstl, Joachim (Marburg/Lahn) | Völkl, Artur (Innsbruck)
(Latin talio, 'equal retribution') means that the penalty must be appropriate to the evil committed against the victim. [German version] I. General points Talion is found in many ancient laws, e.g. Cod. Hammurapi 229 (killing the son of the builder because of the builder's responsibility for the death of the landlord's son) or Ex 21:22-25 ("An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, blood for blood"). From a historical perspective, talion can be regarded as a mitigation compared to the unrestricted right of revenge of th…

Talmud

(142 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] ('study, learning', from Hebrew lamad, 'learn'). The central work within rabbinical literature, consisting of a) the Mishnah, the oldest authoritative collections of laws of rabbinical Judaism ( c. AD 200) and b) the Gemara, i.e. interpretations of and discussions on the material of the Mishnah. Since in the rabbinical period there were two centres of Jewish scholarship, i.e. Palestine and Babylonia (Sura, Pumbedita), two different Talmudim came into being: the Palestinian (= Jerusalem Talmud; essentially finalized c. AD 450) and the Babylonian (essentiall…

Talmudic law, Talmud schools

(8 words)

see Judaic law

Talos

(308 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Τάλως/ Tálōs). [German version] [1] Crete's iron guardian Myth of various versions in Apollod. 1,140 f.: T. was one of the bronze race or was given to Minos by Hephaestus (by Zeus to Europe [2]: Apoll. Rhod. 4,1643); he is a bronze man (triple giant: Orph. A. 1351) or a bull; he has a single vein from the neck to the ankles which is sealed at the end by a bronze nail (a membrane: Apoll. Rhod. 4,1647 f.); he runs all the way around Crete three times a day and keeps the Argonauts from landing by throwing…

Talos Painter

(186 words)

Author(s): Böhr, Elke (Wiesbaden)
[German version] Attic vase painter of the late Classical period, c. 410-390 BC, successor of the Meidias Painter and the Dinos Painter, named after a volute krater in Ruvo with a rare depiction of the death of the mythical bronze giant Talos [1]. The TM is known exclusively by large pots: kraters, a loutrophoros and a stand for a lebes. Typical of the TM is his unusual way of depicting mythological themes: wedding of Theseus and Helena, feast of Dionysus and Hephaestus in a vine arbour, apotheosis of Hera…

Talpa

(4 words)

see Mole

Talthybius

(130 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Ταλθύβιος; Talthýbios). Herald and follower of Agamemnon (Hom. Il. 1,320 f.), at whose command he and Eurybates [1] unenthusiastically go and fetch from Achilles [1] the object of their dispute, Briseis (ibid. 1,327-347). T. also acts in the service of all Greeks, e.g. when he and the Trojan herald Idaeus [3a] interrupt the single combat between Ajax [1] and Hector (ibid. 7,273-312); as a general Greek herald he also appears in Euripides (Hec., Tro.), who makes the idea of the "un…

Tamarus

(79 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Right-bank tributary of the Calor (modern Calore) in the territory of the Hirpini, modern Tammaro. It rises in the region of Saepinum, crosses the Ager Taurasinus, touches Forum Novum (modern Sant' Arcangelo) and into the Calor at Beneventum; stretches of it are flanked by the via Minucia (station Super Thamari fluvium:  It. Ant. 103,1) and the via Traiana. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Miller, 370 G. De Benedittis, L'alta valle del T., in: Studi Beneventani 4-5, 1991, 3-38.

Tamassus

(278 words)

Author(s): Senff, Reinhard (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Kypros | | Phoenicians, Poeni | Aegean Koine (Ταμασ[σ]ός/ Tamas(s)ós). City in the centre of Cyprus at the eastern fringes of the Troodus Mountains at the modern village of Politiko to the southwest of Nicosia. T. was known in Antiquity for its wealth of copper (Hom. Od. 1,184: Τεμέση; Str. 14,6,5). The settlement can be traced back as far at the Bronze Age. T. is first mentioned as an autonomous city kingdom in 673/2 BC in an Assyrian inscription [1]. …

Tamesa

(54 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Tamesis). River in southeastern Britain, modern Thames (Caes. Gall. 5,11,8; Tac. Ann. 14,32; Cass. Dio 40,3,1; 60,20 f.; 62,1). At the mouth of the T., an excellent natural harbour, was Londinium (modern London). Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography M. Förster, Der Flußname Themse, 1942 A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain, 1979, 466.

