Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Cane, club, stick

(402 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] These objects (βάκτρον/ báktron, κηρύκειον/ kerýkeion, ῥάβδος/ rhábdos, σκῆπτρον/ skêptron; Lat. baculum, caduceus, lituus [1], rudis , stimulus) could be straight, with a curvature at the top end, knotty, angled or smooth and could vary in thickness and length. They were carved from hard wood (e.g. olive or myrtle) and might be left plain or decorated with gold embellishments (Ath. 12,543 f.) or reinforced with iron (Theoc. Epigr. 17,31). They were used by old people (old men, teachers) and the …

Canethus

(60 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κάνηθος; Kánēthos). Hill on the mainland, which at the time of Alexander the Great was integrated into the fortifications of the town of Chalcis, modern Kara Baba; the site had previously served as a necropolis. Documentary evidence: Str. 9,2,8; 10,1,8; Theophr. Hist. pl. 8,8,5; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,77. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 1, 409, 602.

Canicula

(4 words)

see  Constellations

Canidia

(42 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Frequently mentioned by Horace because of her magic art and mixing of poisons (Epod. 3,8; 5,15; 17,6; sat. 1,8,24; 2,1,48; 8,95). It is assumed that in real life she was Gratidia, a perfume seller from Naples (Porphyrio). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Canidius

(126 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] C. Crassus, P., of unknown descent. In 43 BC, he served as legate of  Lepidus in Gaul (Cic. Fam. 10,21,4). Probably holder of a command position under M.  Antonius [I 9] in the Perusine War (App. B Civ. 5,50; MRR 2,373). Cos. suff. at the end of 40 BC; from 36 BC, he fought successfully in Armenia and in the Caucasus, and took part in Antony's Parthian campaigns. In the winter 33/32 BC, he returned to Antony from a command in Armenia, was in charge of the land forces at Actium; after the defeat, he fled to join Antony in …

Caninius

(427 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeian family name, attested from the 2nd cent. BC. (Schulze, 144; ThlL, Onom. 137f.). [German version] [1] C. Gallus, L. People's tribune 56 BC People's tribune 56 BC; he sought, without success, the reinstatement of Ptolemy Auletes in Egypt (MRR 2,209). In 56 BC, he was defended by Cicero (Fam. 7,1,4), in 51 BC in Athens frequently in his company, and visited him in Rome in 46 BC. He died in 44 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C. Gallus, L. Consul in 37 BC Son of C. [1], consul of 37 BC with M. Vipsanius  Agrippa (MRR 2,395; PIR 22 C 389). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) …

Canis

(4 words)

see  Constellations

Canistrum

(110 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (Greek κανοῦν; kanoûn). Flat wicker basket; it served as a fruit basket (Ov. Met. 8,675) and was used in agriculture (Verg. G. 4,280). Canistra of sturdy materials (clay, silver, gold) were used as receptacles for liquid substances, e.g. honey and oil. The canistrum was also a device for sacrifices (Tib. 1,10,27; Ov. Met. 2,713 and more); often represented in Roman art in this role, the canistrum contained incense, fruits and offering-cakes. The silver saucers for drinking vessels were called canistra siccaria (Serv. Aen. 1,706).  Kanoun Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bi…

Canitas

(91 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] One of the Scythian kings of Scythia Minor (Dobrudža) in the late 3rd/2nd cents. who became known for the coins they apparently issued in Tomis, Callatis, Dionysopolis and Odessus. C. minted several types and nominals of bronze coins while being referred to as the king of the Scythians in a decree from Odessus (CIG 2, 2056; IGBulg I2, 41; Moretti, 124). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography K. Regling, Charaspes, in: Corolla Numismatica, 1906, 259-265 J. Youroukova, Nouvelles données sur la chronologie des rois scythes en Dobrudža, in: Thracia 4, 1977, 105-121.

