Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Varuna

(122 words)

Author(s): TH.O.
[German version] First mentioned together with Mithras [I] in a 14th cent. BC treaty between the Hittites (Ḫattusa) and the Mittani, V. was that god of the Vedic pantheon who watched over the rules and imperatives of settled, peaceful human coexistence, and who unrelentingly punished transgressions. He thus also took responsibility for the order of the cosmos. In assuming and developing the functions of the Indo-European sky god, V. has a close cognate in the Zoroastrian Ahura Mazdā. His importanc…

Varus

(229 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Common Roman cognomen, initially an individual epithet ('bow-legged', cf. Plin. HN 11,254). Recorded for Alfenus [3; 5], Aternius, Licinius [I 46-47], Quinctilius [I 1-3; II 7-8], Vibius. The best known bearer was P. Quinctilius [II 7] V. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCap., 149 Id., FCIR, 271 Kajanto, Cognomina, 242. [German version] [2] Sophist from Perge, c. 150 (Οὔαρος/ Oúaros). Sophist from Perge, c. AD 150, from a noble family, presumably the Plancii (Plancius; cf. [1. 22; 2]). Son of one Callic…

Varvaria

(59 words)

Author(s): Cabanes, Pierre (Clermont-Ferrand)
[German version] (Οὐαρουαρία/ Ouarouaría). City in the south of Liburnia (Liburni; Ptol. 2,17,9; Plin. HN 3,130; 3,139), to the north of modern Šibenik, to the southwest of Burnum at modern Bribir. Under Tiberius V. was a municipium in the conventus of Scardona ( quattuorviri). Cabanes, Pierre (Clermont-Ferrand) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 205, 216 f., 487-492 B. Saria, s. v. V., RE 8 A, 418-420.

Vasaces

(111 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] In AD 62, the Parthian Vologaeses I succeeded in encircling the Roman army of Caesennius [4] Paetus near Rhandia. V.--commander of the cavalry--was sent from the Parthian side to negotiate the capitulation. In the discussion, Paetus prided himself on the Roman supremacy over Armenia which had been in existence from Licinius [I 26] Lucullus and Pompeius [I 3] , while V. emphasised the actual Parthian dominance. His part in the negotiations that followed cannot be clearly determined…

Vasak

(121 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Latin Vasaces). [German version] [1] V. Mamikonian Armenian, imperial general under Arsaces [4] II of Armenia. V. tried to maintain good relations with Rome. Together with the king, c. 368 he fell into the hands of Sapor [2] II, who had V. flayed (Procop. BP 1,5: Βασσίκιος; Faustus [4] Buzandaci 3,16; 4,2; 4,11; 4,16; 4,20; 4,23-49; 4,53 ff.). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] V. of Siunik from 442 governor of Armenia, became involved in the conflict between his Christian countrymen and his Zoroastrian general Yazdgird [2] II. After a Persian …

Vasarium

(95 words)

Author(s): de Libero, Loretana (Hamburg)
[German version] (from Latin vas, 'utensil'). Expense allowance paid in advance by the state exchequer ( Aerarium ) to a Roman official leaving for his province, so that he could finance the maintenance of himself, his retinue and his soldiers. It does not refer, as [1. 296] has it, to travelling equipment; against this, see [2. 351 f.], who moreover rejects v. as a technical term and interprets the relevant passage (Cic. Pis. 86) with reference to Cato (Agr. 145,3) as a contractually agreed additional payment. de Libero, Loretana (Hamburg) Bibliography 1 Mommsen, Staatsrecht, Bd…

Vasates

(219 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] Ligurian/Celtic tribe in Aquitania (after Diocletian's reform in the province of Novempopulana) on both banks of the lower Garumna (Amm. Marc. 15,11,14: Vasatae; Ptol. 2,7,15: Οὐασάτιοι/ Ouasátioi); neighbours of the Bituriges Vivisci to the north, the Nitiobriges to the east and south, the Tarbelli to the southwest, and the Boeates in the west. Identification of the V. with the Vocates mentioned in Caes. B Gall. 3,23,7 is uncertain, these may rather have been the Boeates. The V. were one of the four peoples of southern Aquitania who at the time of the founding of the Ara …

Vascones

(156 words)

