Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Valentia

(417 words)

Author(s): Ferrer Maestro, Juan José (Castellón) | Winkle, Christian
[German version] [1] Modern Valencia This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Commerce | Pilgrimage | Pyrenean peninsula (modern Valencia). Roman city in the territory of the Edetani in the lower valley of the Turia [2] near the sea (Mela 2,92; Ptol. 6,6,61). There is no archaeological evidence there of a pre-Roman Iberian city, in Avien. 481 f. called Tyris. V. was founded in 138 BC by the consul D. Iunius [I 14] for veterans (probably the Roman ones, not the Iberians) of the war with Viriatus (App.…

Valentinians

(395 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg)
[German version] (Valentinianism). V. refers to the students of Valentinus [1] (the name first appeared in Justin. Dial. 35,6 and Hegesipp. In Euseb. Hist. eccl. 4,22,5), the most important Christian-heretical movement of the 2nd and 3rd cents. AD (with traces into the 7th cent.). It spread through the entire Mediterranean region and presented a serious competition for the emerging majority Catholic Church. Hippolytus [2] (Refutatio omnium haeresium 6,35,7) tells of a division into an Italic (Ptol…

Valentinianus

(2,009 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Flavius Valentinianus I Roman emperor 364-375. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] I. Origins and rise V. was born in Cibalae in Pannonia in AD 321 (Zos. 3,36,2; Amm. Marc. 30,6,6) as the son of the comes rei militaris Gratianus [1]. In 357, he was tribunus in Gaul (Amm. Marc. 16,11,6 f.); beginning in 360/1, he held high military office in Mesopotamia; in 362, he was comes et tribunus cornutorum there (Philostorgius, Historia ecclesiae 7,7). According to some Christian traditions, Iulianus [11] exiled him to Egyptian Thebes [1] in 362…

Valentinus

(500 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Christian theologian and poet, 2nd cent. Christian theologian, probably from Egypt, taught in c. AD 140-160 in Rome ( cf. Iren. adv. haereses 3,4,3). He wanted, possibly, to become episcopus ( epískopos ), but was turned down (Tert. adv. Valentinianos 4,1 ff.); afterwards, he must have lived in Cyprus (Epiphanius, Panarion 31,7,2). Besides a few extant fragments from sermons and letters, a work entitled 'On the three natures' ( Perì triôn phýseōn) is known to have existed. V. apparently wrote psalms in verse form; a fragment (in Hippolytus, Refutatio omnium haer…

Valeria

(553 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] First priestess of Fortuna Muliebris, 5th cent. BC Sister of P. Valerius [I 45] Poplicola, said to have saved Rome in 488 BC from Coriolanus (Plut. Coriolanus 33; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,39; 8,43,1 f.); first priestess of Fortuna Muliebris (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,55,3-5; Fortuna B.). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography Latte, 181. [German version] [2] Daughter of P. Valerius [I44], ca. 500 BC Daughter of P. Valerius [I 44] (elected belatedly cos. for the year 509 BC), sent to Porsenna with 19 other hostages (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 5,32,3). They …

Valerianus

(929 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Q. Cornelius V. Author of an antiquarian compilation, 1st cent. Roman equestrian of the 1st cent. AD (probably c.45 praef. vexillariorum in Thracia). Author of an antiquarian compilation mentioned by Plinius [1] (Pliny the Elder) as source of books 3 (?), 8, 10, 14 and 15 of his Naturalis historia, and quoted at 3,108 (?), 10,5 and 14,11. Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht Bibliography PIR2 C 1471. [German version] [2] P. Licinius V. Roman emperor 253-260, born 199 (thus the gist of Ioh. Mal. 12 p. 298; SHA Valer. 5,1 is false); from a noble family (Aur. V…

Valerius

(11,988 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, which was said to have immigrated to Rome under King T. Tatius with V. [I 10] (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,46). The name, derived from the old personal name Valesus/ Valerus, was originally Valesios (cf. V. [I 7]; CIL XII p. 298g: Valesies; Fest. 22; Varro, Rerum divinarum fr. 66 Cardauns [4; 5]); the censor App. Claudius [I 2] introduced the new spelling in 312 BC (cf. Dig. 1,2, 2,36). Because in Antiquity the name was derived (etymologically correctly) from valere, 'to be strong', it was considered to be a good omen ( boni ominis nomen, Cic. Div. 1,102; Cic. Sca…

Valesiana Excerpta

(6 words)

see Excerpta Valesiana

Valet(i)um

(38 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] Community in the north of Brundisium (also Carbinium): Guido, Geographia 27; 71, modern Carovigno; inscriptions and remains from the Messapian period (8th-2nd cents. BC). Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography M. Lombardo, I Messapi e la Messapia, 1992, 222-224.