Canius Rufus

(121 words)

Author(s): Auge, Oliver (Tübingen)
[German version] Known only through  Martial. He came from Gades (1,61), was married to the philosophically educated Theophila (7,69) and was friends with the Domitii Lucanus and Tullus, the citharode Pollio (3,20) and Martial (7,87; 10,48). According to 3,20, he may have written historical studies on Claudius and Nero, also prose fables as well as elegies, epics, tragedies, and, according to 7,69, a Pantaenis about  Sappho and her Lesbian girls. Martial praises C.'s narrative talent and humour (1,69; 3,20. 64). Following on from 1,61, Ps. Jer. Ep. 36 (PL 30) refers to him as poeta facu…

Can(n)a

(88 words)

Author(s): Belke, Klaus (Vienna)
[German version] (Κάν[ν]α; Kán[n]a). Town in eastern Lycaonia, modern Beşağıl (formerly Gene), east of  Iconium on the road from Amorium to the Cilician Gates [1. 100f., 185]. Seen by Ptol. 5,6,15 as part of Lycaonia (within Cappadocia). From AD 381 at the latest, there was a diocese in Lycaonia (suffragan of Iconium), which continued to exist into the 12th cent. [1. 185]. Inscriptions, amongst those two which bear the town's name, are extant from the 2nd cent. AD [2] onwards. Belke, Klaus (Vienna) Bibliography 1 Belke 2 MAMA 8, XIII, 38-40.

Cannae

(5 words)

see Battlefields

Cannae

(181 words)

Author(s): Garozzo, Bruno (Pisa)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Punic Wars Settlement between Barletta and Canosa on the Monte di Canne (Cic. Tusc. 1,89; Liv. 22,43; 49; Plin. HN 3,105; Sil. Pun. 8,624; Flor. Epit. 2,6), Κανναί (Pol. 3,107; App. Hann. 17). According to Liv. 22,43,10; 22,49,13, an unprotected vicus and ignobilis; Flor. Epit. 2,6,15; κώμη ( kṓmē ‘village’, App. Hann. 3,17), or, according to Polybius, a πόλις ( pólis, ‘town’), protected by an ἄκρα ( ákra ‘castle’). It is well known as the location of the defeat which Hannibal inflicted upon the Rom…

Cannelure

(4 words)

see  Column

Cannenefates

(101 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe, also known as Can(n)anefates, in their ‘extraction, dialect and bravery equal to the Batavi’ (Tac. Hist. 4,15,1; cf. Plin. HN 4,101), in the western part of the insula Batavorum, between Oude Rijn and Mosa (Helinium); cf. ‘Kennemerland’. Possibly subjugated by Tiberius (Vell. Pat. 2,105,1), they provided at the least one ala and one cohors (Tac. Ann. 4,73,2; Hist. 4,19,1). Their capital of Voorburg-Arentsburg became Forum Hadriani and municipium. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR M 31, 59 B. H. Stolte, s.v. Cananefaten, RGA 4, 329f. W. W…

Cannibalism

(441 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (ἀνθρωποφαγία/ anthrōpophagía, ‘the eating of humans’) appears in ancient myths and ethnographical reports. It was something that took place, in contrast to the here and now, either in the past or on the borders of the known world among ethnic groups who did not share the same basic values of Greek culture. It is also identified, in Dionysian myths, as the crossing of the limits in  ecstasy [1; 2]. In this structure, ancient reports coincide astoundingly with those of the modern age [3]. The Cyclops  Polyphemus, who is generally portrayed in the ‘Odyssey’ as the…

Cannita, Pizzo

(37 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Phoenician-Punic settlement, c. 10 km east of Palermo, known from the chance finds of two anthropoid sarcophagi (in 1695 and 1725), and from surface finds. Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography DCPP, s.v. C., 88.

Cannophori

(155 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Richard L. (Ilmmünster)
[German version] ( cannofori, καννηφόροι; kannēphóroi). The younger of the two colleges connected with the cult of Magna Mater; founded as part of Antoninus Pius' reorganization of the cult (2nd cent. AD). It was their ritual function in Rome, on 15 March to carry a bundle of reeds to the temple on the Palatine as part of the joyful procession commemorating the discovery of the young Attis by the Magna Mater on the banks of the  Gallus (Iul. or. 5,165b) [1] ( canna intrat, calendar of Philocalus, CIL I2 p. 260). On the same day, the Archigallus and the C. sacrificed a bull to ensur…

Cannutia Crescentina

(26 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Vestal. Sentenced by Caracalla for incest, she took her own life (Cass. Dio 77,16,1; 3; PIR2 C 400). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Cannutius