Tamia

(66 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ταμία/ tamía). In a well-to-do Greek house the tamia managed provisions and objects of value stored in the house, usually in a lockable closet ( Tamieion ; Thalamos ). Among the servants she had a special status and enjoyed the trust of the owner of the house (Hom. Od. 2,345; Pind. Ol. 13,7; Xen. Oec. 9,10-13; 10,10; Lib. Or. 16,47). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)

Tamias

(870 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ταμίας/ tamías, pl. ταμίαι/ tamíai). Administrator of temple coffers or state coffers. In Athens the tamiai of Athena (ταμίαι. τῆς θεοῦ, tamíai tȇs theoû) held the most important treasury office. The ten tamiai were appointed by lot from the property class of the pentakosiomédimnoi , one from each phylḗ . At the beginning of their year of office, in the presence of the council ( boulḗ ) the tamiai were handed the gold-ivory image of Athena, the bronze statues of Nike, covered in silver and gold leaves, the votive offerings and the balance of cash …

Tamieion

(163 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ταμιεῖον, tamieîon). Cash office or strong-room in which monies and objects of value belonging to temples, the polis or private individuals were kept by a bursar or treasurer, a servant of the household (ταμίας/ tamías, ταμία/ tamía). For the Athenian symmachia (Delian League), the Sanctuary of Apollo on Delos was the treasury (κοινὸν ταμιεῖον/ koinón tamieion) for incoming dues (φόροι/ phóroi; Thuc. 1,96,2; Diod. Sic. 11,47,1). In Athens, the ὀπισθόδομος/ opisthódomos was the place in which the financial resources of the polis were kept. Tamieion is also the t…

Tammuz

(303 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (Thammuz; Sumerian Dumu-zi, 'legitimate son', Aramaic  Tham(m)uza, Hebrew Thammûz, Greek  Θαμμουζ/ Thammouz). Prehistoric king of Uruk and husband of the city goddess Inanna (Ishtar; Hieros Gamos). She hands T. over to the forces of the Underworld when she - having failed in her attempt to seize the rule over the Underworld for herself - is released from the Underworld on condition of the promise of a (human) substitute. Dumu-zi is captured by the demons of the Underworld; however, his siste…

Tamos

(95 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (Τάμως /Támōs) from Memphis in Egypt, representative ( hýparchos) of Tissaphernes in Ionia (Thuc. 8,31,2; 8,87,1 and 3; for the year 411), took part in Cyrus [3]'s rebellion in 401 BC as a commissioner ( epimelētḗs) for Ionia/Aeolis (Diod. 14,19,6) and a naval leader (Xen. An. 1,2,21; 1,4,2) and after the death of Cyrus at Cunaxa fled to Egypt, where he and his sons were killed by Psammetichus [6] (according to Diod. Sic. 14,35,3-5; probably a royal name for Amyrtaeus [2]), who intended to take possession of T.'s fleet and wealth. Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Tamphilus

(9 words)

Roman cognomen, see Baebius [I 1; 10-13; II 13].

Tamsapor

(66 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] Commander of Sapor [2] II, entrusted with the defence of the Persian western frontier. He spoke in favour of peace negotiations with Rome in AD 357 (Amm. Marc. 16,9,3 f.; 17,5). When the Persian War flared up again in 359, T. and Nohodares successfully led small, highly manoeuvrable divisions against the Romans (Amm. Marc. 18,8,3; 19,9,7; cf. Them. Or. 4,57). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Tamuda

(61 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Small Mauretanian rural town (3rd to 1st cents. BC) at Tétouan (in Morocco) near the coast (of the Mare Ibericum), with strong Carthaginian influences (forms of burial, coin minting). Earliest archaeological evidence from the 6th cent. BC; in the Roman Imperial period the site of a military camp. Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography M. Ponsich, s. v. T., DCPP, 436.

