Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Calumnia

(295 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In classical Roman law, the deliberate, groundless and bullying filing of suits and charges. In the regulatory procedure for disputes amongst private individuals, the Praetor awarded a special iudicium calumniae decimae partis, i.e. a penalty for failure to observe correct procedure of 1/10 of the value of the claim (Gai. Inst. 4,175). In the case of manumission or status claims the sanction against the fiduciary claimant (  adsertor in libertatem ) amounted to as much as 1/3 of the value of the slave. The person affected could demand four times the value ( quadruplum) wi…

Calventius

(56 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] L.C. Vetus Carminius. Praetorian governor of Lusitania in AD 44/45 (AE 1950, 217); cos. suff. in 51 [1. 265]. CIL VI 1544 is possibly a reference to him, a complete senatorial cursus, which ended with the proconsulate of Africa (PIR2 C 338) [2. 137]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 G. Camodeca, L'archivio Puteolano dei Sulpicii, 1992 2 Alföldy, GFH.

Calvia Crispinilla

(94 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Woman of senatorial rank, close confidante of Nero, after whose death she attempted to incite Clodius Macer to rebel. After her return to Rome in AD 69, she enjoyed the protection of all emperors, partly due to her marriage to a consular senator (Tac. Hist. 1,73; Raepsaet-Charlier no. 184; PIR2 C 363). For brick stamps from Tergeste bearing her name, see [1. 168], for property ownership suppl. It. 8,38, no. 6; AE 1972, 102. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 C. Zaccaria, M. Župančič in C. Zaccaria (ed.): I laterizi di età romana nell' area nordadriatica, 1993.

Calvinus

(40 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Calvinus [1] see  Domitius [German version] Calvinus [2] Roman cognomen, in the Republican period particularly common in the  Domitii family, but also in the Sextii and Veturii (ThlL, Onom. 108). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 235.

Calvisius

(639 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name, whose bearers appear in public life from 1st cent. BC (ThlL, Onom. 108f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] C. Brought charges against Agrippina, 1st cent. AD Client of Iunia Silana, exiled after bringing charges against Agrippina in AD 55. He was recalled after her death (Tac. Ann. 13,19,3; 21,2; 22,2; 14,12,4; PIR2 C 343). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. Ruso, P. Consul suff. 53 AD Cos. suff. in AD 53 [1. 43; 72]; father of C. [3] and [4]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] C. Ruso, P. Consul suff. 79 AD Cos. suff. in AD 79, procos. A…

Calvius

(45 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman family name (ThlL, Onom. 110). [German version] C. Cicero, C. People's tribune 454 BC, brought an accusation against the former consul Romilius (Liv. 3,31,5); probably a late annalistic invention [1. 448]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 R. M. Ogilvie, A commentary on Livy books 1-5, 1965.

Calvus

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘bald-head’) of the Caecilii Metelli, Cornelii Scipiones, Licinii et al. (ThlL, Onom. 111f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 235.

Calvus, Licinius

(7 words)

see  Licinius Calvus, C.

Calx

(4 words)

see  Circus

Calybe

(86 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva)
(Καλύβη; Kalýbē). [German version] [1] Mistress of Laomedon Nymph who bore to the Trojan king  Laomedon a son named Bucolion (Apollod. 3.12.3). Without mentioning the name of the mother, Homer (Il. 6.23-24) also mentions the birth of Laomedon's illegitimate son Bucolion. Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) [German version] [2] Priestess of Juno Priestess of  Juno in Ardea. The fury Allecto takes on her form when she appears to  Turnus in a dream and incites him to fight against the Trojans (Verg. Aen. 7.419). Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva)

Calycadnus

(172 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Καλύκαδνος; Kalýkadnos). Most important and abundant (Amm. Marc. 14,3,15) river in Cilicia Tracheia ( Cilices) in Isauria, whose southern tributary (modern Gevne Çayı) rises in the border region of Pamphylia and Isauria, passes through the Cietis to the south of Germanicopolis to its confluence near  Claudiopolis [2] with the other tributary (Gök Çayı) from the region of Bozkır in the border region of Lycaonia and Isauria; then called Göksu, it flows via Seleucia (Roman bridge from the time of Vespasian) and reaches the Mediterranean after c. 15 km (navigable in…

Calyce

(181 words)

Author(s): Zingg, Reto (Basle)
(Καλύκη; Kalýkē = ‘Bud’, ‘Rose blossom’). [German version] [1] Daughter of Aiolos [1] and Enarete Daughter of the Thessalian king  Aeolus [1] and Enarete; she had seven brothers and four sisters and is the mother of  Endymion by Aethlius or Zeus (Apollod. 1,50; 56; Hes. fr. 10a M-W). Zingg, Reto (Basle) [German version] [2] Mistress of Poseidon Daughter of Hecaton, mother of  Cycnus by Poseidon (Hyg. Fab. 157; cf. schol. Pind. Ol. 2.91 where she is called Kalykía). Zingg, Reto (Basle) [German version] [3] Woman whose love is unrequited A woman whose love is unrequited;she prays to A…

Calydnae

(65 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
(Κάλυδναι; Kálydnai). [German version] [1] Archipelago between Tenedus and the mainland Archipelago between Tenedus and the mainland (Sen. Tro. 839; Quint. Smyrn. 7,407; 12,453; Lycoph. 25); in disagreement with Str. 13,1,46, probably not between Lecton and Tenedus, but north of Tenedus; modern Tavşan Adaları. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) [German version] [2] see Calymna see  Calymna Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s.v. K., RE 10, 1761f.