(170 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] [1] P. Orator, 1st cent. BC C. is mentioned in Cic. Brut. 205 as copyist (ed.?) of the speeches of P. Sulpicius and as an extremely eloquent orator (positive, in Cic. Clu. 29, 50, 73f.), whereas Aper in Tac. Dial. 21,1 regards him as too old. He was not a senator, but appeared in the trial of Oppianicus (Clu. 58). The passive use of admirari in the only quote in Prisc. Gramm. 2,381,12f. leads to the conclusion that C. was an analogist.  Histrio Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna) Bibliography Edition: ORF4, 371f. Literature: Münzer, s.v. C. 2, RE 3, 1485 A. E. Douglas, Comm. in Cicero…

Canobus

(4 words)

see  Canopus

Canon

(2,022 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Vogt-Spira, Gregor (Greifswald) | Rese, Martin (Münster) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[1] [German version] I. General points The Greek word canon (κανών, kanṓn) was probably derived from κάννα ( kánna: ‘bulrush reed or rod’), a Semitic loan word in the Greek language. The original meaning of ‘straight reed, stick, rod (in different uses)’ developed into several more specific and technical meanings. As a result, the Greek word canon designates a carpenter's or bricklayer's measuring stick or square, a chronological or astrological table, a monochord in music terminology (from Euclides [3]) etc. In …

Canon

(1,976 words)

Author(s): Hölter, Achim (Münster RWG)
[English version] Until the dawn of the modern era, the term was unusual in the sense in which it is now used by literary scholars; namely, to mean ‘standard’, ‘rule’, or ‘model’ (first used by D. Ruhnken in 1768 to mean a literary corpus), although the contrasting sense of the ‘inspired’ canon of the Bible, or religious law and ‘apocryphal’ writings, was available to suggest an analogy that could be applied to secular items. Concentration and extent of transmission are indicators of canonicity. As early as the manuscript tradition of, for example, the Greek tragedian…

Canonical collections

(6 words)

see  Collectiones canonum

Canonics

(8 words)

see Epistemology

Canonists

(2,147 words)

Author(s): Dolezalek, Gero (Aberdeen RWG)
[English version] Experts in Church law, and thus of canon(ical) law, were termed ‘canonists’, from the Greek kanṓn = ‘rule’, in particular, religious rule. The term canonist came into use in the 12th cent., to distinguish them from ‘civilists’, experts in the Roman Corpus iuris civilis, who appeared from that time on in Church courts in competition with canonists. The word ‘ canon’ was applied in medieval Latin mainly to excerpts from juridical texts of authoritative writings. Canones were taken from the Bible, conciliar decisions, the writings of the early Church Fath…

Canope

(133 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] Name of the (mostly stone) jugs in which the Egyptians interred entrails, often stored in their own boxes. They came under the protection of four gods (‘Sons of Horus’) and four goddesses ( Isis,  Nephthys,  Neith,  Selcis) and often are inscribed with sayings that correlate the parts of the corpse with the corresponding divinities. From the 1st interim period (2190-1990 BC) the lid of the Canope was mostly shaped like the head of a human, from the 19th dynasty also as heads of th…

Canopus

(234 words)

Author(s): Felber, Heinz (Leipzig)
[German version] Town at the mouth of the then westernmost branch of the Nile, Egyptian P(r)-gwtj, near what is now Abū Qīr west of Alexandria; as a seaport C. was the gate of Egypt (road to  Naucratis) from the 8th cent. BC onwards, until Alexandria, to which C. was linked via a canal, took on this role. C. was an important religious centre with  Sarapis as its principal god (famous temple as the place of healing sleep and of oracles [1; 2]). Isis and Harpocrates were worshipped here. An  Ibis cemetery from t…

Canosa Vases

(129 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Type of  Apulian vases, between c. 350 and 300 BC, probably made exclusively for use in graves. Their distinguishing feature is their decoration in a variety of water-soluble pigments (blue, red/pink, yellow, pale purple, brown) on a white background. Preferred  vessel forms are the volute-krater, cantharus, oinochoe, and askos, whose main bodies were frequently decorated with figures of women on small pedestals and with three-dimensional decor (winged heads, gorgoneia et al.). The gre…

Cantabri

(147 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Alongside the  Astures, the C. were the most important tribe of the Spanish Atlantic coastal region. The main income of this tribe, which was split up into various groups, was derived from breeding cattle in the mountainous regions of the modern districts of Asturia and Santander; arable farming was very much of secondary importance only. Food shortages in the mountains may have been the motivation for the C.'s raids on the  Vaccaei, who settled in the fertile Duero valley. The C.…