Tamynae

(168 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Τάμυναι/ Támynai, also Ταμῦναι/ Tamŷnai). Township in the territory of Eretria [1] (Str. 10,1,10) about 14 km to the north of Porthmus [2] at modern Avlonari, settled from the Early Helladic until the Roman Imperial period (remains of the city wall and a 4th cent. BC Doric temple). The assumption that the Persians landed at T. in 490 BC (textual conjecture on Hdt. 6,101) is untenable. Inscriptions of the 3rd cent. BC record T. as a demos of Eretria (cf. IG XII 9, 191). In the conflicts between Athens and Philippus [4] II over influence on Euboea [1], Ph…

Tanager

(51 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Tributary of the Silarus, modern Torrente Tanagro in Lucania (Verg. Georg. 3,151 and Serv.: siccus T.; Plin.  HN 2,225 without giving a name; Vibius Sequester 151 R.; ad Tanarum, the station at the river crossing:  It. Ant. 109,5). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Philipp, s. v. T., RE 4 A, 2153.

Tanagra

(743 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Macedonia, Macedones | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Pompeius | Attica | Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians (Τάναγρα/ Tánagra). City in east Boeotia on the eastern foothills of the Ceryceum mountains, north of the point where the Laris flowed into the Asopus [2], c. 4,5 km southeast of modern T. (formerly Vratsi). The extensive remains have not been systematically excavated [1; 6]. The Mycenaean settlement and the necropolis near Vratsi, with its many la…

Tanagra figurines

(6 words)

see Tanagra; Terracottas

Tanais

(391 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Τάναϊς/ Tánaïs). [German version] [1] River A 1970 km long river forming the border between the Scythae and the Sarmatae (Hdt. 4,21; according to Plin. HN 6,20 called Silis by the Scythae) and flowing into the Maeotis, modern Don. Sarmatian tribes lived around its lower reaches from the 4th cent. BC onwards; some 15 ancient settlements are known from archaeology there. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] City This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Commerce | Colonization | Patricius | Patricius | Rome City founded in the 3rd …

Tanaquil

(281 words)

Author(s): Amann, Petra
[German version] According to Roman tradition, T. was a noble Etruscan lady from Tarquinii and the wife of the fifth King of Rome (Pol. 6,11a,7; Fabius Pictor in Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,6,3 and 30,2 f.; Liv. 1,34,4 ff.), the half-Greek L. Tarquinius [11] Priscus who also came from Tarquinia. Familiar with the art of prophecy, she predicted, upon the couple's arrival in Rome, her husband's rise to the throne (Liv. 1,34,8 f.; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,47,3 f.) and, after he was murdered, cunningly procu…

Tanarus

(65 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] River rising in the Alpes Maritimae (Plin. HN 3,118) and flowing from the right-hand side into the Padus (modern Po) near Valentia and Forum Fulvi, modern Tanaro. Hasta [4], Alba Pompeia, Pollentia [1] and Augusta [1] Bagiennorum are on its course. Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography A. Costanzo, La romanizzazione nel bacino idrografico padano, 1975, 98  E. Panero, La città romana in Piemonte, 2000, 25.

Tang-e Sarvak

(111 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] Gorge midway between Ramhor, Hormuz and Behbahan in ancient  Elymais (region in southwestern Iran), where rock reliefs (some with Elymaean inscriptions) were carved on four stone blocks in the 2nd/3rd cents. AD. Some of the reliefs show the dynasts Abar-Basi and Orodes with dependants and dignitaries in rites of legitimization or rulership (in the presence of deities and divine symbols), and on Block III a cavalry battle (with minor characters) is depicted. The identification of t…

Tanis

(249 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
(Τάνις; Tánis). [German version] [1] City in the northeast of the Nile Delta This item can be found on the following maps: Egypt City in the northeast of the Nile Delta, Egyptian Ḏn.t, Biblical Zoan, modern (Tell) San el-Hagar, the largest ruin mound in Egypt (177 ha, 30 m high). T. was founded as a residence in place of the abandoned Pi-Ramesses ( c. 20 km to the south) at the beginning of the 21st Dynasty ( c. 1070 BC). Sculptures and other stone from Pi-Ramesses (some of which had already been re-used there) were used for the construction of T. This older building…

