Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Veleda

(235 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Germanic female seer who played a significant part in the Batavian Revolt in AD 69/70 ( Iulius [II 43] Civilis). According to Tacitus, she was part of the Bructeri tribe and lived in a high tower on the River Lippe ( Lupia; Tac. Hist. 4,61,2; 5,22,3). Among the tribes to the east of the Rhine, she was worshipped as divine and was invoked as an arbiter (Tac. Germ. 8,2 f.; Tac. Hist. 4,65). Petillius [II 1] Cerialis made her a secret offer of peace. Tacitus gives a satirical account of how some of the Batavi in opposition to Civilis even commented that it would be more honourable to be obedient to the Roman princeps than to Germanic women: an allusion to V.'s great influence. Shortly before, the Germani had ca…

Velia

(851 words)

Author(s): Salomone Gaggero, Eleonora (Genoa) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] [1] Ligurian city in the valley of the upper Chero (Βελεία, Βελία/ Bel(e)ía; Οὐελεία/ Oueleía). Ligurian city (but in Regio VIII) in the valley of the upper Chero (tributary of the Po), c. 30 km to the south of Placentia; modern Velleia. Possibly an Augustean colonia, tribus Galeria (Plin. HN 3,47; ILS 1079, l. 8: res publica Velleiat[ium]; ILS 5560: municipes); according to the archaeological finds evidently destroyed in the 4th/5th cent. AD and abandoned. Parts of the forum survive (drainage …

Veliocasses

(155 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] Celtic people (according to Caes. B Gall. 2,4,1 originally Germanic) in Gallia Belgica (Caes. B Gall. 2,4,9; cf. 7,75,3; 8,7,4; Oros. 6,7,14; 6,11,12; Ptol. 2,8,8: Οὐενελιοκάσιοι/ Ou eneliokásioi; Liv. Per. 67), in the north and to a limited extent also in the south of the lower reaches of the Sequana (modern Seine; in the south of the département of Seine-Maritime and in the north of the département of Eure). In the pre-Roman period, the capital of the V. was probably the

Velites

(293 words)

Author(s): Schumacher, Leonhard
[German version] The velites were a light infantry unit that opend the battle in front of the formation of the manipular army similar to the rorarii of earlier times (Liv. 8,8,8; 8,9,14). Equipped with leather helmets, round shields. short swords and seven lances ( hasta [1]; Pol. 6,21,9-22,4; Liv. 38,21,13), it was their job to demoralize the enemy by throwing a volley of javelins and then, after the 'skirmish' ( velitatio), to retreat behind their own lines (Pol. 2,30,1-5; 3,65,5-7; Liv.). The speed at which they surged ahead was essential, since the object was …

Velitrae

(410 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Coloniae | Italy, languages | Latini, Latium (Οὐελίτραι/ Ouelítrai). City in Latium in the southern foothills of the modern Colli Albani to the north of the Ager Pomptinus and the settlement area of the Volsci (Str. 5,3,10; Liv. 2,30,14; Steph. Byz. s. v. Βέλιτρα; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,41,5; Sil. Pun. 8,379; 13,229: Veliternum), modern Velletri. The beginnings are disputed: originally Latin (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 5,61,3), occupied by the Volsci …

Velius

(546 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] [1] V. Cerialis Amicus of Pliny the Younger (Plin. Ep. 4,21). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] D. V. Fidus Senatorial cos. suff. in November/December AD 148, together with M. Calpurnius [II 16] Longus (AE 1996, 1384 = [1]); governor of the province of Syria Palaestina in 150 (PSI IX 1026 = [2]). Member of the Pontifices in 155 (CIL VI 2120). IGLS VI 2777 is probably his burial inscription [3]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 J. D'Arms, Memory, Money, and Status at Misenum: Three New Inscriptions from the Collegium of the Augustales, in: JRS 90, 2000, 126-144 2…

