Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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(173 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] L. Iulius Aurelius Septimius V. Athenodorus, son of Odaenathus [2] and Zenobia, perhaps identical to the Timolaos [5] mentioned in the Historia Augusta (SHA Gall. 13,2; SHA Tyr. Trig. 15,2 et passim; but cf. SHA Aur. 38,1). He was still a child when his father was murdered (in AD 267), so that his career was guided by Zenobia: V. appears after 267 as rex regum and corrector totius orientis (CIS II 3971), was later imperator and dux Romanorum [1] and Augustus in the spring of 272 (ILS 8924). Coins from Alexandria showing both Aurelianus [3] and V. should n…


(63 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (modern Waal). A slow-flowing (Tac. Ann. 2,6,3 f.) left bank distributary of the Rhenus [2] (modern Rhine); it incorporates the Mosa [1] (modern Maas) to form the Insula Batavorum (Caes. Gall. 4,10,2; Tac. Ann. 2,6: Vahalis; Serv. Aen. 8,727: Vahal) and the Rhenus Bicornis ('with two horns';  cf. Verg. Aen. 8,727). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography P. Goessler, s. v. V., RE 7 A, 2018-2024.


(57 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Roman titular officials (like honorarii), i.e. they bore an official title without holding or having held the corresponding office. They usually received the title when retiring from active service and were entitled to wear the sash ( cingulum), which was not granted to  honorarii. They ranked after the actual holders of the office. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)

Vacantia bona

(169 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[German version] An heirless estate ( Bona ). In the Republic, the members of the gens of a deceased person had a right of acquisition (Gai. Inst. 3,17); if they did not exercise it, anybody could take possession of the estate and obtain it by usucapio ('adverse possession') (Gai. Inst. 2,52-58). If in a will ( Testamentum ) an heir was appointed, but had become unavailable, the will and all its dispositions were ineffective. From the lex Iulia et Papia (18/9 BC) onwards the VB fell as a caducum ('forfeited') to the state, which also fulfilled the provisions of t…


(367 words)

Author(s): Gamauf, Richard (Vienna)
[German version] Generally in Latin, 'exemption' from something (e.g. of a slave from work, Columella 1,8,19), esp. 'discharge' from obligations (or a 'recompense' paid in exchange for them, Tac. Hist. 1,46). In the language of the jurists, vacatio is used e.g. for a 'dispensation' from assuming a cura [2] or tutela ('management of business for a minor/trusteeship' or 'guardianship', s. excusatio ) and 'exemption' from legal public obligations, such as the compulsory service and tributes common in Late Antiquity ( munus ), or military service. Vacatio from munera was granted for v…


(127 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] It is only from the 12th cent. onwards that traces of a V. as an expositor Lucani are found in a commentary on the poet Lucanus [1]. The scholia ascribed to him are characterized by mediaeval amplifications of earlier material. Therefore, not unlike Cornutus in the case of Phocas, Persius and Iuvenalis (cf. Cornutus [4]), V. cannot be considered either as an ancient commentator on Lucan or as the author of the Vita at the beginning of the Adnotationes super Lucanum ([1; 2]; contra [3]); we are probably dealing with a mediaeval mystification. Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht Bibliog…


(262 words)

Author(s): Stepper, Ruth
[German version] (Οὐακκαῖοι/ Ou akkaîoi). Celtic tribe of the valley in the middle reaches of the Durius/Duero (Ptol. 2,6,50; Str. 3,4,12 f.: here conflated with the Celtiberi; Pol. 3,14,1), main settlement Palantia (modern Palencia). Their territory also included Intercatia (modern Aguilar de Campos?) and Cauca (Ptol. 2,6,50; Plin. HN 3,26 knows 17 communities). The V probably migrated into the Iberian peninsula in the 6th cent. BC, coming under Iberian influence from the 3rd cent. BC. They are fir…


(171 words)

Author(s): Distelrath, Götz (Constance)
[German version] Deity whose worship was evidently limited to the rural areas of the Sabine lands, primarily along the via Salaria (Hor. Epist. 1,10,49; ILS 3484-3486; 9248; Sabini). According to Varro, V. corresponds to the Roman Victoria [1] (Varro, Antiquitates rerum divinarum fr. 1 Cardauns); this makes probable the identification of a cult centre of V. at Aquae [I] Cutiliae, which is also known for its healing powers, but which can not be identified with the Nemora Vacunae mentioned in Plinius (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,15; Plin. HN 3,109; [1. 83-93]). The ancient etym…


(379 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] Pre-Platonic thinkers, such as the Pythagoreans (Pythagorean School) or Anaxagoras [2] had a concept of an empty “space” (τὸ κενόν/ tò kenón). The examination of this view led Aristotle (Aristoteles [6]) to the conclusion that no such 'void' could exist. His argument reveals that Anaxagoras had undertaken experiments to study phenomena of air. For Aristotle, Anaxagoras' demonstrations show that air is a form of matter (ὅτι ἔστι τι ὁ ἀήρ/ hóti ésti ti ho aḗr: Aristot. Ph. 213a-214b). In the 3rd cent. BC, Ctesibius [1] constructed apparatuses which made use o…


(85 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Roman auxiliary fort, whose exact location is not known; probably on the left bank of the Vacalus (modern Waal). The name implies a ford. During the Batavian Revolt in AD 70/1, V. was attacked by Iulius [II 43] Civilis and successfully relieved by Q. Petillius [II 1] Cerialis. On alleged inscriptional mentions of V. cf. [1]. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography 1 H. Nesselhauf, Neue Inschriften aus dem römischen Germanien und den angrenzenden Gebieten, in: BRGK 27, 1938, 51-134, 119 No. 257. P. Goessler, s. v. V., RE 7 A, 2043-2046.