Tanit

(4 words)

see Tinnit

Tannaites

(157 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] (from Aramaic  tenâ = Hebrew šānāh 'repeat, teach, learn',  cf. also the technical term  Mishnah). In the traditional periodization of rabbinical literature, a term for the rabbinical teachers who worked in the period of the edition of the Mishnah, and therefore between Hillel and Shami (around the beginning of the Common Era), up to Yehudah ha-Nasi (Jehuda ha-Nasi) and his sons (beginning of the 3rd cent. AD). According to Joseph ibn Aqnin, a pupil of Maimonides (who died in 1204), the era of …

Tannetum

(77 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Township in Gallia Cispadana (Pol. 3,40,13), modern Taneto near Sant'Ilario d'Enza (in the province of Reggio Emilia). Municipium, Regio VIII (Plin. HN. 3,116), on the right bank of the Incia, itself a right-bank tributary of the Padus (modern Po), between Parma [1] and Regium, somewhat to the north of the Via Aemilia (It. Ant. 267,8; Tab. Peut. 4,3;  It. Burd. 616,12: Canneto). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography M. Degani, Edizione archeologica 74 (Reggio Emilia), 1974, 30 f.

Tantalus

(383 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Τάνταλος/ Tántalos, Lat. Tantalus). Mythological king on the Sipylus, son of Zeus (Eur. Or. 5; Paus. 2,22,3) or of Tmolus (schol. Eur. Or. 4) and Pluto [1], husband of Dione or Euryanassa and father of Broteas, Niobe and Pelops [1]. In Greek and Roman literature and the visual arts, T. is represented primarily along with Ixion, Sisyphus and Tityus as the ones undergoing punishment in the underworld. According to Homer, T. stands in the water there but cannot drink from it because it…

Tanusia

(47 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Daughter of the equestrian L. Tanusius, well acquainted with Octavia [2], the sister of Augustus. She and the freed slave Philopoemen rescued her proscribed husband T. Vinius in 43 BC (Suet. Aug. 27,2; Cass. Dio 47,7,4 f.; App. B Civ. 4,44). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Tanusius Geminus

(126 words)

Author(s): Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne)
[German version] (the cognomen only in Suet. Iul. 9,2). Roman historian of the Late Republic of whose life nothing is known. It is also unclear whether his work, which (because of Plut. Caesar 22,3) was not finished until after 55 BC and contained accounts hostile to Caesar (especially fr. 1 P. = HRR 2, p. 50: on the 'conspiracy' of 66 BC), was an account of contemporary events only [1. 327] or whether it was organised as an annalistic comprehensive history (as in [2. 265]; annales in Sen. Ep. 93,11). According to Seneca, the work was voluminous and 'ponderous' ( ponderosi); he may have been…

Taochi

(74 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Τάοχοι, cf. Xen. An. 4,4,18 et passim; according to Sophaenetus FGrH 109 F 2 also Τάοι/ Táoi). Mountain people in northern Armenia, who maintained several fortified places with stores of foodstuffs in the valley of the Glaucus (tributary of the modern Çoruh Nehri). The T. were not directly dependent on the Great King, but occasionally served in the Persian army as mercenaries. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography A. Herrmann, s. v. T., RE 4 A, 2247.

Tapae

(92 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Daci, Dacia Town at which L. Tettius [II 2] Iulianus was victorious over the Daci in 88/9 AD (Iord. Get. 10,12; Τάπαι, Cass. Dio 67,10,2; 68,8,1). It was from there that Trajan set out on his first campaign against the Daci in 101 AD. The identification of T. is uncertain (between Tibiscum and Sarmizegetusa or the 'Iron Gate'). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography J. Dobiáš, The History of Czechoslovacian Territory before the Appearance of the Slavs, 1964, 171 f., 176 (Czech).