Calydnus

(64 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κάλυδνος; Kálydnos). Son of  Uranus, architect and first king of Thebes ( Thebae) which he fortifies with a wall. The city is therefore also called Kálydna or Kalýdnou týrsis, ‘fortress of C.’ (Steph. Byz. in schol. Lycophron 1209). The incorrect translation of C. as ‘good singer’ was linked with the building of the wall around Thebes through music. Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Calydon

(553 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Καλυδών; Kalydṓn). [German version] [1] Eponymous of the Aetolian city of the same name The eponymous of the Aetolian city of the same name, C. [3], son of  Aetolus and  Pronoe, brother of Pleuron, husband of Aeolia and through her the father of Epicaste and Protogenea (Apollod. 1,58-59). A similar genealogically linked construct in Deimachus (FGrH 65 F 1 = schol. Hom. Il. 217-218 Erbse) where the succession Endymion-Aetolus-Pleuron-C. is found, also the names of the region and both of the largest cities. According to Steph. Byz. s.v., either Endymion or Aetolus is the father of C. C. is a…

Calydonian Hunt

(5 words)

see  Meleager

Calymna

(474 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κάλυμνα; Kálymna) Island of the Sporades north of Cos (also Kálydna or Kálydnai, which probably also referred to the surrounding smaller islands), with the more common modern name of Kalymnos (109 km2, predominantly limestone, maximum height: 686 m). Documented in Hom. Il. 2,677; Stadiasmus maris magni 280f.; Scyl. 90; Hdt. 7,99,2f.; Str. 10,5,19; Diod. Sic. 5,54,1f.; Plin. HN 5,133; 11,32; Steph. Byz. s.v. Kalymna.; [1; 2. 8f. no. 10]. The earliest finds date back to the Neolithic. at the northern end of C., near Emporios, a Mycenaean tholos t…

Calynda

(248 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia | Delian League (τὰ Κάλυνδα; tà Kálynda). Settlement on the south-western coast of Asia Minor, taken as being part of Caria as well as Lycia, 60 stades inland from the coast on the Axon (modern Kargın çayı) east of the  Indus [2] (Hdt. 1,172; Str. 14,2,2; Plin. HN 5,103; Ptol. 5,3,2; Steph. Byz. s.v. C.). In 480 BC, it was under the rule of  Damasithymus (Hdt. 8,87f.), in the middle of the 5th cent. a member of the  Delian League (as Klaÿnda); Ptolemaic in the 3rd cent. In 166 BC, C. was subordinate to  Caunus [2…

Calypso

(969 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Καλυψώ; Kalypsṓ, ‘salvager’, ‘rescuer’; Lat. Calypso). The entire C. myth can be traced back to the ‘Odyssey’ [1. 115] (Hom. Od. 1.50ff.; 5.55ff.; 7.244ff.; 12.447ff.; 23.333ff.): C., goddess and nymph, daughter of  Atlas [2] (only Hyg. Fab. praef. 16 mentions her mother  Pleïone), lives with maidservants on the island of  Ogygia. C. takes in  Odysseus who has been drifting on the sea for nine days (Hom. Od. 7,253ff.), makes him her lover and tries to win him over by tempting him …

Camara [I]

(114 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (καμάρα; kamára), the correct version for camera, related to camurus (‘curved’), describing the curvature of a room or a barque or indeed the barque itself. This type of small round-bottomed sailing vessel with inward-curving side walls, which could travel in a circle and in both directions, was used on the north-eastern coast of the Black Sea, particularly by pirates (Str. 11,2,12, 495f.; Tac. Hist. 3,47,3). The side walls could be raised in such a way that they formed a closed canopy in …

Camara [II]

(116 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Καμάρα; Kamára). [German version] [1] Harbour settlement in eastern Crete Harbour settlement in eastern Crete, originally Lato (Λατὼ πρὸς or ἐπὶ Καμάραι, Ptol. 3,17,5; Hierocles, Synekdemos 650,1), modern Agios Nikolaos. Close political links with  Lato [1. no. 72, p. 428]. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 A. Chaniotis, Die Verträge zw. kret. Poleis in der hell. Zeit, 1996. F. Gschnitzer, Abhängige Orte im griech. Alt., 1958, 49-51. [German version] [2] Empórion on India's south-eastern coast According to Peripl. M. Rubr. 60, an   empórion

Camarina

(848 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Drögemüller, Hans-Peter (Hamburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | | Colonization | Punic Wars (Καμάρινα; Kamárina, Lat. Camarina, Camerina). Dorian town 60 km west of the southern tip of Sicily on a hillside of about 40 m in height, at the mouth of the Hipparis. The foundation by  Syracusae in 599 BC (Thuc. 6,5,3) marked the end of the Dorian-Syracusan expansion into the south-western hinterland. Its original foundation may have taken place from the sea; however, contact by land must soon have been established,…

Cambaules

(29 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Καμβαύλης; Kambaúlēs). Leader of a Celtic army that invaded Thrace in 281 BC but who had to retreat from there (Paus. 10,19,5-6). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Cambles

(86 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] (Κάμβλης; Kámblēs, also Κάμβης; Kámbēs). Mythological king of Lydia. His insatiable appetite (perhaps caused by poison given to him by his enemies) drives him to cannibalism. Driven mad by hunger, he devours even his own wife. Upon waking the next morning with the rest of her hand in his mouth and realizing what he had done, he kills himself (Xanthus, Lydiaca, fr. 12., FHG vol. I, 36ff.; Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 2 A 90 F 28; Ael. VH 1,27). Walde, Christine (Basle)

Cambodunum

(212 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] [1] The modern Kempten in the Allgäu region of Bavaria This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Limes | Raeti, Raetia modern Kempten in the Allgäu region of Bavaria. Main settlement of the Estiones (Str. 4,6,7); on the right bank of the Iller, Tiberian wooden houses, from the time of emperor Claudius stone buildings in a rectangular grid of streets centred around a sacred precinct comprising of ‘forum’, basilica, and baths. Possibly the first seat of the governor in  Raetia, probably splendidissima colonia (Tac. Germ. 41,1). Displaced by Augsburg, C…

Camboricum

(30 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] ‘Ford on the river bend’ (It. Ant. 474,7), presumably modern Icklingham (Suffolk) [1. 294]. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-names of Roman Britain, 1979.