Vada Sabatia

(191 words)

Author(s): Pera, Rossella (Genoa)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Originally a Celtic (Steph. Byz. s. v. Σαββατία/ Sabbatía) port on the western Ligurian coast (Plin. HN 3,48), hard to reach, where the Appenninus and the Alpes meet (Cic. Fam. 11,13,2); statio, where the via Iulia Augusta (CIL V 8095; 8102) and the via Aurelia (It. Ant. 295,2) from the west meet the coast road, the via Aemilia Scauri (Str. 5,1,11; Tab. Peut. 3,4); swampy (Str. 4,6,1), modern Vado Ligure (near Savona). In the Roman Imperial period probably a municipium , tribus Stellatina (cf. [1. no. 3]) or Camilia (CIL V 7779)…

Vada Volaterrana

(150 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] (modern Vada). Etruscan port (Cic. Quinct. 6,24; Plin. HN 3,5; 3,8; Rut. Namat. 1,453-462; It. Maritimum 501,3 f.; It. Ant. 292,6; Tab. Peut. 4,2: Vada Volatera) on the Mare Tyrrhenum to the northwest of the mouth of the Caecina [III 1]/Cecina, settled from the 9th cent. BC. The harbour basin lay between Punta Caletta and Punta del Tesorino. Remains can be found in San Gaetano. Necropoleis, three thermal baths, remains of horrea (granaries) and of a macellum (1st/2nd cent. AD) survive in Poggetto. Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence) Bibliography P. Gambogi, M. Pasq…


(205 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] ( surety, bail). A legal transaction agreed in a stipulatio , by which one party in a Roman formulary procedure (Procedural law IV.) commits itself to appear at a certain location in order to enable legal proceedings to take place. This self-committal replaced the practice of providing guarantors ( vades) as had been the practice in the legis actio . A distinction was made between different kinds of vadimonium. The voluntary summoning vadimonium consisted of the promise (regularly sanctioned by fines) to appear near the law court for a final attempt a…


(201 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] [1] King of the Marcomanni, 2nd cent. AD (Ballomarius). King of the Marcomanni, who, from a position of neutrality (?), together with ambassadors from ten other tribes negotiated a peace with M. Iallius Bassus, the governor of Upper Pannonia, in AD 166, after attacking Germani had suffered a defeat (Cass. Dio, 71,3,1a = Petrus Patricius fr. 6 de Boor = Excerpta de legationibus 2,391 de Boor). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography P. Kehne, s. v. Markomannenkrieg (Hist.), RGA 19, 2001, 308-316, especially 312 (with older bibliography). [German version] [2] King o…


(160 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae City in Africa proconsularis (Africa [3]; cf. Str. 17,3,12; Plin. HN 5,29) 35 km to the north of Thugga, modern Béja, with a number of ancient remains (city wall, basilica). In the second of the Punic Wars. V. apparently supplied troops for the Carthaginian contingent (Sil. Pun. 3,259). No later than after the third Punic War, V. fell to Massinissa. During the War of Iugurtha, V. was conquered by Caecilius [I 30] Metellus (Sall. Iug. 29,4; 47,1; 66-69). It was probably Septimius [II 7] Severus, who elevated V. to a coloni…


(501 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Vararanes). [German version] [1] V. I Son of Sapor [1] I, Persian Great King AD 273-276. The capture and death of Mani take place in his time. PLRE 1, 945. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] V. II Son of V. [1], Persian Great King 276-293. V. had to go to battle with Carus [3] in 283, who was advancing on Ctesiphon. The sudden death of the Emperor and the retreat of the Romans gave the King room to breathe. PLRE 1, 945. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography A. Sh. Shabazi, s. v. Bahrâm I-II, EncIr 3, 515-517. [German version] [3] V. III Son of V. [2], overthrown after his …

Vakhtang Gorgasal

(108 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Georgian 'wolf's head'). King of Caucasian Iberia (Iberia [1]), second half of the 5th/beginning of the 6th cent. AD, whose Life (Kartlis Cxovreba, 139-244) [1; 2], written down in the 11th cent., portrays him as a champion of national identity and Christianity. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography 1 R. Thomson, Rewriting Caucasian History, 1996, 153-251 (Eng. transl.) 2 G. Pätsch, Das Leben Kartlis. Eine Chronik aus Georgien, 300-1200, 1985 (Ger. transl.). B. Martin-Hisard, Le roi V. G., in: Temps, mémoire, tradition au Moyen âge, 1983, 207-242 M…


(89 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Ostrogoth king, brother of Theodemir and Vidimir, uncle of Theoderic the Great (Theodericus [3]), who took part in the campaigns of Attila (Iord. Rom. 331; Iord. Get. 199), but after AD 453 escaped from Hunnish rule. After settling in Pannonia ( c. 454), between 459 and 462 the brothers fought successfully against Byzantium for better treaty conditions (Leo [4] I). In about 468/9 V. was killed in an attack by the Sciri (Iord. Get. 270 f.; 275 f.; [1. 265]). PLRE 2, 1135 f. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 H. Wolfram, Die Goten, 42001, 259-265.


(70 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: ( Volgum, modern Fenékpuszta). Station on the road from Sopianis to Savaria at the western end of Lacus Pelso (modern Lake Balaton; It. Ant. 233,3). Late Antiquity fortress with numerous excavated buildings, including the Palatium, a warehouse and a basilica. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography L. Barkóczi, s. v. V., PE 952 E. Toth, Zur Urbanisierung Pannoniens, in: Folia Archaeologica 37, 1986, 163-181.


(948 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Rival emperor to Gallienus, 3rd cent. AD As proconsul of Achaia, V. had himself proclaimed rival emperor to Gallienus in AD 261 in Macedonia. Although he defeated Piso, who was sent there against him (PIR2 C 298), he was soon murdered by his own troops (Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 32,4; Amm. Marc. 21,16,10; SHA Tyr. Trig. 19; 21; SHA Gall. 2,2 f.). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 2 227  PIR V 7  PLRE 1, 929 f. [German version] [2] Flavius Valens Eastern Roman emperor AD 364-378. Born in 321 in Cibalae (Illyria), of lowly origins and without a prof…


(417 words)

Author(s): Ferrer Maestro, Juan José (Castellón) | Winkle, Christian
[German version] [1] Modern Valencia This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Commerce | Pilgrimage | Pyrenean peninsula (modern Valencia). Roman city in the territory of the Edetani in the lower valley of the Turia [2] near the sea (Mela 2,92; Ptol. 6,6,61). There is no archaeological evidence there of a pre-Roman Iberian city, in Avien. 481 f. called Tyris. V. was founded in 138 BC by the consul D. Iunius [I 14] for veterans (probably the Roman ones, not the Iberians) of the war with Viriatus (App.…


(395 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg)
[German version] (Valentinianism). V. refers to the students of Valentinus [1] (the name first appeared in Justin. Dial. 35,6 and Hegesipp. In Euseb. Hist. eccl. 4,22,5), the most important Christian-heretical movement of the 2nd and 3rd cents. AD (with traces into the 7th cent.). It spread through the entire Mediterranean region and presented a serious competition for the emerging majority Catholic Church. Hippolytus [2] (Refutatio omnium haeresium 6,35,7) tells of a division into an Italic (Ptol…