Tapes

(4 words)

see Rug

Taphiae

(160 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Ταφίων νῆσοι/ Taphíōn nêsoi). Group of islands between Leucas and the Acarnanian coast, the main island of which can probably be identified with modern Meganisi, in ancient sources called Táphos, Taphioûs or Taphioûssa. Carnus [2] (probably modern Kalamos) was considered one of the T. (Scyl. 34; Str. 10,2,14; 20; 24; Plin. HN 4,53; 36,150; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τάφος). In the 'Odyssey', the Taphii are considered seafarers and dreaded pirates (Hom. Od. 1,105; 181; 14,452; 15,427; 16,426). The island group is suppose…

Taphiassus

(116 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Ταφιασσός; Taphiassós). Mountain and headland on the northern coast of the Gulf of Corinth (Corinth, Gulf of), opposite Patrae, presumably in the border area between Aetolia and (western) Locris near Chalcis [2]. The smell of sulphur springs on the southeastern slopes of the mountain is supposed to be from the graves of Nessus and other Centaurs (Str. 9,4,8; Paus. 10,38,2). Mount T. can probably be identified with the 1041 m high Mount Klokova. The distinctive headland on the Gulf…

Taphius

(90 words)

Author(s): Börm, Henning (Kiel)
[German version] (Τάφ(ι)ος; Táph(i)os). Descendant of Perseus [1] from Mycenae; eponym of the island of Taphos and the Taphian Islands allegedly settled by him (Taphiae; schol. [Hes.] scut. 11). It is after him that the Teleboae are also called Taphians (Taphii). Son of Poseidon and Hippothoe [3], father (Apollod. 2,51) of Pterelaus, who in turn had a son called T. (FGrH 31 F 15). T. returns to Mycene, he and his descendants kill all the sons, apart from Licymnius, of Electryon, whose throne he claims. Börm, Henning (Kiel)

Taposiris

(176 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
(Ταποσῖρις; Taposîris). [German version] [1] Town in the Nile Delta Town in the Nile Delta (modern Abusir), about 50 km to the west of Alexandria [1] between Lake Mareotis and the sea; first recorded in the Ptolemaic period and named after a temple of Osiris (enclosure walls are extant). In the Christian period, a church was incorporated into the temple. Another large church building was discovered outside the area of the town. In addition, there are remains of a lighthouse and of (interior) port installations. T. ( megálē) was probably a transit and customs station for trade a…

Tappulus

(6 words)

Roman cognomen, see Villius.

Taprobane

(343 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ταπροβάνη/ Taprobánē). The most common name for the island of Ceylon from the time of Onesicritus (in Str. 15,1,17 and Plin. HN 6,81) and Megasthenes (Plin. HN 6, 81) onwards, Ancient Indian Tāmraparṇi, Middle Indian Tambapaṇṇi. The unrealistic geographical ideas of Antiquity, which are probably based on Eratosthenes [2], are noteworthy: in all Greek and Latin sources T. is much larger than in reality and extends far to the west. Nevertheless, in Ptolemaeus [65] for instance, who devotes a whole chapter to T. (7,4…

Taracus

(244 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Τάρκος/ Tárkos, Assyrian Tarqû, Egyptian  Th()rq(), in scholarly literature usually Taharka/o). Nubian king, third and most significant ruler (690-664 BC) of the Egyptian 25th Dynasty, throne name Ḫwj-Nfrtm-R. When he was 20 years old, he was summoned by his brother(?) and predecessor Sebichus from Nubia to Egypt, and led the Egyptian army in the (lost) battle of Eltekeh (ANET, 287 f.; 2 Kg 19,9) in 701 BC. In 690 BC, he succeeded Sebichus to the throne, according to his own account as his chosen succe…

Taranis

(296 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] Celtic god. Luc. 1,443-446 tells of three Gaulish gods worshipped through human sacrifice: Teutates, Esus and T. Of the Late Antiquity and early Mediaeval commentaries on the passage [1], the Adnotationes (p. 28 Endt) equate him with Dis Pater, the Commenta Bernensia (p. 32 Usener) once with Dis Pater, and once with Iuppiter; on inscriptional evidence the latter version is to be preferred. There are no pictorial representations of T. Of the few votive inscriptions a Gaulish inscription from Orgon/Arles [2] gives a Greek genitive of Taranóu, from which a nominative Taran…