Cantharides

(168 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (κανθαρίδες; kantharídes) are slim, metallic-green oil beetles, such as the so-called Spanish fly ( Lytta vesicatoria), that were used for medicines; when taken orally, their active ingredient -- cantharidin -- leads to poisoning, as Plin. HN 29,93-96 (cf. [1. 70f.]) shows with reference to one case. Externally applied to wounds together with e.g. mutton suet, the cantharidae were said to be useful because of their blistening, caustic effect which the Middle Ages learnt about through Isid. Orig. 12,5,5. The beetles -- that lived on pl…

Cantharus

(417 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Michel, Raphael (Basle) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κάνθαρος; Kántharos. Cp. Kantharos) [German version] [1] Main harbour of Piraeus The main harbour of Piraeus (Plut. Phocion 28,3; Aristoph. Pax 145 with schol.; Hesch. s.v. Κάνθαρος; Anecd. Bekk. 1,271,8), otherwise referred to simply as mégas or mégistos limḗn ('large' or 'largest harbour'; Plut. Themistocles 32,4; Paus. 1,1,2; IG II2 1035,45f.) [1. 61f.; 2. 9], modern Kentrikos limen. Named after an otherwise unknown heros [1] C. (Philochorus, FGrH 328 F 203) or after the pottery shape Kantharos [1] (cf. [3]). Moles narrowed the entry into the C. which, as limḕn kleistós ('close…

Canthus

(120 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κάνθος; Kánthos). Argonaut from Euboea, in Apollonius Rhodius the son of Canethus, the eponym of a Euboean mountain, and grandson of Abas [1c], the eponym of the whole island under its old name Abantis (1,77). In Valerius Flaccus, C. is the son of Abas. C. scarcely makes an appearance in the story of the Argonauts, only his death in battle - either on the return journey in Libya (Apoll. Rhod. 4,1485-1501: he is the only one of the Argonauts to fall in battle there; cf. Orph. Arg. 141-143), or in Colchis fighting the Iazyges (Val. Fl. 6,317-341) is described in some detail. Visser…

Cantiaci

(107 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Tribe in the area of Kent and East Sussex. Its name is derived from the region of Cantium. Caes. B Gall. 5,22,1 tells of four indigenous kings; this account allows the conclusion that there were a number of sub-tribes. The tribal centre was  Durovernum, also important was Durobrivae (modern Rochester). Numerous villae were built in C. in the early Imperial Age, especially in eastern and southern Kent. In the 3rd cent.,  Rutupiae,  Dubrae, Regulbium (modern Reculver) and  Portus Lemanae (modern Lympne) were garrisons of the classis Britannica. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bib…

Canticum

(467 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] In the Plautus manuscripts, all scenes in a metre other than the iambic senarius were headed canticum (re exceptions see [3. 220, note]), i.e. all parts accompanied by music (cf. Plaut. Stich. 758-768: while the flute player had a break for a drink, the metre changed to the senarius). Canticum therefore also includes parts that consisted of trochaic and iambic septenarii and octonarii arranged side by side and was generally understood as recitatives (cf. however [3]); canticum in the narrower sense (described by Donat. comm. Adelph. praef. 1,7 as MMC = Mutatis Modis Ca…

Canuleia

(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] According to Plutarch (Numa 10,1), one of the first Roman Vestals installed by king Numa. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Canuleius

(321 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Name of a plebeian gens, attested from the 5th cent. BC (variant Canoleius; Greek Κανουλήϊος; Kanoulḗïos); from the 1st cent. AD, the name becomes rare (ThlL, Onom. 2,148f.). [German version] [1] C., C. Tribunus plebis 445 BC tribunus plebis of 445 BC, who is said to have introduced a plebiscitum Canuleium de conubio, repealing the bar to marriage between patricians and plebeians (Cic. Rep. 2,63; Liv. 4,1,1-6). As it is hard to imagine that a people's tribune of the 5th cent. BC could so decisively intervene in the legislative process, the reliab…

Canus

(61 words)

Author(s): Zanoncelli, Luisa (Milan)
[German version] Roman aulete, was celebrated as the most outstanding virtuoso of his time; he served, amongst others, at Galba's court (Mart. 10, 3; 4,5 and Plut. Galba 16, 1; Mor. 10, 786c). Philostr. (Ap. 5, 21) has him appear in a conversation with Apollonius of Tyana about the technique of playing. Zanoncelli, Luisa (Milan) Bibliography G. Wille, Musica Romana, 1967.