(2,009 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Flavius Valentinianus I Roman emperor 364-375. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] I. Origins and rise V. was born in Cibalae in Pannonia in AD 321 (Zos. 3,36,2; Amm. Marc. 30,6,6) as the son of the comes rei militaris Gratianus [1]. In 357, he was tribunus in Gaul (Amm. Marc. 16,11,6 f.); beginning in 360/1, he held high military office in Mesopotamia; in 362, he was comes et tribunus cornutorum there (Philostorgius, Historia ecclesiae 7,7). According to some Christian traditions, Iulianus [11] exiled him to Egyptian Thebes [1] in 362…


(500 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Christian theologian and poet, 2nd cent. Christian theologian, probably from Egypt, taught in c. AD 140-160 in Rome ( cf. Iren. adv. haereses 3,4,3). He wanted, possibly, to become episcopus ( epískopos ), but was turned down (Tert. adv. Valentinianos 4,1 ff.); afterwards, he must have lived in Cyprus (Epiphanius, Panarion 31,7,2). Besides a few extant fragments from sermons and letters, a work entitled 'On the three natures' ( Perì triôn phýseōn) is known to have existed. V. apparently wrote psalms in verse form; a fragment (in Hippolytus, Refutatio omnium haer…


(553 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] First priestess of Fortuna Muliebris, 5th cent. BC Sister of P. Valerius [I 45] Poplicola, said to have saved Rome in 488 BC from Coriolanus (Plut. Coriolanus 33; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,39; 8,43,1 f.); first priestess of Fortuna Muliebris (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,55,3-5; Fortuna B.). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography Latte, 181. [German version] [2] Daughter of P. Valerius [I44], ca. 500 BC Daughter of P. Valerius [I 44] (elected belatedly cos. for the year 509 BC), sent to Porsenna with 19 other hostages (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 5,32,3). They …


(929 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Q. Cornelius V. Author of an antiquarian compilation, 1st cent. Roman equestrian of the 1st cent. AD (probably c.45 praef. vexillariorum in Thracia). Author of an antiquarian compilation mentioned by Plinius [1] (Pliny the Elder) as source of books 3 (?), 8, 10, 14 and 15 of his Naturalis historia, and quoted at 3,108 (?), 10,5 and 14,11. Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht Bibliography PIR2 C 1471. [German version] [2] P. Licinius V. Roman emperor 253-260, born 199 (thus the gist of Ioh. Mal. 12 p. 298; SHA Valer. 5,1 is false); from a noble family (Aur. V…


(11,988 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, which was said to have immigrated to Rome under King T. Tatius with V. [I 10] (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,46). The name, derived from the old personal name Valesus/ Valerus, was originally Valesios (cf. V. [I 7]; CIL XII p. 298g: Valesies; Fest. 22; Varro, Rerum divinarum fr. 66 Cardauns [4; 5]); the censor App. Claudius [I 2] introduced the new spelling in 312 BC (cf. Dig. 1,2, 2,36). Because in Antiquity the name was derived (etymologically correctly) from valere, 'to be strong', it was considered to be a good omen ( boni ominis nomen, Cic. Div. 1,102; Cic. Sca…

Valesiana Excerpta

(6 words)

see Excerpta Valesiana


(38 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] Community in the north of Brundisium (also Carbinium): Guido, Geographia 27; 71, modern Carovigno; inscriptions and remains from the Messapian period (8th-2nd cents. BC). Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography M. Lombardo, I Messapi e la Messapia, 1992, 222-224.


(6 words)

see Hospital C. Valetudinaria


(288 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] ('Health'). In contrast to the generally positive connotations of salus , v. as a term for health is neutral and is hence given qualifying epithets ( bona: Lucr. 3,102; incommoda: Liv. 5,31,9; cf. esp. Manil. 3,140f.) or can, according to context, be biased in diametrically opposed ways (positive: Liv. 4,25,3; negative: 8,12,2). The wish for good health was common (Sen. Ep. 10,4; Petron. Sat. 61), but as early as the Roman Republic appears to have transcended a purely private nature (as in Livius [I 7] Drusus…


(303 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] [1] Valg(i)us Father-in-law (Cic. Leg. agr. 3,3) of Servilius [I 26] Rullus. Under Cornelius [I 90] Sulla V. had appropriated estates in Ager Hirpinus and in Casinum (ibid. 2,69; 3,8-14). He may be identical to the C. Quinctius Valgus recorded as patronus (D.) of the Hirpinian Aeclanum, as quinquennalis of a town near Frigento and as a duumvir of Pompeii and in Casinum (ILLRP 523; 565; 598; 645; 646). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) Bibliography P. Harvey, Socer Valgus, Valgii and C. Quinctius Valgus, in: E. Borza, R. Carrubba (eds.), Classics and the Classical Trad., 197…


(217 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] Station on the road from Regina Castra (modern Regensburg) to Augusta [7] Vindelicum (modern Augsburg; It. Ant. 250,5); station of the last unit of the Legio III Italica and an ala [2] (Not. Dign. Occ. 25,17; 35,26). The place name (which implies a pre-Roman wall structure without ditches) and distance data in It. Ant. suggest that V. was in the walled fort of the Celtic oppidum (II) of Manching; there are no indications there of a late Antiquity military installation, however. Since the excavation of a small late Antiquity fort on the Frauenbe…


(104 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Four tribes in the Wallis canton (ILS 169: civitates quattuor Vallis Poeninae). The territory of the Nantuatae, Veragri, Seduni and Uberi was occupied by Rome in its Alpine campaign of 16/15 BC and initially administered in common with Raetia and Vindelicia (Vindelici) under a legatus. Claudius [III 1] united the V. with the Alpes Graiae, whose procurator occasionally had a residence in Octodurus. This new civitas was given Latin law (Plin. HN 3,135). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Walser, Studien zur Alpengeschichte in antiker Zeit, 1994, 59-…


(116 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Visigoth king (Visigoths), from AD 415 the successor of Segericus in Spain. V. may have planned to cross to Africa (see also [2. 89]) in order to escape pressure from Constantius [6] on the Goths, but in 416 he concluded a treaty with Ravenna in which they probably agreed to a Goth initiative against the other Germanic peoples in Spain and the later settlement of the Goths in Gaul. (MGH AA 11,19; Oros. 7,43,10-15; Olympiodoros fr.30 Blockley; [2. 88-93]). V. died in 418 before the…