Author(s): Stepper, Ruth
[German version] (Οὐάσκωνες/ Ouáskōnes). Group of peoples who inhabited the area of the modern province of Navarra and parts of modern Aragon, to the north of the Hiberus between Jaca and Cape Higuer (Str. 3,3,7; 3,4,10; Plin. HN 3,22; 4,110). Pompelo (modern Pamplona; Str. 3,4,10) was evidently the chief town of the V.; Cascantum (modern Cascante), Graccurris and Calagurris [1] (Ptol. 2,6,67) were also in the V.' territory. Of their origin nothing is known; their name may be Indo-European ( barscunes, bascunes; [1]). In literature, they are mentioned for the first time in …

Vase decoration

(5 words)

see Ornaments

Vase painters

(697 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
[German version] The collective term 'vases' for Greek painted pottery (II. A.) as a special sub-genre of ceramics characterized by its often rich decoration emerged in the 18th cent. when the first vasi antichi were discovered in Campania and Etruria. Since their decoration was the task of the potter, no ancient word exists for the profession of vase painters (VP), although they could mark their work with the signature ἔγραψεν/ égrapsen ('has painted'). The first signatures of VP appear on early archaic, Cycladic and Corinthian pottery. In Athens, the earliest example is Sophil…

Vase painting, black-figured

(2,114 words)

Author(s): Mommsen, Heide (Stuttgart) | Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
In black-figure vase painting (BFVP), figures are drawn as complete black silhouettes on the clay-coloured surface of the pottery. The drawings within those silhouettes are incised and the figures are varied and enlivened through red and white engobe. This technique required a controlled firing in three phases and was invented in Corinth in c. 700 BC (Pottery, production of). [German version] I. Attic Among the various types of BFVP, the most important is that from Attica. In c. 630 BC, Attic vase painters adopted the black-figure technique from Corinth and kept improvin…

Vase paintings

(7 words)

see Pottery; Vase painters

Vases

(16 words)

See Red-figured vase painting; Potters; Pottery II.; Vase painters; Vase painting, black-figured; Vases/Vase paintings

Vases, iconography of

(9 words)

see Pottery II. A. 4.

Vases/Vase Painting

(4,119 words)

Author(s): Naumer, Sabine
Naumer, Sabine [German version] A. Subject (CT) The vase (Latin: vas = vessel, dish, implement; pl. vasa = household appliance, household), which today is understood as a decorative vessel, particularly a flower vase, fulfilled a variety of tasks in Antiquity with a corresponding variety of shapes, sizes and materials (stone, metal, ceramic) as well as decorations (unpainted, painted, relief). In this broad definition, vases are ubiquitous in all cultures since the Stone Age; the following deals exclusively wit…

Vasio

(423 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | Gallia/Gaul (Οὐασίων/ Ouasíōn; modern Vaison-la-Romaine in the département of Vaucluse). Oppidum of Gallia Narbonensis, capital of civitas Vocontiorum (Vocontii; Str. 4,1,11; Mela 2,5,75; Ptol. 2,10,16; CIL XII 5669: c(ivitas) V(asio) V(ocontiorum); ILS 2709: res publica Iuliensium; decuriones, praetores, praefecti, aediles: CIL XII 1307; 1368 ff.; 1529; civitas foederata: Plin. HN 3,37; cf. 7,78). The name V. is pre-Celtic, cf. spring and river V. (CIL XII 1301; 1336). In late Antiquity civ…

Vates

(6 words)

see Poeta Vates

Vates

(519 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] Lat. 'announcer' of vaticinationes, 'prophecies', which occur by means of divine inspiration and are, according to Cicero, part of the 'natural' divination (Cic. Div. 1,4; 1,34 et passim; Divination VII: ill. of the communication pattern); occasionally, however, representatives of the 'artificial' divination (Haruspices; Augures) are also called vates (such as Liv. 2,42,10). The vates speaks in verse ( canere since Enn. Ann. 207; carmina: Sall. Hist. 1,77,3 et passim) and is thus part of a general ancient tradition of prophetically inspired text p…

Vatican Museums

(16 words)

see Rome,VI. Museums C. Vatican Museums (Musei e Gallerie Pontificie, Città del Vaticano)

Vaticanus

(253 words)

Author(s): Brändle, Rudolf (Basle)
[German version] As early as Antiquity, the name V. (Mons Vaticanus; Ager Vaticanus; on the name see [1. 3291-3294]) described a hilly area on the right bank of the Tiber between the Mausoleum Hadriani (modern Castel Sant'Angelo) and the Ianiculum (Rome III., map 1). Three important roads (via Aurelia Nova, via Cornelia and via Triumphalis) with rambling burial sites led across the V. In part of this large area were the imperial gardens and the Circus (I C) of Caligula and Nero [1]. The obelisk which stood on the spina of the circus was erected in Saint Peter's Square in 1586. It …
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