Tarantinon

(79 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ταραντῖνον; tarantînon). A light diaphanous luxury garment with fringes, first recorded in literature in the 4th century BC (Men. Epitr. 272); the original place of production was Tarentum (Taras), cf. Poll. 7,76. Hetaerae wore it without undergarments (Aristaen. 1,25,  cf.  Ael. VH 7,9). In  Ath. 14,622b male participants in a Dionysian festal procession wear tarantina. Barbaron Hyphasmata; Coae Vestes; Fimbriae; Clothing Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography U. Mandel, Zum Fransentuch des Typus Colonna, in: MDAI(Ist) 39, 1989, 547-554.

Taras

(1,524 words)

Author(s): Goldhahn, Tobias | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
(Τάρας/ Táras). [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and a South-Italian nymph Son of Poseidon and a South-Italian nymph (Paus. 10,10,8), or son of Heracles [1] (Serv. Aen. 3,551); hero and eponym of the town of Taranto ( cf. T. [2]) and of its river. He is considered to be the founder (Paus. l.c.), or at least the patron (Serv. l.c.) of Taranto. On a coin from Taranto, he is represented as a boy reaching out for Poseidon; the image of a dolphin rider appearing on other coins from Taranto, represents rather Phalantus [1], in spite o…

Tarasius

(125 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Ταράσιος; Tarásios). Patriarch of Constantinople ( c. AD 730-806), of noble descent, secretary to the empress Irene, who had him elected patriarch in 784 in connexion with her efforts to restore iconolatry. The Synod (Synodos II.D.) at Nicaea in 787, convened by him to solve the iconoclasm controversy (Syrian dynasty), was able at the second attempt to resolve to restore the worship of icons. It is to him that resolutions made at the synod are due; he had already written them in 754. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography Editions: PG 98, 1424-1428 (Apologeticus)  PG …

Taraxippus

(146 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ταράξιππος/ taráxippos, 'confuser of horses', from híppos and the aorist stem of taráttein). The monument in the form of a round altar, which was associated with T. (v.i.), stood on the (long) eastern side of the Hippodrome in Olympia, near the nýssa (turning post); the horses often shied there, which may have been due to preparing to round the turning post, but was explained by divine action. Paus. 6,20,15-18 offers several identifications for T. and his monument and himself considers an altar to Poseidon Hippios likel…

Tarbelli

(158 words)

Author(s): Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy)
[German version] (Τάρβελλοι/ Tárbelloi). People in the west of Aquitania (Caes. B Gall. 3,20-27; Ptol. 2,7,9; with an unexplained epithet in Plin. HN 4,108: T. Quattuorsignani; cf. ILS 6962) living on both sides of the middle and lower Aturrus (modern Adour). Extracting gold brought them a certain wealth (Str. 4,2,1), as did hot and cold mineral springs (Plin. HN 31,4); their focus, however, remained on field and meadow husbandry. Subjugated in 56 BC by P. Licinius [I 16], the T. formed with other peoples the Civitas Aquensium in Gallia Aquitania with capital Aquae Tarbellicae (…

Tarbigilus (Tribigild)

(105 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Goth, related to Gainas, comes in the Eastern Empire. Probably an enemy of Eutropius [4]  (Claud. in Eutropium 2,176-180). In 399 AD he and his foederati troops rebelled (with Gainas's knowledge?) against Arcadius in Phrygia (Zos. 5,13,2-4), at first he was victorious over the imperial troops sent against him but afterwards he was defeated by them at Selge (Zos. 5,16,1-5); after uniting his troops with Gainas he marched on Constantinople (Zos. 5,18,4-9). He was killed during battles in Thrace (Philostorgios 11,8; [2. 151]). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 …

Tarchetius

(190 words)

Author(s): Aigner-Foresti, Luciana (Vienna)
(Ταρχέτιος/ Tarchétios). [German version] [1] Eponym of Tarquinii Eponym of the city of Tarquinii and name of Tarquinius, hailing from there. The root tarch- is well attested for people (Latin Tarquinius , Greek T.) and place names (Etruscan Tarchna ) and belongs to the original core of the Etruscan language; the etymology is unknown. Aigner-Foresti, Luciana (Vienna) [German version] [2] Name of a mythical king of Alba Longa Name of a legendary king of Alba Longa (Promathion in Plut. Romulus 2): he is toppled from his throne by his grandsons, twin brothers from …