(110 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3];  It. Ant. 25,4; 48,9; 49,1; 51,1; Tab. Peut. 5,3 f.) some 60 km to the southwest of Carthage, modern Sidi-Mediene, with significant ancient remains (city wall, temple); an indigenous community, in which evidently a Roman pagus was established, then a municipium , in the 3rd cent. a colonia. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 1272-1294; 2, 10612; Suppl. 1, 14770-14790; 3, 22004; 4, 25827-25833; [1. 1279- 1282]; AE 1934, 31. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 A. Merlin (ed.), Inscriptions latines de la Tunisie, 1944. AATun 050, s…


(146 words)

Author(s): Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon)
[German version] (related to Latin vallus, 'stake, palisade'), occasionally used with the general meaning 'protective wall' (Liv. 9,14,7; 36,18,2; Frontin. Str. 3,17,9), usually in a military context. The typical Roman defensive installation, which was built during a campaign or a siege, consisted of a fossa ('ditch'), agger ('earthen wall') and v. ('palisade'); soldiers dug out the ditch, throwing the earth inwards and building the v. on this earth wall (Veg. Mil. 3,8,7-9; 4,28,3; Liv. 10,25,6 f.; cf. also the precise description of a Roman v. in Liv. 33,5,5-12). Finally, var…

Value, marks of

(672 words)

Author(s): Leschhorn, Wolfgang (Erlangen)
[German version] Marks of value are rare on Greek coins, as the various denominations were commonly differentiated not only by type of metal, size and weight, but mostly by different images on the coins. Only occasionally does one find explicit indications or designations of values in the form of abbreviations comprising the first letter or letters of the denomination (e.g. Ο for obolos : Metapontum, 5th cent. BC [1. no. 1503]; Δ for dióbolos: Corinth, 5th cent. BC; cf. the index in [2]). Marks of value without any indication of denomination are more frequently found in Ital…


(38 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Road station on the Via Quinctia between  Faesulae and Pisae on the Arnus (Tab. Peut. 4,1 f.) at modern Cascina. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. Mosca, Via Quinctia 2, in: Journal of Ancient Topography 9, 1999, 165-174.


(2,413 words)

Author(s): Steinacher, Roland
Steinacher, Roland [German version] A. Vandals (CT) The Vandals (V.) were a Germanic tribe whose ethnogenesis is not completely clear. After invading the Roman Empire (406 AD), they migrated across Gaul, together with the Alani and Suebi, and reached Spain where they set up short-lived states. After these political entities collapsed, the Silingi V. and the Alani, an ethnic group of Scythian-Sarmatian origin, joined the kingdom of the Hasdingi Gunderic. Under King Geiseric, this alliance conquered the African provinces and established the regnum of the V. and Alani. This king…


(758 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] East Germanic tribe or ethnic group. Information about their early history and origin (possibly from southwestern Sweden and northern Denmark [1]) is hypothetical. Late references to wars with the Goti and Langobardi (Iord. Get. 26 f.; Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum 1,7 ff.) are also problematic. According to Plin. HN 4,99 f., V. designates a group of tribes (possibly identical with the Vandilii: Tac. Germ. 2,4). They probably belonged to the cult-based grouping of tribes called the Lugii [1] and were related to the…


(46 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Suebian. With Sido, he deposed his uncle, Vannius , in AD 51, divided the kingdom of the Suebi with Sido and thereafter reigned in close dependency on the Roman Empire, but apparently detested by his subjects (Tac. Ann. 12,30). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)


(191 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] A presumably Germanic, later Celticised people, whose original homeland on the right bank of the Rhenus [2] (modern Rhine) is unknown. They marched across the Rhine with Ariovistus, who was defeated by Caesar in 58 BC (Caes. B Gall. 1,51,2). The V. were initially for the most part driven back over the Rhine. In the time of Augustus, but no later than before the middle of the 1st cent. AD (Tac. Ann. 12,27,2), they were settled on the left bank of the Rhine to the north of the Triboci and the Nemetes, and to the south of Mogontiacum; the capital of their civitas was Borbetomagus…


(184 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] City in West-Georgia, c. 25 km southwest of Kutaisi, a centre of ancient Colchis. In 1896, a structure with three terraces which had been destroyed in the mid 1st cent. BC began to be excavated (with interruptions). Three phases could be distinguished (I: 8th-6th cents.; II: 5th-4th cents.; III: 3rd-1st cents. BC). Several buildings were uncovered (a surrounding wall with gate in phase III) as well as tombs (gold jewellery with granulation); the finds include a large number of Greek …


(117 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Of the Quadi. Installed as king of the territory between the rivers Marus and Cusus (March and Waag?) by Drusus [II 1] in AD 19, following the elimination of Maroboduus and Catualda (Tac. Ann. 2,63). He developed his rule praedationibus et vectigalibus ('by robbery and tolls') ( ibid. 12,29). Finally, in AD 51, V. was unable to prevail against internal conflicts (revolt of Vangio and Sido) and external pressure from the Hermunduri and Lugii. Emperor Claudius [III 1] did not intervene in these conflicts, but permitted V. to take refuge in exile in Pannonia ( ibid. 12,30). Lü…


(175 words)

Author(s): Amann, Petra
[German version] Female Etruscan Underworld daemon. As an announcer of death and guardian of graves V. appears, usually winged, primarily in the funerary domain (Burial, Dead, cult of the), sometimes together with Charun (Charon), sometimes in mythical scenes. An earlier type of representation with a long chiton can be traced until the 5th cent. BC; in the Hellenistic period her appearance was strongly influenced by the Greek Gorgo [1] (snakes as hair) and the Erinyes (boots, short chiton, cross s…


(209 words)

Author(s): Winkle, Christian
[German version] City in Gallia Narbonensis, chief town of the Avantici [1. 75, 287, 290] in the territory of the Vocontii tribal federation, modern Gap (in the département of Hautes-Alpes). A significant station ( mansio; beaker from Vicarello 66 Miller: Vappincum) on a linking road between the valley of the Rhodanus (Rhône) and Italy. The earliest traces of settlement (dolmen) are from the Chalcolithic period [2. 1, 20]. Two pre-Roman oppida lie on the hill of Saint-Mens to the east [2. 17] and that of Puy-Maure to the west [2. 14] of the modern town which cov…


(82 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Βάραγγοι/ Bárangoi). Scandinavians who from about the early 10th cent. AD arrived in Byzantium by way of the territory of the Kievan Rus (hence also often described as Ῥώς/ Rṓs or Tauroscythae), from the 11th cent. also Anglo-Saxons who served in the Byzantine army (in which they were considered particularly trustworthy), but primarily in the Imperial Guard. Their characteristic weapon was the battle-axe, which earned them the nickname 'axe-bearers' (πελεκυφόροι/ pelekyphóroi). Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography S. Franklin, A. Cutler, s. v. Varangia…