Cambounia

(64 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Καμβούνια; Kamboúnia). Mountainous region in northern Greece west of Mt. Olympus, which separated the Macedonian region of  Elimea from the tripolis of the Perrhaebi, and forms the southern watershed of the  Haliacmon. The easiest way to cross the C. was via the pass of Volustana (918 m) (cf. Liv. 42,53,6; 44,2,10). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography B. Saria, s.v. Volustana, RE 9A, 906.

Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum

(8 words)

see United Kingdom

Cambridge School

(8 words)

see Religion, history of

Cambyses

(1,227 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Καμβύσης; Kambýsēs, Old Persian Kambūjiya; Elamite and Babylonian Kambuzija). [German version] [1] Father of  Cyrus II Father of  Cyrus II, called ‘the Great King, King of Anšan’ (TUAT I 409,21) in the Cyrus cylinder. According to Hdt. 1,107, married to the Median princess  Mandane; according to Ctesias, Cyrus II and the Median king were not related (FGrH 680 F 9,1). More recent research emphasizes that before Darius there were no family ties between the dynasty of Cyrus and the Achaemenids [1]; any attempt a…

Camel

(998 words)

Author(s): Becker, Cornelia (Berlin) | de Souza, Philip (Twickenham)
[German version] I. General Cloven-hoofed animal of the Old World from the hot deserts and steppes of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula ( Camelus dromedarius, one-humped) and the cold deserts of South-West and Central Asia ( Camelus bactrianus, two-humped): various anatomical and physiological adaptations to extreme climates. The camel descends from a North American fossil type ( Protolabis) that migrated to Eurasia c. three million years ago. Wild camels were common from Central Asia to North Africa (bone finds). Fertile cross-breedings between the dromeda…

Cameo

(9 words)

see Gem cutting

Cameria, Camerium

(63 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town of the Aborigines and Prisci Latini, colony of Alba Longa; seized by Tarquinius Priscus; destroyed 502 BC by the consul Opiter Verginius Tricostus. Listed by Pliny (HN 3,68) as one of the Latian towns that had disappeared by his time. The gens Coruncania came from C. (Tac. Ann. 11,24,2). Location unknown. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 563.

Camerinum

(160 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria Town in Umbria ( regio VI) in the Apennines between the rivers Potenza and Chienti on the border with Picenum, modern Camerino. Allied with Rome by an aequo foedere from 309 BC (Liv. 9,36), it supported Scipio in 205 BC in his fight against Hannibal (Liv. 28,45); Marius granted Roman citizenship to two cohorts from C. in the war against the Cimbri. Municipium of the tribus Cornelia. Septimius Severus confirmed the rights of the municipes Camertes (CIL XI 5631). Mosaic on the Piazza Garibaldi, finds in S. G…

Camicus

(252 words)

Author(s): Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen) | Palermo, Dario (Catania)
[German version] (Κάμικος; Kámikos). Town (and river) near  Acragas on Sicily. According to legend (Diod. Sic. 4,78f.), it was there that  Daedalus built a rocky fortress for the Sicanian king Cocalus, on whose orders Minos was murdered there, when the latter demanded that Daedalus be extradited. Cretans were supposedly directed by the gods to send an expeditionary force to Sicily, and for five years laid siege to C. without success (Soph. Kamikoi, fr. 300-304). In 476/5 BC, relatives of Theron of Acragas rose in rebellion against the tyrant and settled in C. (schol. …

Camilla

(252 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] A Volscian Amazon maiden warrior, whose myth is recounted only by Verg. Aen. 11,539-828 (cf. [1. 803]). While fleeing with the young C., her father,  Metabus, the king of the Volscians, tied her to an ash spear, dedicated her to Diana, and hurled her across the river Amisenus; she grew up as a huntress in the forest. In the war against the followers of Aeneas, she joined forces  with Turnus, and was killed by the Etruscan Arruns. Set up as an ideal virgo virilis by Hier. Adversus Jovinum 41,306 BD, she became with Dante (Inferno 1,107; 4,124) a heroic Italian v…

Camillus

(80 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen of presumably Etruscan origin (Schulze, 290, 322; ThlL, Onom. 120-122), in its meaning probably linked with camillus ‘noble-born, not yet mature youth’, then‘ assistant at sacrifices’ (Fest. 38; 82L; Varro, Ling. 7,34 et al.) In the Republican Age, C. is the family cognomen of the Furii; its most famous bearer was M.  Furius C., conqueror of Veii in 396 BC and saviour of Rome after the Gallic invasion. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Walde/Hofmann 1, 147.

Camirus

(369 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Delian League (Κάμιρος; Kámiros, Lat. Camirus). City on the western coast of  Rhodes near the modern Kalavarda; it was one of the three ancient Rhodian cities, together with  Ialysus and  Lindus (this configuration is already mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,656). According to the evidence of grave finds, C. was already inhabited in Mycenaean times. Its true foundation was by Dorian settlers. Together with Ialysus and …

Camma

(61 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Κάμμα; Kámma). Wife of the Galatian tetrarch Sinatus, priestess of Artemis in the 2nd cent. BC. Plutarch notes her as an example of marital love and fidelity because she poisoned the murderer of her husband,  Sinorix, who had forced her to marry him, and herself in the temple (Plut. Mor. 257e-258c; 768b-e; Polyaenus, Strat. 8,39). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Camomile

(81 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (ἀνθεμίς; anthemís, Latin anthemis, Plin., later chamomilla, from which the English name is derived) probably is today's composite genus, Matricaria L. Dioscorides 3,137 Wellmann = 3,144 Berendes (cf. Plin. HN 22,53f.) knew of three species with differently coloured flowers that had warming as well as thinning powers. In antiquity the camomile, as a flower infusion, was already used externally and internally as an anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic medicine.  Anthemis Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) Bibliography P. Wagler, s.v. Anthemis (2), RE 1,2364f.