Canusium

(248 words)

Author(s): Garozzo, Bruno (Pisa)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Coloniae Daunian town in Apulia on the right bank of the Aufidus, on the border to the Peucetii (Cic. Att. passim; Caes. B Civ. 1,24,1; Hor. Sat. 1,5,91f.; 2,3,168; Liv. 22 passim; 23,5,1; 27,12,7; 42,16; Mela 2,66; Plin. HN 3,104; 8,190f.; Κανύσιον: App. B Civ. 1,52; 84; App. Hann. 24; 26; Cass. Dio 57; Plut. Marc. 25,3; Steph. Byz. s.v.; Κανούσιον: Plut. Marc. 9,2; Ptol. 3,1; Procop. Goth. 3,18,18; Canusio: Hil. 2,15; It. Ant. 116,3), m…

Canytelis

(116 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Kanytella?). Large village (κώμη) within the chora of  Elaiussa (epigraphically only evident as Κανυτηλλέων or Κανυτηλιδέων δήμος; Kanytēléōn/ Kanytēlidéōn dḗmos [1. 49]), which, centred around a c. 60 m deep karst dolina on a hillside above the Cilician coast, was already in existence at the time of the Hellenistic priest-rulers of  Olba; a three-storey dynastic dwelling-tower dates from that period. From the late Hellenistic to early Byzantine periods, there are numerous residential buildings; at the s…

Capaneus

(154 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Καπανεύς; Kapaneús). Son of Hipponous [3], married to  Evadne [2] and father of  Sthenelus. C. is one of the  Seven against Thebes (and is therefore to be included in the Theban epics even if he does not appear in the surviving fragments). His boastful statement that not even the strike of a thunderbolt from Zeus could prevent him from taking part in the conquest of Thebes provokes Zeus to strike him down just so (Aesch. Sept. 423ff.). According to Stesichorus (fr. 194 PMG),  Ascl…

Cape Bon

(155 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] The peninsula, which bounds the gulf of Tunis to the east, extensively covered with fertile horticultural land (Diod. Sic. 10,8,3-4; Pol. 1,29,7), was probably as early as the 5th cent. BC part of the Carthaginian chora and protected by coastal fortifications (Aspis/ Clupea, modern Kélibia, Ras ed-Drek [Hermaia? Str. 17,3,16], Ras el-Fortass). The almost completely excavated small Punic town of Kerkouane on the eastern coast is exemplary for the prosperity of Cape Bon under Carthaginian rule. Also of significance in this were the quarries near El Haouaria in the n…

Capellianus

(62 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] As praetorian governor of Numidia in AD 238 (perhaps identical with the epigraphically attested legatus Augusti pro praetore L. Ovinius Pudens Capella, PIR2 O 189), with the legio III Augusta, he quelled the revolt in Gordiane (Herodian. 7,9,11; SHA Maximin. 19,20, Gord. 15-16; ILS 8499). PIR2 C 404. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) Bibliography K.-H. Dietz, Senatus contra principem, 1980, 109ff.

Capena

(218 words)

Author(s): Bianchetti, Serena (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Tribus | Umbri, Umbria Town on the hill of Civitucola, 3 km north of the modern Capena, overlaid by the medieval Leprignano; according to Cato (fr. 48 P 2; Prisc. 4,21; 7,60), it had been founded by an envoy of the Veiian king Propertius. The good relations which C. enjoyed with the Veii and Falerii, allies in the war against Rome, may be taken as supporting the story of its foundation (Liv. 5,8,10-14; 16-19; 24). In 295 BC, the settlement was forced to capitulate and allocated to the tribus S…

Capercaillie

(192 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (τέτραξ, tétrax). Plin. HN 10,56 distinguishes between a smaller black variety (i.e. the black grouse) and one living in the north and in the Alps, similar in colour to but much bigger than a vulture, which because of its weight could be caught on the ground [1. 234f.]. When kept in a cage, their meat supposedly lost its taste, and the birds stopped breathing and died. Whether the bird from Mysia in Ath. 9,398e-f refers to the capercaillie remains uncertain. Other mentions of its n…