(99 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] After the murder of Pap in AD 374 his nephew (or cousin?) V. was installed by the Roman government as king in Armenia. He had the imperial general Mušel Mamikonian, the son of Vasaces [1], murdered and c. 378 was banished by Vasaces's brother Manuel (Faustus [4] of Byzantium 5,34 f.; 5,37; legendary Moses [2] of Chorene 3,40). PLRE 1, 945. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography M.-L. Chaumont, s. v. Armenia and Iran II, EncIr 2, 418-438, esp. 428 R. H. Hewsen, The Successors of Tiridates the Great, in: Rev. des études arméniennes 13, 1978/79, 99-126 J. Markwart, Sü…


(93 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Βαράθης/ Baráthēs, Varazes). An Armenian who was sent by Iustinianus [1] to Italy in 548 at the head of 800 of his countrymen and arrived at just the right time to rescue Verus (PLRG 3B, 1370) and his Heruli from total destruction by Totila (Procop. Goth. 3,27). Recalled from Italy in 551, he was appointed leader of 800 Tzans (Armenian sub-tribe) against the Persians in Lazica (Procop. Goth. 4,13,10). His identification with an Armenian commander V. in Lazica in 556 (Agathias 4,13) is disputed. PLRE 3B, 1362 f. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)


(99 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Οὐαρικιανοί/ Ou arikianoí). A possibly Celtic people in Pannonia (Plin. HN 3,148; Ptol. 2,15,2), whose settlement area can probably be found in the southeast of Pannonia Superior to the east of the Sisciani (Siscia). V. were recruited into the Roman army probably as early as during the Great Pannonian Rebellion (AD 6-9) (cf. CIL XIII 7707; 7804; 8188; CIL V 875; CIL VI 3257) and deployed primarily in the Cohors Varcianorum Equitata. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography B. Saria, s. v. V., in: RE 8 A, 363-365 A. Graf, Übersicht der antiken Geographie von Pannonien…


(75 words)

Author(s): Salomone Gaggero, Eleonora (Genoa)
[German version] City on the southern bank of the upper Padus (modern Po), possibly modern Casale Monferrato. A municipium , tribus Pollia, Regio IX (Plin. HN. 3,49). Cf. an unknown emperor's rescript to Clodius Secundus from the 1st-2nd cent. AD [1. 240-242, no. 1]. Salomone Gaggero, Eleonora (Genoa) Bibliography 1 G. Mennella, E. Zanda (eds.), Supplementa Italica 13, 1996, 231-249. E. Gabba, Aspetti sociali del rescritto imperiale di Vardagate, in: M. Cébeillac-Gervasoni (ed.), Les élites municipales de l'Italie péninsulaire, 2000, 457-461.


(411 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] River to the east of the Sea of Azov In Ptol. 5,8,2 and 14 (Οὐαρδάνης/ Ouardánēs) the most southerly of the seven rivers beyond the Tanais (Don) flowing from the east into the Maeotis (Sea of Azov), on which five cities are mentioned; the V., which is also known to Amm. 22,8,26, was a large navigable river which can be identified with the Kuban. In Antiquity it also had the name Hypanis [2], in the Roman period, however, it had the Sarmatic name V. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography E. Polaschek, s. v. V. (1), RE 8 A, 367 f.  V. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische R…


(159 words)

Author(s): Winkle, Christian
[German version] River in Gallia Narbonensis (rich in fish according to Sid. Apoll. Epist. 2,9,9), modern Gard or Gardon. Fed by the source streams Gardon d'Anduze and Gardon d'Alès on Cebenna mons (Cévennes), it flows into the Rhodanus (modern Rhone) to the north of Tarusco [1]. The river is crossed at Remoulin by a three-tier aqueduct (modern Pont du Gard), part of a conduit built c. AD  50 (50.1 km in length; descent 12·27 m) which led the spring water of the Eure by way of Ucetia to Nemausus (Nimes) [1]. The Pont du Gard has a length of 142·35 m on the lowe…


(108 words)

Author(s): Ferrer Maestro, Juan José (Castellón)
[German version] (Οὐαρία/ Ou aría). City of the Berones on a bridge over the Iberus [1] (modern Ebro), which was navigable downstream from there on (Plin. HN 3,21; cf. Str. 3,4,12; Ptol. 2,6,55), mansio on the Tarraco-Asturica road (It. Ant. 393), modern Varea in the west of Logroño (Rioja). The original Iberian settlement was on modern Monte Cantabria and was relocated to the plain in the 1st cent. BC. Archaeological remains: various house foundations, floor mosaics. Ferrer Maestro, Juan José (Castellón) Bibliography W. Espinosa, V. en el universo romano, in: J. Sesma (ed.), Histo…


(185 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman gens of Etruscan origin (Schulze, 248). [German version] [1] V., L. was accused c. 80 BC of murder and defended by Cicero, who claimed that the deed had been in the interest of the accuser Ancharius [2] Rufus and that hence he was the murderer, but lost the case (Prisc. Institutiones grammaticae 7,70; 12,29; Quint. Inst. 5,13,28; 7,1,9; 7,2,36; 9,2,56). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] V. Rufus A senator; he represented the province of Bithynia et Pontus in the Senate against the proconsul Iulius [II 28] Bassus, who had been accused of extortion (…


(163 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
Roman nomen gentile, recorded from the 2nd cent. BC onwards (AE 1997,283; Schulze, 160). [German version] [1] Recitator, 2nd cent. BC Roman recitator of the 2nd cent. BC, who recited the Annales of Ennius [1] to large crowds on particular days (Suet. Gramm. 2) and who was understood in later times as a grammarian. Obtaining a textual edition from the Anecdoton Parisinum (GL 7,534) by conjecture on the name is problematic. Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) Bibliography HLL 1, § 38. [German version] [2] Legate, fell in 53 BC Died in the Parthian War in 53 BC, when, as a legate of M. Licinius …


(47 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] V. is supposed to have been the name of the grandmother of  Elagabalus [2]  (SHA Opil. 9, 1-3; SHA Heliog. 10,1; 12,3; 31,4). This may have been a fiction based on the name of Elagabalus' father (see Varius [II 6] Marcellus). Eck, Werner (Cologne)