Tarchna

(80 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Etruscan name for the city of Tarquinia Etruscan name for the city of Tarquinia (Tarquinii) from the 5th cent. BC (Early Etruscan: * tarchuna). Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Etruscan nomen gentile Etruscan nomen gentile, especially in the 'Tomb of Inscriptions' in Caere/Cerveteri. The names of more than seven generations are inscribed there, of which the two last are in the Latinized form Tarquitius. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography M. Cristofani, La Tomba delle Iscrizioni a Cerveteri, 1965.

Tarchon

(216 words)

Author(s): Aigner-Foresti, Luciana (Vienna)
[German version] also Tar χ unies (ET Vc 7.33; Cl 1.1060); Tar χ unus (ET AT p.11). Legendary son (Cato in Serv. Aen. 10,179) or brother (Serv. Aen. 10,198) of Tyrrhenus, or son of Telephus (Lycoph. 1246 f.). The form T. derives from the name of the city of Tarquinii (Etruscan Tarχna) [1. 285], the name may be connected with the Luwian daemon Tarχu(n) [3. 215 f.]. T. is supposed to have founded the twelve Etruscan cities (Str. 5,2,2), including Tarquinia, and to have transferred the twelve-city league model …

Tarcondarius

(75 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Ταρκονδάριος/ Tarkondários). T. Castor I, tetrarch of the Tectosages, with a Celtic name [1. 1732]. In the battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, T. and his father-in-law Deiotarus supported Pompeius [I 3], sending him 300 horsemen (Caes. B Civ. 3,4,5). After Caesar's death in 44 BC, he and his wife were killed in his residence of Gorbeus by Deiotarus (Str. 12,5,3). He was the father of T. Castor II (Deiotarus). Galatia Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder 2

Tarcondimotus

(191 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
(Ταρκονδίμοτος/ Tarkondímotos; also Ταρκόνδημος/ Tarkóndēmos). [German version] [1] T. I. Philantonius King of Amanus, son of Straton. Roman ally, partisan of Pompeius [I 3], Caesar, Cassius [I 10] and finally Antonius [I 9], on whose side he fell at Actium in 31 BC (Plut. Antonius 61,2; Cass. Dio. 41,63,1; 47,26,2; 50,14,2; Flor. Epit. 2,13,5; IGR 3, 901 = OGIS 752 and 753). In 51 BC Cicero appraises him as fidelissimus socius trans Taurum amicissimusque populi Romani ("the most faithful ally beyond the Taurus and the best friend of the Roman people", Cic. Fam. 15,…

Tarentini ludi

(6 words)

see Ludi, Tarentum

Tarentum

(145 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] see Taras [2] See Taras [2]. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [2] Sacred district in Rome Sacred district in Rome at the extreme northwest of the Campus Martius on the Tiber (Rome III. D.; Paul. Fest. 440 f.: Terentum). It was there that the Sabine Valesius from Eretum is supposed to have landed and established a cult on the spot where he had discovered an altar to Dis Pater and Proserpina at a depth of 20 feet. The cult was the preserve of the Valeria gens. For the games in T. see Ludi (III. K.). The nearby ford over the Tiber was…

Targetius

(4 words)

see Tasgetius

Targum

(402 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Hebrew targûm, 'translation'). Name of the Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Bible since the Tannaitic Period ( c. 2nd cent. AD). Of the Pentateuch, several Targum versions exist: a) Targum Onqelos, probably based on a Palestinian text ( c. late 1st/early 2nd cents. AD) and revised in Babylonia presumably between the 3rd and the 5th cents. AD, is largely a literal translation of the Hebrew text; b) Targum Neofiti, Targum Pseudo-Jonathan (= Targum Jerushalmi I) as well as the Fragment Targum (= Targum Jerushalmi II), …