Capernaum

(472 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] City in  Galilaea on the north-west shore of the Sea of Galilee ( Tiberias). The Greek designation Καφαρναούμ ( Kapharnaoúm), in the NT in some variants also Καπερναούμ ( Kapernaoúm Mk 1,21), is derived from the Hebrew Kefar Naḥūm (village of Naḥūm) which appears in a Byzantine inscription found in the synagogue of Ḥammaṯ-Gāder. In later Jewish tradition, the name was changed to Kefar Tanḥūm or simply Tanḥūm, which in turn gave rise to the current Arab name Talḥūm (but not Tall Ḥūm as a derivation of Tall Naḥūm). Even though C. was inhabited from the 3rd millennium B…

Capetis

(6 words)

see  Volume 3, Addenda

Caphene

(58 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Καφένη; Kaphénē). Carian maiden, who, out of love for the Melian Nymphius betrays her people by divulging their plan to invite the Melians to a feast so as to kill them underhandedly. Instead, the Carians were slain. In return, C. becomes the wife of Nymphius (Plut. Mor. 246d-247a, 207f.; Polyaen. 8,46). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Caphereus

(43 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Καφηρεύς, Καφαρεύς; Kaphēreús, Kaphareús). Much feared south-eastern cape of Euboea, modern Kavo Doro. Documentary evidence: Hdt. 8,7,1; Str. 8,6,2; Ptol. 3,14,22; Plin. HN 4,63; Mela 2,107. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography F. Geyer, Top. und Gesch. der Insel Euboia 1, 1903, 6f.

Caphisodorus

(69 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Καφισόδωρος; Kaphisódōros). Son of Caphisodorus; father of Metrophanes (PP 6, 14679) and Ptolemaeus (PP 6, 14688); between 163 and 145 BC archisōmatophýlax ( Court titles B.2.); stratēgós of the Egyptian district Xoite and priest of the políteuma of the Boeotians; in 156/55 eponymous priest of Alexander. PP 1/8, 269; 3/9, 5167. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Clarysse, G. v. d. Veken, The Eponymous Priests of Ptolemaic Egypt, 1983, 28.

Caphisophon

(40 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Καφισοφῶν; Kaphisophôn). Son of Philippus (PP 6, 16640), from Cos, doctor (?); theorós ( Theoria, Theoroi) of Ptolemy II or III sent to the sanctuary of Asclepius of Cos. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography S. Sherwin-White, Ancient Cos, 1978, 103.

Caphyae

(209 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Arcadians, Arcadia (Καφυαί; Kaphyaí). Town in north-eastern Arcadia, north of the northern plain of Orchomenus, 1 km south-east of the modern Chotusa, with only sparse ancient remains. Votive from the war booty in Delphi of the 5th cent. BC (Syll.3 48). In the Chremonidean War (267-261 BC), C. fought against  Antigonus [2] (Syll.3 434f.,25); afterwards, it belonged to the Achaean League, apart from a short interlude following its capture by Cleomenes III (Plut. Agis and Cleomenes 25,4; Pol. 2,5…

Capidava

(106 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Moesi, Moesia Roman fort on the road along the banks of the Danube from Axiopolis to Carsium, Moesia inferior, modern Topalu/Constanţa in Romania (Tab. Peut. 7,3; It. Ant. 244; Geogr. Rav. 179,3; Not. Dign. or. 39,4,13). Built under Trajan, destroyed by Goths in the mid-3rd cent. AD. Rebuilt in the 4th cent., and newly fortified at the end of the 6th cent. Late-antique posting of the beneficiarii consulares and of a cuneus (unit) equitum Solensium. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography Gr. Florescu, C. I, 1958, pass…

Capisa

(96 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with (Καπίσα; Kapiša-kaniš, Behistun inscription [1. D]), now Bagrām. City in the Ghorband Valley, 45 km north of Kabul, known since 1833. Capital city of Indo-Grecian kings (2nd-1st cents. BC), summer residence of the  Kushanians). Two rooms in the ‘palace’ contained inlaid works of art: Chinese lacquer work, Indian ivory and Hellenistic work. Plaster moulds for pouring metal reliefs are regarded as Alexandrian imports but prove the production of Hellenistic art works in Bactria. Brentjes, Burchard (Berl…

Capital

(4 words)

see  Column

Capitale

(86 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The Romans used the word capitale whenever the  death penalty (also poena capitis) was concerned: for the crime itself, the legal process, as well as in passing and executing a sentence, but also for the loss of personal freedom or citizenship (  deminutio capitis ) and particularly with reference to exile (  exilium ), when -- from the late Republican period -- this indeed replaced the death penalty for Roman citizens. Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) Bibliography E. Cantarella, I supplizi capitali in Grecia e a Roma, 1991.