(1,160 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name, probably derived from Varus. Name-bearers first attested in the 1st cent. BC, but only in the Imperial period did they attain any prominence. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V. Cotyla, L. Aedile in 48, 47 or 44 BC (Cic. Phil. 13,26), emissary at Rome for M. Antonius [I 9] in 43, and his legate in Gallia transalpina (Cic. Phil. 5,5-7; 8,24-32; Plut. Antonius 18,8). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] V. Rufus, L. Roman poet, c. 70-15 BC Renowned Roman poet (Hor. Ars P. 55) of the Augustan period (c. 70-15 BC). Wi…


(7,114 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] [1] Mentioned in Josephus, Bl. Mentioned in Jos. BI 1,398 as ἡγεμών ( hēgemṓn) of Syria, c. 25-23 BC. Identification uncertain. Most recently [1. 17 f.]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 E. Da̧browa, The Governors of Roman Syria, 1998. [German version] [2] V. Terentius, M. (Reatinus) Roman polymath author, 116-27 BC The most important Roman polymath author. M. Terentius Varro: Works     No. (in text)     Title (Latin)     English title or subject    State of preservation1     Edition; Testimonia; Catalogus Hieronymi2 (=  C)     1 (II 5)     Aetia     Ori…


(122 words)

Author(s): TH.O.
[German version] First mentioned together with Mithras [I] in a 14th cent. BC treaty between the Hittites (Ḫattusa) and the Mittani, V. was that god of the Vedic pantheon who watched over the rules and imperatives of settled, peaceful human coexistence, and who unrelentingly punished transgressions. He thus also took responsibility for the order of the cosmos. In assuming and developing the functions of the Indo-European sky god, V. has a close cognate in the Zoroastrian Ahura Mazdā. His importanc…


(229 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Common Roman cognomen, initially an individual epithet ('bow-legged', cf. Plin. HN 11,254). Recorded for Alfenus [3; 5], Aternius, Licinius [I 46-47], Quinctilius [I 1-3; II 7-8], Vibius. The best known bearer was P. Quinctilius [II 7] V. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCap., 149 Id., FCIR, 271 Kajanto, Cognomina, 242. [German version] [2] Sophist from Perge, c. 150 (Οὔαρος/ Oúaros). Sophist from Perge, c. AD 150, from a noble family, presumably the Plancii (Plancius; cf. [1. 22; 2]). Son of one Callic…


(59 words)

Author(s): Cabanes, Pierre (Clermont-Ferrand)
[German version] (Οὐαρουαρία/ Ouarouaría). City in the south of Liburnia (Liburni; Ptol. 2,17,9; Plin. HN 3,130; 3,139), to the north of modern Šibenik, to the southwest of Burnum at modern Bribir. Under Tiberius V. was a municipium in the conventus of Scardona ( quattuorviri). Cabanes, Pierre (Clermont-Ferrand) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 205, 216 f., 487-492 B. Saria, s. v. V., RE 8 A, 418-420.


(111 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] In AD 62, the Parthian Vologaeses I succeeded in encircling the Roman army of Caesennius [4] Paetus near Rhandia. V.--commander of the cavalry--was sent from the Parthian side to negotiate the capitulation. In the discussion, Paetus prided himself on the Roman supremacy over Armenia which had been in existence from Licinius [I 26] Lucullus and Pompeius [I 3] , while V. emphasised the actual Parthian dominance. His part in the negotiations that followed cannot be clearly determined…


(121 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Latin Vasaces). [German version] [1] V. Mamikonian Armenian, imperial general under Arsaces [4] II of Armenia. V. tried to maintain good relations with Rome. Together with the king, c. 368 he fell into the hands of Sapor [2] II, who had V. flayed (Procop. BP 1,5: Βασσίκιος; Faustus [4] Buzandaci 3,16; 4,2; 4,11; 4,16; 4,20; 4,23-49; 4,53 ff.). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] V. of Siunik from 442 governor of Armenia, became involved in the conflict between his Christian countrymen and his Zoroastrian general Yazdgird [2] II. After a Persian …


(95 words)

Author(s): de Libero, Loretana (Hamburg)
[German version] (from Latin vas, 'utensil'). Expense allowance paid in advance by the state exchequer ( Aerarium ) to a Roman official leaving for his province, so that he could finance the maintenance of himself, his retinue and his soldiers. It does not refer, as [1. 296] has it, to travelling equipment; against this, see [2. 351 f.], who moreover rejects v. as a technical term and interprets the relevant passage (Cic. Pis. 86) with reference to Cato (Agr. 145,3) as a contractually agreed additional payment. de Libero, Loretana (Hamburg) Bibliography 1 Mommsen, Staatsrecht, Bd…


(219 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] Ligurian/Celtic tribe in Aquitania (after Diocletian's reform in the province of Novempopulana) on both banks of the lower Garumna (Amm. Marc. 15,11,14: Vasatae; Ptol. 2,7,15: Οὐασάτιοι/ Ouasátioi); neighbours of the Bituriges Vivisci to the north, the Nitiobriges to the east and south, the Tarbelli to the southwest, and the Boeates in the west. Identification of the V. with the Vocates mentioned in Caes. B Gall. 3,23,7 is uncertain, these may rather have been the Boeates. The V. were one of the four peoples of southern Aquitania who at the time of the founding of the Ara …


(156 words)

Author(s): Stepper, Ruth
[German version] (Οὐάσκωνες/ Ouáskōnes). Group of peoples who inhabited the area of the modern province of Navarra and parts of modern Aragon, to the north of the Hiberus between Jaca and Cape Higuer (Str. 3,3,7; 3,4,10; Plin. HN 3,22; 4,110). Pompelo (modern Pamplona; Str. 3,4,10) was evidently the chief town of the V.; Cascantum (modern Cascante), Graccurris and Calagurris [1] (Ptol. 2,6,67) were also in the V.' territory. Of their origin nothing is known; their name may be Indo-European ( barscunes, bascunes; [1]). In literature, they are mentioned for the first time in …

Vase decoration

(5 words)

see Ornaments

Vase painters

(697 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
[German version] The collective term 'vases' for Greek painted pottery (II. A.) as a special sub-genre of ceramics characterized by its often rich decoration emerged in the 18th cent. when the first vasi antichi were discovered in Campania and Etruria. Since their decoration was the task of the potter, no ancient word exists for the profession of vase painters (VP), although they could mark their work with the signature ἔγραψεν/ égrapsen ('has painted'). The first signatures of VP appear on early archaic, Cycladic and Corinthian pottery. In Athens, the earliest example is Sophil…

Vase painting, black-figured

(2,114 words)

Author(s): Mommsen, Heide (Stuttgart) | Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
In black-figure vase painting (BFVP), figures are drawn as complete black silhouettes on the clay-coloured surface of the pottery. The drawings within those silhouettes are incised and the figures are varied and enlivened through red and white engobe. This technique required a controlled firing in three phases and was invented in Corinth in c. 700 BC (Pottery, production of). [German version] I. Attic Among the various types of BFVP, the most important is that from Attica. In c. 630 BC, Attic vase painters adopted the black-figure technique from Corinth and kept improvin…

Vase paintings

(7 words)

see Pottery; Vase painters


(16 words)

See Red-figured vase painting; Potters; Pottery II.; Vase painters; Vase painting, black-figured; Vases/Vase paintings

Vases, iconography of

(9 words)

see Pottery II. A. 4.