Campana Reliefs

(5 words)

see  Relief

Campania

(951 words)

Author(s): Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
[German version] A. Region The name of the region (Scyl. 10; Varro, Rust. 1,10,1; 1,20,4; 2,6,5) probably derived from  Capua, its most significant town; C. was bounded by mons Massicus and Sinuessa in the north, mons Lactarius and Surrentum in the south, and the hill country at the foot of the Samnite mountains in the east. In the Augustan age, C. also encompassed the ager Picentinus as part of the regio I (Str. 5,4,13; Plin. HN 3,60ff.; Schol. Juv. 3,219, Latium et Campania; 226; Serv. Aen. 8,9,564). C. comprised of the following districts from north to south: the ager Falernus between Sin…

Campania

(2,703 words)

Author(s): Stärk, Ekkehard (Leipzig)
Stärk, Ekkehard (Leipzig) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) The land between the Volturno in the north and the Sorrento peninsula in the south gained in the Roman period a great significance over and above its geographical and political importance. Factors favouring this were: the continuation of Greek culture in the coastal settlement centres (Naples as Graeca urbs; Tac. ann. 15, 33, 2; cf. Strabo 5,4,7), the arrival after the 2nd cent. BC of Roman citizens as visitors either for health reasons (thermal springs) or in search of the good life (ma…

Campanian Standard

(7 words)

see  Coinage, standards of

Campanian vases

(696 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] The Campanian vases (CV) of the 5th-4th cents. BC were made of a light brown clay and the surface often painted with a red-coloured coating. Artists generally preferred smaller vessels, besides these as the main shape, strap-handled amphora, also hydriae and bell craters; only seldom do pelike types appear ( Pottery, shapes and types of, vessel shapes with fig.). Characteristics attributed to  Apulian vase painting such as volute and column craters, loutrophoroi, rhyta or nestorid…

Campe

(94 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κάμπη; Kámpē). Gigantic jaileress who stands guard in  Tartarus over the  Cyclopes and the Hecatoncheires, monsters with one hundred hands. In the Titanomachy, Zeus follows the advice of Gaia and kills C. (according to Diod. Sic. 3.72.3 she is killed by Dionysus near the Libyan city of Zabrina) so that the former prisoners can support Zeus (Apollod. 1.6); a detailed description of C. as a sort of dragon (starting with the appellative meaning ‘caterpillar’) can be found in Nonnus, Dion. 18.236-264. Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography W. Kroll, s.v. K., RE 10, 1842.

Campestris

(97 words)

Author(s): Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[German version] (-ter, -trius, -τριος). Roman astrologer, possibly of the 3rd cent. AD (differently in [1]), who, according to Lyd. De ostentis p. 24,5 Wachsmuth, revived the prophetic  astrology and magic of  Petosiris, perhaps as an alternative to the Middle Platonic  demonology. He wrote De cometis (Lyd. Ost. p. 35,8, chs. 11-16; Adnotationes super Lucan. 1,529), and about powers of the underworld such as  Typhon (Serv. Aen. 10,272), the title Catabolica infernalia (according to Fulg. Exp. Verg. p. 86 Helmet) is doubtful.  Astrology Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz) Bibliography 1 E. Ri…

Campi Catalauni

(138 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Settlement area of the  Catalauni in modern Champagne, repeatedly the scene of significant battles, thus in AD 273 the victory of emperor Aurelianus over the Gallic usurper  Esuvius Tatricus (SHA Aurelian. 23,3; Eutr. 9,13; Jer. Chron. AD 273), and in AD 366 the victory of general Iovinus over a Germanic army (Amm. Marc. 27,2,4). The Campi Catalauni attained particular fame with the battle of Châlon of 451, when, under Avitus' leadership, a coalition between Rome and the Visigoths…

Campi Phlegraei

(114 words)

Author(s): Gargini, Michela (Pisa)
[German version] (Greek, Φλέγρα, Φλεγραῖον πεδίον, Φλεγραῖα πεδία; Phlégra, Phlegraîon pedíon, Phlegraîa pedía). Name of a coastal strip north of  Campania (between Capua, Nola and Vesuvius: FGrH 566 Timaeus fr. 89; Pol. 2,17,1; from Cuma to Pozzuoli: Str. 5,4,4; Plin. HN 3,61; 18,111); the name was coined by the Chalcidians, who founded  Cumae; Phlegra ( Pallene,  Chalcidice), the volcanic home of the giants, is supposed to be the root of the place name, possibly because of this region's similar volcanic nature. Gargini, Michela (Pisa) Bibliography BTCGI 4, s.v. Campi Flegrei…

Campus Agrippae

(89 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Part of the   campus Martius in Rome; according to the Constantinian regionaries, it was located in regio VII to the right of the via Flaminia and north of the aqua Virgo; originally belonging to Agrippa, it was given to the Roman people by Augustus in 7 BC (Cass. Dio 55,8). According to one of the fragments of the acta fratrum Arvalium from AD 38, it was also the location of the Tiberian ara Providentiae. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography F. Coarelli, in: LTUR 1, 217 Richardson, 64.