Vellaunodunum

(79 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre Celtic oppidum of the Senones [2], conquered by Caesar's legate, C. Trebonius [I 1], in 52 BC (Caes. B Gall. 7,11,1; 7,11,4; 7,14,1). A precise location between Agedincum and Cenabum is not possible; Château-Landon and Terres-Blanches du Grand-Villon to the north of Montargis ( département of Loiret) are conceivable. Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) …

Vellavii

(115 words)

Author(s): Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy)
[German version] Celtic people, neighbours of the Gabali, Arverni, Allobroges, Segovellauni and Helvii, in the Gallic War allied with the Arverni (Caesar I C), in whose contingent they took part at the Battle of Alesia in 52 BC (Caes. Gall. 7,75; Str. 4,2,2). Under Augustus they were assigned to the province of Aquitania with a capital at Ruessium (modern Saint-Paulien). Under Claudius [III 1] or Tiberius [1] they received Ius Latii (Latin Law II; cf. [2. no. 25]). In late Antiquity they were part of Aquitanica Prima.…

Velleius

(1,014 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Krapinger, Gernot (Graz)
Roman gentile name (from vel(l)a [1. 377]). [German version] [1] V., C. From Lanuvium (like Q. Roscius [I 4]: Cic. Nat. D. 1,79), Roman senator, perhaps thanks to L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla; no longer mentioned after c. 70 BC. Possibly (cf. MRR 2,474) identical to C. V., friend of L. Licinius [I 10] Crassus beginning c. 90 BC (Cic. De or. 3,78), senator not later than 77, representative of the Epicureans in Cicero (Nat. D. 1,15; 1,18-56). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [2] V., C. From Campania? [2. 383]; grandfather of [4]; in 52 BC, iudex selectus, later praef. fabrum of Cn. P…

Vellocatus

(56 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[German version] Briton, a shield-bearer ( armigerus) of Venutius (Tac. Hist. 3,45); married in 69 AD to the queen Cartimandua of the Brigantes, who for a short time shared power with him in order to gain support. Cartimandua Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam) Bibliography W. S. Hanson, G. Webster, The Brigantes. From Clientage to Conquest, in: Britannia 17, 1986, 73-89.

Venafrum

(401 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Coloniae (Οὐέναφρον; Ouénaphron). City of the Samnites in the valley of the Volturnus [1] (Str. 5,3,10; 5,4,3; 5,4,11; App. B Civ. 1,41; Ptol. 3,1,68) on a natural route connecting Samnium and Campania. Modern Venafro, V. was p raefectura Venafrana in the middle of the 3rd cent. BC (Fest. 262,14), Augustan colonia (CIL X 4894;  cf. 4875; Liber coloniarum 239) of r egio I (Plin. HN 3,63), tribus Terentina (CIL X 1, p. 477), and from the 4th cent. AD onwards it was in the province of Samnium (CIL X 4858 f.; 4863; 4865). There is evidence of duoviri, praefecti, a praefectus iure deicundo (CIL X 1, 4876), aediles, quaestores (CIL X 1, p. 477), pontifices (CIL X 1, 4860; 4885), augures (CIL X 1 4884), a flamen (CIL X 1 4860), a flamen Augustalis (CIL X 1, 4868), seviri Augustales (CIL X 1, 4908; 4911) as well as various collegia, such as the  Collegium cultorum Bonae Deae Caelestis (CIL X 1, 4849). Remains have survived of an orthogonal city plan traceable to the Augustan colonia, divided into blocks of houses of some two actus [2], a city wall (cf. CIL X 1, 4876), a domus from the 1st cent. AD wit…

Venantius Fortunatus

(562 words)