Valetudinarium

(6 words)

see Hospital C. Valetudinaria

Valetudo

(288 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] ('Health'). In contrast to the generally positive connotations of salus , v. as a term for health is neutral and is hence given qualifying epithets ( bona: Lucr. 3,102; incommoda: Liv. 5,31,9; cf. esp. Manil. 3,140f.) or can, according to context, be biased in diametrically opposed ways (positive: Liv. 4,25,3; negative: 8,12,2). The wish for good health was common (Sen. Ep. 10,4; Petron. Sat. 61), but as early as the Roman Republic appears to have transcended a purely private nature (as in Livius [I 7] Drusus…

Valgius

(303 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] [1] Valg(i)us Father-in-law (Cic. Leg. agr. 3,3) of Servilius [I 26] Rullus. Under Cornelius [I 90] Sulla V. had appropriated estates in Ager Hirpinus and in Casinum (ibid. 2,69; 3,8-14). He may be identical to the C. Quinctius Valgus recorded as patronus (D.) of the Hirpinian Aeclanum, as quinquennalis of a town near Frigento and as a duumvir of Pompeii and in Casinum (ILLRP 523; 565; 598; 645; 646). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) Bibliography P. Harvey, Socer Valgus, Valgii and C. Quinctius Valgus, in: E. Borza, R. Carrubba (eds.), Classics and the Classical Trad., 197…

Vallatum

(217 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] Station on the road from Regina Castra (modern Regensburg) to Augusta [7] Vindelicum (modern Augsburg; It. Ant. 250,5); station of the last unit of the Legio III Italica and an ala [2] (Not. Dign. Occ. 25,17; 35,26). The place name (which implies a pre-Roman wall structure without ditches) and distance data in It. Ant. suggest that V. was in the walled fort of the Celtic oppidum (II) of Manching; there are no indications there of a late Antiquity military installation, however. Since the excavation of a small late Antiquity fort on the Frauenbe…

Vallenses

(104 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Four tribes in the Wallis canton (ILS 169: civitates quattuor Vallis Poeninae). The territory of the Nantuatae, Veragri, Seduni and Uberi was occupied by Rome in its Alpine campaign of 16/15 BC and initially administered in common with Raetia and Vindelicia (Vindelici) under a legatus. Claudius [III 1] united the V. with the Alpes Graiae, whose procurator occasionally had a residence in Octodurus. This new civitas was given Latin law (Plin. HN 3,135). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Walser, Studien zur Alpengeschichte in antiker Zeit, 1994, 59-…

Vallia

(116 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Visigoth king (Visigoths), from AD 415 the successor of Segericus in Spain. V. may have planned to cross to Africa (see also [2. 89]) in order to escape pressure from Constantius [6] on the Goths, but in 416 he concluded a treaty with Ravenna in which they probably agreed to a Goth initiative against the other Germanic peoples in Spain and the later settlement of the Goths in Gaul. (MGH AA 11,19; Oros. 7,43,10-15; Olympiodoros fr.30 Blockley; [2. 88-93]). V. died in 418 before the…

Vallis

(110 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3];  It. Ant. 25,4; 48,9; 49,1; 51,1; Tab. Peut. 5,3 f.) some 60 km to the southwest of Carthage, modern Sidi-Mediene, with significant ancient remains (city wall, temple); an indigenous community, in which evidently a Roman pagus was established, then a municipium , in the 3rd cent. a colonia. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 1272-1294; 2, 10612; Suppl. 1, 14770-14790; 3, 22004; 4, 25827-25833; [1. 1279- 1282]; AE 1934, 31. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 A. Merlin (ed.), Inscriptions latines de la Tunisie, 1944. AATun 050, s…

Vallum

(146 words)

Author(s): Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon)
[German version] (related to Latin vallus, 'stake, palisade'), occasionally used with the general meaning 'protective wall' (Liv. 9,14,7; 36,18,2; Frontin. Str. 3,17,9), usually in a military context. The typical Roman defensive installation, which was built during a campaign or a siege, consisted of a fossa ('ditch'), agger ('earthen wall') and v. ('palisade'); soldiers dug out the ditch, throwing the earth inwards and building the v. on this earth wall (Veg. Mil. 3,8,7-9; 4,28,3; Liv. 10,25,6 f.; cf. also the precise description of a Roman v. in Liv. 33,5,5-12). Finally, var…

Value, marks of

(672 words)

Author(s): Leschhorn, Wolfgang (Erlangen)
[German version] Marks of value are rare on Greek coins, as the various denominations were commonly differentiated not only by type of metal, size and weight, but mostly by different images on the coins. Only occasionally does one find explicit indications or designations of values in the form of abbreviations comprising the first letter or letters of the denomination (e.g. Ο for obolos : Metapontum, 5th cent. BC [1. no. 1503]; Δ for dióbolos: Corinth, 5th cent. BC; cf. the index in [2]). Marks of value without any indication of denomination are more frequently found in Ital…

Valvata

(38 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Road station on the Via Quinctia between  Faesulae and Pisae on the Arnus (Tab. Peut. 4,1 f.) at modern Cascina. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. Mosca, Via Quinctia 2, in: Journal of Ancient Topography 9, 1999, 165-174.

Vandals

(2,413 words)

Author(s): Steinacher, Roland
Steinacher, Roland [German version] A. Vandals (CT) The Vandals (V.) were a Germanic tribe whose ethnogenesis is not completely clear. After invading the Roman Empire (406 AD), they migrated across Gaul, together with the Alani and Suebi, and reached Spain where they set up short-lived states. After these political entities collapsed, the Silingi V. and the Alani, an ethnic group of Scythian-Sarmatian origin, joined the kingdom of the Hasdingi Gunderic. Under King Geiseric, this alliance conquered the African provinces and established the regnum of the V. and Alani. This king…
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