Campus Martius

(555 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] (Field of Mars). Tract of land in Rome, shaped like an irregular quadrangle, between the Palazzo Venezia, S. Carlo al Corso, the Ponte Vittorio Emanuele, and the Piazza Cairoli. According to legend, with the foundation of the Republic, the campus Martius (CM) passed from Tarquinian (Dion. Hal. 5,13,2) to public ownership (Liv. 2,5,2; Plut. Poblicola 8,1). The level terrain, not fragmented by private property, was predestined for monumental architecture for public or representative purposes, as in Strabo's (5,3,8). desc…

Campylus

(35 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Καμπύλος; Kampýlos). One of the tributaries of the Achelous in Aetolia (Diod. Sic. 19,67,3); its location cannot be determined more closely. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography H. v. Geisau, s.v. K., RE 10, 1844.

Camulianae

(75 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Καμουλιαναί; Kamoulianaí, Kamuliana). Settlement on the road from Caesarea/Mazaka to Tavium in Cappadocia, possibly the modern Kermer. Its name is not of Celtic origin (different view in [1. 197f.]); as a place of pilgrimage (image of Christ, translation to Constantinople in AD 574), it became a town under the name of Iustinianopolis; documented as a diocese from AD 553 into the 13th cent. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 Hild/Restle. W. Ruge, s.v. K., RE 10, 1844.

Camulodunum

(222 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | | Coloniae | Limes | Pertinax | Britannia | Britannia The largest iron age oppidum in Britannia was situated on the lower reaches of the river Colne in Essex; under the rule of kings Dubnovellaunus and  Cunobellinus [1]. C., modern Colchester, developed. In its heyday (from about AD 10 to 40), the oppidum comprised 30 km2 within a system of protective dykes. As an important centre of power, C. attracted the import of luxury goods from Gaul and Italy. A richly decorated r…

Camulogenus

(69 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Compound Celtic name, ‘descendant of the (god) Camulus’ [1.60-61; 2.160]. An Aulercan, who in 52 BC lead the  Parisii and their neighbouring tribes against T.  Labienus, but fell in a battle at the Seine (Caes. B Gall. 7,57-62). A gold coin of the  Arverni was possibly dedicated to him [3.419, fig. 454; 4.726-727]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 Schmidt. 3 A. Blanchet, Traité monn. gaul., 1905 4 Holder, 1.

Camulos

(85 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] Celtic god, by interpretatio Romana assigned to Mars. Among only six extant dedications, the inscription found in Rindern/ Germany provides evidence for a temple of C. The inscription in Rome (CIL VI 46) -- often claimed to refer to C.- makes no mention of this god [1. 87ff.]. Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn) Bibliography 1 J. Terrisse, in: Bull. Soc. Arch. Champenoise 1991, no. 2. Ch. B. Rüger, in: BJ 172, 1972, 643ff. F. Lefèvre, in: Bull. Soc. Arch. Champenoise 1983, no. 4, 51ff. G. Bauchhenß, s.v. Mars Camulus, LIMC 2.1, 568.

Camunni

(144 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Inhabitants of the upper Oglio valley (Val Camonica), described by some sources as Raeti (Str. 4,6,7) or rather Euganei (Plin. HN 3,134) in the central Alps. A continuity in culture of more than 1000 years is evident in numerous rock paintings, ranging from phases I-III (Neolithic to Bronze Age) to phase IV (from the 8th cent.) and IV 4 (3rd to 1st cents. BC), socio-sacral expressions by hunter and warrior tribes [1. 131ff.]. Listed among the gentes Alpinae devictae, who were defeated by Augustus in 16 BC (CIL V 7817), they were possibly put under the admin…

Cana

(94 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Κάνη, Κάναι; Kánē, Kánai). Frequently mentioned foothills (ἀκρωτήριον, Hdt. 7,42,3; Diod. Sic. 4,53,2; 13,97,4,1; Str. 10,1,5; 13,1,68; Καινὴ ἄκρα, Ptol. 5,2,6,1) with a settlement and a harbour in north-western Aeolis, at the southern end of the bay of Adramytteum, near the modern Kara Dağ. A decree from Demetrias [1] bestows honours on three citizens of C. (IG IX 2, 1105 I). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s.v. K., RE 20, 1844f. W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 335-337 Robert, Villes, 18 J. Stauber, Die Bucht von Adramytteion 1 (IK…

Canaan

(4 words)

see  Palaestina

Canaanite

(95 words)

Author(s): Müller-Kessler, Christa (Emskirchen)
[German version] Traditional general term for a dialect group of north-west Semitic, spoken and written in Syria, Palestine and in the Mediterranean ( c. 10th cent. BC to today; with proto-Canaanite precursors). Canaanite includes  Phoenician, the closely related  Ammonite,  Punic as a late further development of Phoenician,  Edomite as a link between Phoenician and  Hebrew (the Canaanite dialect passed down best and longest) and  Moabite, which is close to Hebrew. The existence of additional local dialects is still a matter of contention. Müller-Kessler, Christa (Emskirchen) Bi…

Canabae

(7 words)

see  Logistics; Military camps [1]

Canace

(212 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Κανάκη; Kanákē). Daughter of the Thessalian  Aeolus [1] and Enarete, who had an additional five daughters and six sons (Apollod. 1,50). C. is mother of five sons fathered by Poseidon, among them is Aloeus, progenitor of the  Aloads (Apollod. 1.53). According to Diod. Sic. 5.61, the Tyrrhenian king Aeolus is C.'s father. The Tyrrhenian and Thessalian Aeolus were blended and said by Homer to be the king of the winds  Aeolus [2], whose six sons and six daughters lived in pairs as married couples (Hom. Od. 10.1-9). In the tragedy Aeolus, Euripides described an incestuous …