Vases/Vase Painting

(4,119 words)

Author(s): Naumer, Sabine
Naumer, Sabine [German version] A. Subject (CT) The vase (Latin: vas = vessel, dish, implement; pl. vasa = household appliance, household), which today is understood as a decorative vessel, particularly a flower vase, fulfilled a variety of tasks in Antiquity with a corresponding variety of shapes, sizes and materials (stone, metal, ceramic) as well as decorations (unpainted, painted, relief). In this broad definition, vases are ubiquitous in all cultures since the Stone Age; the following deals exclusively wit…


(423 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | Gallia/Gaul (Οὐασίων/ Ouasíōn; modern Vaison-la-Romaine in the département of Vaucluse). Oppidum of Gallia Narbonensis, capital of civitas Vocontiorum (Vocontii; Str. 4,1,11; Mela 2,5,75; Ptol. 2,10,16; CIL XII 5669: c(ivitas) V(asio) V(ocontiorum); ILS 2709: res publica Iuliensium; decuriones, praetores, praefecti, aediles: CIL XII 1307; 1368 ff.; 1529; civitas foederata: Plin. HN 3,37; cf. 7,78). The name V. is pre-Celtic, cf. spring and river V. (CIL XII 1301; 1336). In late Antiquity civ…


(6 words)

see Poeta Vates


(519 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] Lat. 'announcer' of vaticinationes, 'prophecies', which occur by means of divine inspiration and are, according to Cicero, part of the 'natural' divination (Cic. Div. 1,4; 1,34 et passim; Divination VII: ill. of the communication pattern); occasionally, however, representatives of the 'artificial' divination (Haruspices; Augures) are also called vates (such as Liv. 2,42,10). The vates speaks in verse ( canere since Enn. Ann. 207; carmina: Sall. Hist. 1,77,3 et passim) and is thus part of a general ancient tradition of prophetically inspired text p…

Vatican Museums

(16 words)

see Rome,VI. Museums C. Vatican Museums (Musei e Gallerie Pontificie, Città del Vaticano)


(253 words)

Author(s): Brändle, Rudolf (Basle)
[German version] As early as Antiquity, the name V. (Mons Vaticanus; Ager Vaticanus; on the name see [1. 3291-3294]) described a hilly area on the right bank of the Tiber between the Mausoleum Hadriani (modern Castel Sant'Angelo) and the Ianiculum (Rome III., map 1). Three important roads (via Aurelia Nova, via Cornelia and via Triumphalis) with rambling burial sites led across the V. In part of this large area were the imperial gardens and the Circus (I C) of Caligula and Nero [1]. The obelisk which stood on the spina of the circus was erected in Saint Peter's Square in 1586. It …


(772 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V., P. Ancestor of V. [I 2] from Reate, who was told of a victory over Perseus [2] in a dream in 168 BC (Cic. Nat. D. 2,6; 3,13; Val. Max. 1,8,1). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] V., P. Born c. 95 BC, d. after 42 BC. Presumably from Reate (Cic. Nat. D. 2,6 on V. [I 1]), V. achieved a political rise in Rome under the patronage of the Iulii Caesares: since he was married (schol. Bobiensia 149 St.) to Antonia, a niece of L. Iulius [I 6] Caesar, the latter as consul in 64 may have sponsored…


(72 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River which rises in the Appenninus, passes Forum Cornelii (modern Imola) and flows into the Adriatic to the north of Ravenna (Plin. HN. 3,119 f.; Mart. 3,67,2: Vaternus), modern Santerno. In the Roman period it flowed from the right into the Spineticus, a branch of the Padus (modern Po); the port at its mouth was therefore called Portus Vatreni. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Uggeri, La romanizzazione dell'antico Delta Padano, 1975, 37.

Vaults and arches, construction of

(1,257 words)

Author(s): Sievertsen, Uwe (Tübingen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt There is evidence of vaults and arches in western Asia, chiefly in crypts and on canals. There are only few surviving examples of the vaulting of above ground spaces. Both true and corbelled vaults are documented, over quite small or passage-like rooms, posterns, staircase substructures and doorway, gateway and bridge arches. Barrel vaults and domes were comparatively common, primarily on storage spaces and furnaces. For the most part techniques were used in…


(41 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Ligurian tribe in the  Alpes Maritimae, subjugated by Augustus (Plin. HN 3,137;  cf. the inscription on the Augustus Arch in Segusio: CIL V 7231). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruch, Les peuples préromaines du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 360 f.


(4 words)

see Taxes


(4 words)

see Veiovis


(676 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italian gens name, recorded from the 1st cent. BC onwards. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V., P. Friend of Cn. Pompeius [I 3], provoked mockery by Cicero (Cic. Att. 6,1,25) in March of 50 BC for his travelling in an ostentatious style and his collecting miniature portraits of married women. Possibly identical to V. [II 4]. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) II.Imperial period [German version] [II 1] P. V. Antoninus Citizen of Ephesus of equestrian rank. Praefectus cohortis and tribunus militum Legionis I Italicae (IEph III 726; 726a). In Ephesus itself he was a prýtanis, and a grammateú…

Vegetable gardening

(440 words)

Author(s): Ruffing, Kai (Münster)
[German version] VG was as significant as the cultivation of grain, wine and olives (Olive oil), the so-called Mediterranean triad, to which in recent times legumes have been added. Its great significance is also evident from the large amount of space dedicated to it by ancient agrarian writers and physicians (Plin. HN. 19,52-189; Columella 11,3). Evidence of widespread VG extends from the Late Helladic period until the Byzantine period. Pulses (beans, peas, etc.), mainly covered by the Latin term  legumina (Greek ὄσπρια/ óspria), and leaf vegetables, tubers and salad plants (Latin (h…