Author(s): Krapinger, Gernot (Graz)
[German version] V. Honorius Clementianus Fortunatus, Latin poet of the 6th cent. AD, was born between 530 and 540 in Valdobbiadene/Tarvisium (modern Treviso). In Ravenna, he received the grammatical, rhetorical and legal education towards a career in administration befitting a member of the higher classes (Ven. Fort. vita Martini 1,29-39). A pilgrimage to the grave of the holy Martinus [1] in Tours (Ven. Fort. carm. 8,1,21 and Vita Martini 1,44) or political difficulties at home [5.XIV-XIX] led him to the Frank…

Venaria

(32 words)

Venatio

(367 words)

Author(s): Hönle, Augusta (Rottweil)
[German version] is the current Latin term in the literary and epigraphic tradition for the hunting and killing of wild animals under artificially created conditions (ThlL s. v. bestia). In Rome, venatio was an extension of ludi and hence a component of the state cult; it was prepared and carried out by curule aediles , for the first time in 186 BC [1. 294]: 63 African predator cats, 40 bears and elephants were killed at this first venatio. In following centuries, the number of animals killed increased; Senate restrictions were to no avail. If a venatio was part of ludi, in Rome, it was or…

Venelli

(134 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] People in Lugdunensis (Plin. HN 4,107: Venelli) in the northwest of Normandy on the Cotentin peninsula. The V. capitulated in 57 BC to Caesar's legate P. Licinius [I 16] Crassus (Caes. Gall. 2,34), but rose up the following year (Caes. Gall. 3,11,14) and also sent troops to Alesia in 52 BC (Caes. Gall. 7,75). The V.'s chief town in the pre-Roman period was probably the oppidum on modern Mont-Castre, 17 km to the west of Carentan, in the Imperial period initially Crociatonum (Ptol. 2,8,2: Κροκιάτονον/ Krokiátono…

Venereal diseases

(398 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] In the absence of unambiguous diagnostic evidence it is difficult to reconstruct the ancient history of VD. Less harmful infections such as herpes genitalis (Hippocr. De mulierum affectibus 1,90 = 8,214-8 L.) and chlamydia [2. 220] are well attested, the two major VD of modern times, gonorrhoea and syphilis, can be detected in surviving material only with difficulty. Gonorrhoea, a Greek word coinage presumably from the Hellenistic period, describes any form of excessive production of fluid in a man. It…

Venethi

(180 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] People between the central reaches of the Vistula (modern Wisła, German Weichsel) and the modern Daugava (German Düna), to the north of the Sarmatae and the Sciri (Plin. HN 4,97; Tac. Germ. 46,2; Ptol. 3,5,19: Οὐενέδαι/ Ouenédai). According to Iord. Get. 34 they settled between the Peucini and the Fenni and incorporated various Slav tribes in the region. It is assumed that the V. were bearers of the Przeworsk cultu…

Veneti

(2,440 words)

Author(s): F.V. | Winkle, Christian
[German version] [1] People of northeastern Italy (Ἐνετοί/ Enetoí). Pe…

Venetia

(217 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[German version] The mediaeval and modern city of Venice (Venezia) does share its name with the Regio X ( Veneta Carni et Histria) of the organisation of Italia (cf. Regio, with map) under Augustus, but its centre, the Rialto (< Rivus Altus), was founded only in the Carolingian period. A legend, appearing already in Venetian historiography (cf. also Constantinus Porphyrogennetus, De administrando imperio 28), of the founding of the city on 25 March 421 and of the flight of the population as a result of the destruction of Aquileia [1] by Attila in 452 is de…

Venetic

(414 words)

Author(s): Untermann, Jürgen (Pulheim/Köln)
[German version] The language of the upper Italian Veneti [1] is known through 270 inscriptions written between the 5th and the 1st cents. BC. The most important sites are Este (more than 120 inscr.), Padua (23), and Lágole di Cadore (Calalzo) in the upper Piave valley (66); individual finds reach all the way to Vicenza in the west, in the north into the Gail valley and in the east to the Isonzo in Slovenia (see map). A small number of the most recent texts is written in Latin script, all others in the Venetic alphabet, which had been r…
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