Tarhuntassa

(247 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] Inland country of the Hittite Empire (Ḫattusa II. with map) in southern Asia Minor, which first makes an appearance in history at the time of Muwattalli II ( c. 1290-1272 BC) during the temporary relocation of the Hittite capital to this region's capital of the same name (T.; at modern Karaman or in the upper  Calycadnus valley). After Mursili III Urḫitesub ( c. 1272-1265) was deposed, Ḫattusili II (previously “III”; c.  1265-1240) established in T., as compensation for his brother Kurunta Ulmitesub who had been excluded from the legitimate successi…

Tarius

(163 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] L. T. Rufus. Possibly from Liburnia ([1. 105-135], but cf. [2. 563]), of lowly origins (Plin. HN 18,37). He was involved in leading sea operations at Actium (Cass. Dio 50,14,1), probably already a senator at the time. He acquired a large estate in Picenum (Plin. HN loc.cit.), possibly proconsul of Cyprus: IGR 3, 952. He took part, in c. 16 BC, in campaigns in Macedonia (Cass. Dio 54,20,3), possibly as ( legatus) pro pr( aetore) (AE 1936, 18), but possibly only as promagistrate pro pr( aetore). In 16 BC cos. suff. According to Frontin. Aq. 102,3 f., in AD 23 a…

Tarnis

(84 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] Tributary of the Garumna, modern Tarn (Auson. Epist. 22,27-32; 26,31; Auson. Mos. 465;  Sid. Apoll. Epist. 5,13,1;  Sid. Apoll. Carm. 24,45), rising on Cebenna Mons, border river between Narbonensis and Aquitania. According to Plin.  HN 4,109 (correction of [1. 148]) border river between the Tolosani (Tolosa) and the Petrocorii. Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) Bibliography 1 E. Desjardins, Géographie historique et administrative de la Gaule romaine, vol. 1, 1876. H. Zeiß, s. v. T., RE 4 A, 2328  M. Provost, Carte Archéologique de la Gaule 81, Le Tarn, 1992, 44.

Tarodunum

(145 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oppidum (Ταρόδουνον; Taródounon). Celtic township at the end of the Höllental valley (Ptol. 2,11,30), modern Zarten in the Black Forest. There is evidence of a fortified site (approximately 200 ha) with murus Gallicus (scarcely traces of settlement), with a 2nd/1st century BC settlement area outside it (approximately 12-16 ha) (Celtic coins, products of gold smelting, a planchet, amphora sherds, a glass bracelet, ring beads). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography F. Fischer, Beiträge zur Kenntnis von T., i…

Tarpeia

(181 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Sylvia
[German version] (Ταρπεία/ Tarpeía). According to Antigonus [7] (FGrH 816 F 2), daughter of the Roman general T. Tatius, otherwise (esp. Liv. 1,11,5-9; Ov. Met. 14,776; Ov. Fast. 1,261 f.; Val. Max. 9,6,1; Plut. Antiquitates Romanae 17f; Cass. Dio fr. 4,12) daughter of Sp. Tarpeius [3]. T. betrays the Romans in their war with the Sabines (Sabini) by opening a gate of the city to the enemy soldiers and demands what the warriors are wearing on their arms (their gold bracelets) in return. The Sabines …

Tarpeium saxum

(44 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] Steep crag at the southeast of the Capitol (Capitolium) in Rome; named after Tarpeia. Place of execution, where delinquents accused of various crimes were thrown from the rock to their deaths. Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) Bibliography Richardson, 377 f. s. v. Tarpeia Rupes.

Tarpeius

(223 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Sylvia | Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] [1] T. mons According to Varro (Ling. 5,41), term for the Capitolium, cf. Tarpeium Saxum. Zimmermann, Sylvia [German version] [2] Epithet of Iuppiter as lord of the Capitolium Epithet of Iuppiter as lord of the Capitolium, where the rock was from which traitors were thrown to their deaths in accordance with a law written by T. [4] (e.g. Ov. Fast. 6,34; Ov. Met. 15,866; Prop. 4,1,7). Zimmermann, Sylvia [German version] [3] T., Sp. Father of Tarpeia Father of Tarpeia, commander of the Capitoline fortress under Romulus [1] during the attack of the Sabine kin…
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