(523 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] Mostly annual plants, parts of which are suitable for eating, either raw or cooked. In the ancient world, there were large numbers of vegetables; there is evidence for Imperial Italy alone of fifty garden species and fifty wild species. Today largely unknown or uncommon, in ancient sources they were divided into three large groups: 1. legumina (primarily the protein-rich pulses, such as beans, peas, chickpeas, lentils, lupins; cf. the lists in Columella 2,7,1-2; Plin. HN 18,117-136); 2. olera (especially the vitamin- and fibre-rich leaf-vegetables, tubers,…


(546 words)

Author(s): Schulze, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] is documented a number of times and for prominent exponents in Graeco-Roman Antiquity, but cannot be understood in the modern sense of strictly defined veganism (rejection of all animal products, including milk, honey and wool), but rather is usually limited to abstaining from meat consumption; the term is a modern one. On the whole, vegetarianism will not have been an overly noticeable phenomenon in everyday Graeco-Roman life, since meat formed only a small proportion of food anyway. Myth reveals features of a vegetarian (= veg.) way of life in even the e…


(529 words)

Author(s): Brandt, Hartwin (Chemnitz)
[German version] P. V. Renatus, Latin author in Late Antiquity. As well as a work on veterinary medicine ( Digesta artis mulomedicinae; cf. Mulomedicina Chironis; Veterinary medicine), V. wrote a technical military text ( Epitoma rei militaris), which in four books covers questions of recruitment and military training (book 1), the organization of Roman legions (book 2; Legio ), strategic and tactical problems (book 3), and besieging cities and warfare at sea (book 4; Naval warfare). After V. had written De dilectu atque exercitatione tironum (= book 1), he received a com…


(78 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Ueteston, Οὐέτεστον). Town in Galatia on the southern edge of the territory of the Tolistobogii (Ptol. 5,4,7; Tab. Peut. 9,5: Vetissus), about 8 km to the west-northwest of modern Sülüklü. Regionally organised in the Roman period as δῆμος Οὐητισσέων/ dêmos Uētisséōn (MAMA 7, 363); numerous inscriptions survive from the region around V. (MAMA 7, 311-401). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 242  E. Kirsten, s. v. V., RE 8 A, 2437-2439.


(319 words)

Author(s): Amann, Petra
[German version] Etruscan nymph, also known as Begoe (Serv. Aen. 6,72); Etruscan vecui ( a), vecuvia (cf. the nomen gentile vecu/ viku, attested especially in Chiusi). V. is mentioned in Roman tradition as the one to create/announce (a part of?) the holy Etruscan books about the doctrine of lightning ( L ibri fulgurales ; Serv. loc.cit.) as well as a part of the books of rituals. The entirety of these books was referred to as libri Vego(n)ici (Amm. Marc. 17,10,2, a part of the Etrusca disciplina ) and was later kept in the temple of Apollo on the Palatine (Serv. loc.cit., along with the Sibyllini …


(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, originally indicating origin (Veii); Fabricius [II 2] and Perperna [5]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 119; 189 f.


(656 words)

Author(s): Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Umbri, Umbria | Villanova Culture | Etrusci, Etruria | Etrusci, Etruria | Colonization (Οὐιοί/ Ouioí, Βηϊεντία/ Bēïentía; Etruscan Vei(s)). Etruscan city (App. It. 8,1; Liv. 5,22,8; 5,24,6; Eutr. 1,20) on the plateau ( c. 180 ha) between Cremera (modern Valchetta) in the north and the modern Piordo in the south, 15 km north of Rome near the modern Isola Farnese. Remains from the proto-Villanovan period (10th cent. BC) and Villanovan period (9th/8th cent. BC) are extant,…


(383 words)

Author(s): Distelrath, Götz (Constance)
[German version] (also Vediovis or Vedius). Roman god, whose cult is supposed to have been founded in Rome by T. Tatius (Varro Ling. 5,74). No later than the middle of the 1st cent. BC there was a lack of clarity about his function and character (Cic. Nat. 3,62): from the prefix ve- V. was either understood as a young/small Jupiter (Ov. Fast. 3,445-449; Paul. Fest. 519,22) or as his counterpart (Gell. 5,12,8-12), and this is one of the reasons for the modern interpretation of V. as a chthonic deity (Chthonic deities) [1; 2]. In the Fasti Venusini an agonium ('sacrifice') is listed for V. on…


(115 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] An originally swampy area within the City of Rome (with plan 2), between the Capitol, the Palatine and the banks of the Tiber; the naming and the origin of the word (from Etruscan  vel, 'swamp'?) was already disputed in Antiquity (cf. Varro Ling. 5,43). The area was drained as early as the Republican period with the help of the Cloaca maxima , after the Neronic fire (64 AD) further raised and then densely built on as a significant mercantile quarter near the city centre. The Forma Urbis Romae shows the V. as a close-built inner-city district. Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) Biblio…


(70 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Celtic people in the western Alpes, subjugated by  Augustus (G.) between 25 and 14 BC (Plin. HN. 3,137). A treaty of hospitality (σύμβολον πρὸς Οὐελαυνίους) with a Greek city is recorded by a Greek inscription on a bronze hand (2nd/1st cent. BC, IG XIV 2432, now in the Cabinet des Médailles in Paris). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 372 f.


(162 words)

Author(s): Aigner-Foresti, Luciana (Vienna)
[German version] Etruscan god, recorded inscriptionally with the abbreviated name velch and epithet lvsl on the bronze liver of Piacenza (1st cent. BC) (ET Pa 4.2). Velcha is also frequently recorded in Etruria as a family name (ET s. v. V.). There is no iconographic evidence of V. The modern amendment to Velch(ans-l) and the identification with the Roman Volcanus as the 'god of cultic fire' should be distinguished in function from the Etruscan god of smithing Sethlans [4. 210 f., 225; 3. 295 ff.; 1. 355 ff.]. V. may originally have been a god …


(196 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Township at the foot of Mount Isel on a cone of debris and alluvial deposits above the River Sill on the route of the Brenner pass (It. Ant. 256; 258 f.; 275; 279 f., possibly identical with the Vetonia in Tab. Peut. 4,2), modern Wilten (a southern district of Innsbruck). Traces from the La Tène period (La Tène culture) where a settlement existed from the 1st to the 4th cent. AD, probably beneath the modern White Canon Abbey (buildings about 500 m2 in area; Mansio ?). To the north of V., three three-aisled horrea ('stor…
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