Canachus

(280 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κάναχος; Kánachos). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Sicyon Sculptor from Sicyon, lived and worked in the late archaic period. Sources describe his style as hard and strict. His most famous work, the bronze statue of Apollo Philesios in Didyma holding a movable deer in one hand, was looted in 494 BC by the Persians. C. created a copy out of cedar wood for the temple of Apollo Ismenios in Thebes. Reliefs and coins depict the statue which was also recognized in Roman reproductions. In Sicyon, C. create…

Canada

(5 words)

see North-America

Canalization

(1,344 words)

Author(s): Glaser, Franz (Klagenfurt)
[German version] A system of  canals had the function of draining precipitation and utility water as well as surplus fresh water. In the advanced civilizations of Egypt and the Near East, as well as amongst the Minoans, there were well-organized waste water disposal systems; in the Near East, apart from discharge into sewerage systems, waste water was often discharged into individual seepage pits. In the Mycenaean palace of  Tiryns, these channels ( c. 90 x 60 cm) are built into the ground with large stones and cover plates, and sometimes also cut into rock. Narrow …

Canals

(1,828 words)

Author(s): Glaser, Franz (Klagenfurt)
[German version] A. Canals for shipping Both the Nile as well as the extensive canal systems of Babylon equally served as traffic arteries and the country's water supply. Only a few canals were exclusively dedicated to traffic purposes. One of these exceptions was a shipping canal between the Nile and the Red Sea, construction of which was started towards 600 BC under Pharaoh Necho II; further work on this project took place during the time of Darius I (Hdt. 2, 158), Ptolemy I and II (Str. 17, 804) as…

Canastraeum

(47 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Καναστραῖον; Kanastraîon). Cape C., the modern Cape Paliuri, formed the south-eastern tip of the  Pallene peninsula, and is frequently mentioned as a notable coastal landmark by authors and poets, beginning with Herodotus (Hdt. 7,123). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography E. Oberhummer, s.v. K., RE 10, 1955f.

Canatha

(377 words)

Author(s): Gerber, Jörg (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Pompeius (Κάναθα; Kánatha). City in the South Syrian region of Ḥaurān (today's Qanawā), c. 90 km south-southeast of Damascus, on the western edge of the Ḥaurān mountains themselves (Ǧabal Durūz). Located on the slope above the important ancient road Damascus-Bostra; possibly already mentioned in the OT (Num. 32,42; 1 Chr. 2,23). In the mid 1st cent. BC, C. was the first city in Ḥaurān to be established as a Greek polis by the Romans Pompeius or Gabi…

Canathus

(51 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κάναθος; Kánathos). The spring in which, according to Argive legend, Hera bathed once a year to restore her virginity (Paus. 2,38,2); probably the large spring in the monastery of Hagia Moni, 2 km east of Nauplia. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography J. G. Frazer, Pausanias's Description of Greece 3, 21913, 304f.

Cancellarius

(227 words)

Author(s): Gizewski, Christian (Berlin)
[German version] Cancellarius (from cancelli, ‘barriers, bars’) generally referred to the subaltern official in administration and the courts, who dealt with the public, for instance when controlling admission; however, in the course of the Imperial Age, it came to refer specifically to a ‘chief official of an administrative staff’ (Lydus, Mag. 3,37). In late antiquity, a cancellarius could be ranked equal with a chamberlain for audiences (Not. Dign. Occ. 9,15), and even be of senatorial rank (Cassiod. Var. 11,6; 10). As the leading subordinate official just below the consiliarii,

Cancho Roano

(145 words)

Author(s): Blech, Michael (Madrid)
[German version] The almost quadratic complex near Zalamea de la Serena (Badajoz Province) consists of a building containing an enfilade of small chambers above an embanked terrace and a ditch; in the east, a reinforced gateway provided access to the inner courtyard. The monument, destroyed by fire in c. 400 BC, had two predecessors (beginning from the 6th cent. BC), to which two altars -- now under the pillar of the central room -- correspond. Finds indicate that the building functioned as a  palace (residence, sanctuary, craft workshops, de…

Candalus

(78 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Κάνδαλος; Kándalos). One of the seven sons of Helius and the nymph Rhodus; in the prehistory of the island of Rhodes, they are culture-bringers after the  Flood. After the most handsome of the brothers,  Tenages, is killed by the rest, they flee; C. settles on the neighbouring island of Cos (Diod. Sic. 5.56f.; schol. Pind. Ol. 7.72f.). The myth most likely reflects the island of Rhodes' political claims to Cos. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Candaules

(156 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Κανδαύλης; Kandaúlēs). According to Hdt. 1.7-12, the last ruler of the Heraclid dynasty in Lydian Sardis. The Greeks also called him Myrsilus after his father Myrsus. C. allowed his faithful retainer  Gyges [1] to see his wife naked so that he would be convinced of her beauty. He was then murdered by Gyges after C.'s wife confronted him with the choice of suicide as an alternative. A dramatic version of this material can be glimpsed from the remnants of the text (TrGF II Adespota …

Candela

(4 words)

see  Lighting

Candelabrum

(4 words)

see  Lighting

Candidatus

(444 words)

Author(s): Gizewski, Christian (Berlin)
[German version] Generally a person clothed in white; the colour white can express flawlessness, festive rejoicing, and a pleasant mood (Quint. 2,5,19; Hor. Sat. 1,5,41; Plin. Ep. 6,11,3). In Rome it was customary as early as the 5th cent. BC for candidates for public office to wear white robes (Liv. 4,25,13; 39,39,2; Pers. 5,177; Isid. Orig. 19,24). Thereafter, candidatus became the specific term for a candidate for public office. In the republican period, an applicant for an office that was appointed by public election was obliged to declare himself ( professio) as a candidatus to the…

Candidiana

(154 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Late-antique Roman fort on the road along the banks of the Danube in Moesia inferior, west of Durostorum, near the modern Malăk Preslavec in north-eastern Bulgaria (It. Ant. 223,2; Not. Dign. or. 40,24; Procop. Aed. 4,7,9). It had probably been built under Diocletian, in order to replace the Nigrinianis fortress (Tab. Peut. 8,2; Geogr. Rav. 4,7), an important link in the Danube limes, which had been destroyed by the Carpi (?) towards the middle of the 3rd cent.It was the garrison of the cohors I Lusitanorum Maximiana. Remains of buildings, archaeological finds, tre…

Candidus

(240 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
A popular cognomen in the Imperial Age, attested with certainty from the 1st cent. AD (ThlL, Onom. 2,133ff.). [German version] [1] Christian in AD 200 Christian in c. AD 200, author of various lost treatise about the Hexaemeron (Eus. HE 5,27; Jer. vir. ill. 48). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] A follower of the Gnostic Valentinianus, 3rd cent. AD A follower of the Gnostic Valentinianus; in c. AD 230, he had a public dispute with  Origen, who accused him of retrospectively falsifying the records (Rufin. Apol. Orig. epil. = PG 17,625; Hier. Adv. Ru…

Candyba

(92 words)

Author(s): Hailer, Ulf (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia | Education / Culture (Κάνδυβα; Kándyba). Settlement in Lycia (Lycian Xakba, Hittite Hinduwa?) near the modern Gendive; it was (under the name of Xakba) of political importance in the 5th/4th cents. BC. Remains of the settlement around the acropolis ( c. 1.5 ha.) confirm continuous habitation into Byzantine times. In Hellenistic times, C. was a polis, and last minted coins under Gordianus III (AD 238-244); late antique bishop's seat. Hailer, Ulf (Tübingen) Bibliography M. Zimmermann, Unt. zur histor. La…

Cane

(248 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with (Κανή; Kanḗ). Ancient seaport on the southern coast of Arabia in the bay of what is now Bīr Alī (14° 02′ N, 48° 20′ E). According to the Peripl. M. Rubr. 27, C., together with the offshore island Ὀρνέων/ Ornéōn, the ancient Urr Māwiyat and what is now Ḥuṣn al-Ġhurāb, was an important trading centre that was part of the Hadramitic kingdom of Eleazos and the starting point of the  incense road; Ptol. 6,7,10 too lists C. as  emporion, and Plin. HN 6,104 places Cane in the incense region. The port of C. (Qana) …

Cane, club, stick

(402 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] These objects (βάκτρον/ báktron, κηρύκειον/ kerýkeion, ῥάβδος/ rhábdos, σκῆπτρον/ skêptron; Lat. baculum, caduceus, lituus [1], rudis , stimulus) could be straight, with a curvature at the top end, knotty, angled or smooth and could vary in thickness and length. They were carved from hard wood (e.g. olive or myrtle) and might be left plain or decorated with gold embellishments (Ath. 12,543 f.) or reinforced with iron (Theoc. Epigr. 17,31). They were used by old people (old men, teachers) and the …

Canethus

(60 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κάνηθος; Kánēthos). Hill on the mainland, which at the time of Alexander the Great was integrated into the fortifications of the town of Chalcis, modern Kara Baba; the site had previously served as a necropolis. Documentary evidence: Str. 9,2,8; 10,1,8; Theophr. Hist. pl. 8,8,5; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,77. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 1, 409, 602.

Canicula

(4 words)

see  Constellations

Canidia

(42 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Frequently mentioned by Horace because of her magic art and mixing of poisons (Epod. 3,8; 5,15; 17,6; sat. 1,8,24; 2,1,48; 8,95). It is assumed that in real life she was Gratidia, a perfume seller from Naples (Porphyrio). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Canidius

(126 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] C. Crassus, P., of unknown descent. In 43 BC, he served as legate of  Lepidus in Gaul (Cic. Fam. 10,21,4). Probably holder of a command position under M.  Antonius [I 9] in the Perusine War (App. B Civ. 5,50; MRR 2,373). Cos. suff. at the end of 40 BC; from 36 BC, he fought successfully in Armenia and in the Caucasus, and took part in Antony's Parthian campaigns. In the winter 33/32 BC, he returned to Antony from a command in Armenia, was in charge of the land forces at Actium; after the defeat, he fled to join Antony in …

Caninius

(427 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeian family name, attested from the 2nd cent. BC. (Schulze, 144; ThlL, Onom. 137f.). [German version] [1] C. Gallus, L. People's tribune 56 BC People's tribune 56 BC; he sought, without success, the reinstatement of Ptolemy Auletes in Egypt (MRR 2,209). In 56 BC, he was defended by Cicero (Fam. 7,1,4), in 51 BC in Athens frequently in his company, and visited him in Rome in 46 BC. He died in 44 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C. Gallus, L. Consul in 37 BC Son of C. [1], consul of 37 BC with M. Vipsanius  Agrippa (MRR 2,395; PIR 22 C 389). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) …

Canis

(4 words)

see  Constellations

Canistrum

(110 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (Greek κανοῦν; kanoûn). Flat wicker basket; it served as a fruit basket (Ov. Met. 8,675) and was used in agriculture (Verg. G. 4,280). Canistra of sturdy materials (clay, silver, gold) were used as receptacles for liquid substances, e.g. honey and oil. The canistrum was also a device for sacrifices (Tib. 1,10,27; Ov. Met. 2,713 and more); often represented in Roman art in this role, the canistrum contained incense, fruits and offering-cakes. The silver saucers for drinking vessels were called canistra siccaria (Serv. Aen. 1,706).  Kanoun Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bi…

Canitas

(91 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] One of the Scythian kings of Scythia Minor (Dobrudža) in the late 3rd/2nd cents. who became known for the coins they apparently issued in Tomis, Callatis, Dionysopolis and Odessus. C. minted several types and nominals of bronze coins while being referred to as the king of the Scythians in a decree from Odessus (CIG 2, 2056; IGBulg I2, 41; Moretti, 124). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography K. Regling, Charaspes, in: Corolla Numismatica, 1906, 259-265 J. Youroukova, Nouvelles données sur la chronologie des rois scythes en Dobrudža, in: Thracia 4, 1977, 105-121.

Canius Rufus

(121 words)

Author(s): Auge, Oliver (Tübingen)
[German version] Known only through  Martial. He came from Gades (1,61), was married to the philosophically educated Theophila (7,69) and was friends with the Domitii Lucanus and Tullus, the citharode Pollio (3,20) and Martial (7,87; 10,48). According to 3,20, he may have written historical studies on Claudius and Nero, also prose fables as well as elegies, epics, tragedies, and, according to 7,69, a Pantaenis about  Sappho and her Lesbian girls. Martial praises C.'s narrative talent and humour (1,69; 3,20. 64). Following on from 1,61, Ps. Jer. Ep. 36 (PL 30) refers to him as poeta facu…

Can(n)a

(88 words)

Author(s): Belke, Klaus (Vienna)
[German version] (Κάν[ν]α; Kán[n]a). Town in eastern Lycaonia, modern Beşağıl (formerly Gene), east of  Iconium on the road from Amorium to the Cilician Gates [1. 100f., 185]. Seen by Ptol. 5,6,15 as part of Lycaonia (within Cappadocia). From AD 381 at the latest, there was a diocese in Lycaonia (suffragan of Iconium), which continued to exist into the 12th cent. [1. 185]. Inscriptions, amongst those two which bear the town's name, are extant from the 2nd cent. AD [2] onwards. Belke, Klaus (Vienna) Bibliography 1 Belke 2 MAMA 8, XIII, 38-40.

Cannae

(5 words)

see Battlefields

Cannae

(181 words)

Author(s): Garozzo, Bruno (Pisa)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Punic Wars Settlement between Barletta and Canosa on the Monte di Canne (Cic. Tusc. 1,89; Liv. 22,43; 49; Plin. HN 3,105; Sil. Pun. 8,624; Flor. Epit. 2,6), Κανναί (Pol. 3,107; App. Hann. 17). According to Liv. 22,43,10; 22,49,13, an unprotected vicus and ignobilis; Flor. Epit. 2,6,15; κώμη ( kṓmē ‘village’, App. Hann. 3,17), or, according to Polybius, a πόλις ( pólis, ‘town’), protected by an ἄκρα ( ákra ‘castle’). It is well known as the location of the defeat which Hannibal inflicted upon the Rom…

Cannelure

(4 words)

see  Column

Cannenefates

(101 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe, also known as Can(n)anefates, in their ‘extraction, dialect and bravery equal to the Batavi’ (Tac. Hist. 4,15,1; cf. Plin. HN 4,101), in the western part of the insula Batavorum, between Oude Rijn and Mosa (Helinium); cf. ‘Kennemerland’. Possibly subjugated by Tiberius (Vell. Pat. 2,105,1), they provided at the least one ala and one cohors (Tac. Ann. 4,73,2; Hist. 4,19,1). Their capital of Voorburg-Arentsburg became Forum Hadriani and municipium. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR M 31, 59 B. H. Stolte, s.v. Cananefaten, RGA 4, 329f. W. W…

Cannibalism

(441 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (ἀνθρωποφαγία/ anthrōpophagía, ‘the eating of humans’) appears in ancient myths and ethnographical reports. It was something that took place, in contrast to the here and now, either in the past or on the borders of the known world among ethnic groups who did not share the same basic values of Greek culture. It is also identified, in Dionysian myths, as the crossing of the limits in  ecstasy [1; 2]. In this structure, ancient reports coincide astoundingly with those of the modern age [3]. The Cyclops  Polyphemus, who is generally portrayed in the ‘Odyssey’ as the…

Cannita, Pizzo

(37 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Phoenician-Punic settlement, c. 10 km east of Palermo, known from the chance finds of two anthropoid sarcophagi (in 1695 and 1725), and from surface finds. Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography DCPP, s.v. C., 88.

Cannophori

(155 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Richard L. (Ilmmünster)
[German version] ( cannofori, καννηφόροι; kannēphóroi). The younger of the two colleges connected with the cult of Magna Mater; founded as part of Antoninus Pius' reorganization of the cult (2nd cent. AD). It was their ritual function in Rome, on 15 March to carry a bundle of reeds to the temple on the Palatine as part of the joyful procession commemorating the discovery of the young Attis by the Magna Mater on the banks of the  Gallus (Iul. or. 5,165b) [1] ( canna intrat, calendar of Philocalus, CIL I2 p. 260). On the same day, the Archigallus and the C. sacrificed a bull to ensur…

Cannutia Crescentina

(26 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Vestal. Sentenced by Caracalla for incest, she took her own life (Cass. Dio 77,16,1; 3; PIR2 C 400). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Cannutius

(170 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] [1] P. Orator, 1st cent. BC C. is mentioned in Cic. Brut. 205 as copyist (ed.?) of the speeches of P. Sulpicius and as an extremely eloquent orator (positive, in Cic. Clu. 29, 50, 73f.), whereas Aper in Tac. Dial. 21,1 regards him as too old. He was not a senator, but appeared in the trial of Oppianicus (Clu. 58). The passive use of admirari in the only quote in Prisc. Gramm. 2,381,12f. leads to the conclusion that C. was an analogist.  Histrio Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna) Bibliography Edition: ORF4, 371f. Literature: Münzer, s.v. C. 2, RE 3, 1485 A. E. Douglas, Comm. in Cicero…
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