Capitalis quadrata

(6 words)

see  Capital scripts

Capitalis rustica

(6 words)

see  Capital scripts

Capital punishment

(6 words)

see  Death penalty

Capital scripts

(898 words)

Author(s): Caldelli, Elisabetta (Cassino)
[German version] A. Definition The first canonized Latin majuscule script [1. 7]; its name originated in the Middle Ages when in its role as a  display script it was used exclusively for the beginning of the capita [2. 60]. The sparse ancient sources, on the other hand, describe it more generally as littera lapidaria (Petron. Sat. 29), perhaps also littera quadrata (Petron. Sat. 58) [3. 73], litterae unciales [4], litterae virgiliae or virgilianae [5. 464-465]. In the course of the canonization process, however, the majuscule -- depending on the surface inscribed…

Capitatio

(111 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The poll-tax of the late Roman Imperial Age from Diocletian (AD 297). As capitatio plebeia, it was probably levied on the urban population. With regard to the taxation of the rural population, it is disputed whether the capitatio was raised independently or was -- as an indicator of income -- only an important unit in the calculation of the land-tax ( iugatio). Widows and orphans, soldiers and veterans were entirely or partly exempted from the capitatio.  Annona;  Iugum Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) Bibliography W. Goffart, Caput and Colonate: Towards a Histo…

Capitatio-iugatio

(494 words)

Author(s): Pack, Edgar (Cologne)
[German version] Modern term to describe the procedure, which in Diocletian's system of taxation served to calculate the tax burden on agriculturally productive land and the rural population, as well as on livestock. It allowed a comparatively uniform levying process to replace earlier, widely varied land and poll taxes. The term capitatio-iugatio is derived from capitatio or iugatio, which in turn are based on the standard measuring units, i.e. caput or iugum. These units, however, do not correspond to a defined size of land or number of people, but denote fictiti…

Capite censi

(143 words)

Author(s): Gizewski, Christian (Berlin)
[German version] Literally ‘those who are counted by the head’, but meaning ‘those who are counted only by the head’, i.e. who are not liable for taxation because their assets fall below the census minimum. The alternative term to describe them is proletarii (Cic. Rep. 2,22,40). This group is to be distinguished from the lowest assessment class, the infra classem (in the earlier republican period below two iugera of land or 11,000 asses; from the end of the 2nd cent. BC probably 4,000 asses), which included the capite censi. The infra classem were not expected to provide arms for mili…

Capitis deminutio

(6 words)

see  Deminutio capitis

Capitium

(79 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] Settlement in the Monti Nebrodi on Sicily, 1139 m above sea level, modern Capizzi (Cic. Verr. 3,4,103; Ptol. 3,4,7: Capitina civitas). Possibly to be added to the list of theorodokoi from Delphi (4,112); CIL X 2, 7462. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography R. C. Wilson, Sicily under the Roman Empire, 1990, 149 s.v. Capizzi, BTCGI 4, 1985, 400-402 G. Manganaro, Alla ricerca di poleis mikrai della Sicilia centro-orientale, in: Orbis Terrarum 2, 1996, 136 n. 47.

Capito

(156 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
Roman cognomen; see also Ateius, Fonteius. [German version] [1] Orator of the Augustan period Orator of the Augustan period, praised by  Seneca the Elder because of his ability -- in contrast with  Cassius [III 2] Severus -- to distinguish clearly between the demands of declamations as opposed to those of legal speeches, with regards to their tone and presentation. According to Seneca's assessment, C.'s best orations were in no way inferior to those of the tetrad of the great declamators  Latro,  Fuscus,  Alb…

Capitol

(6 words)

see Capitolium I;  Roma III.

Capitolea

(182 words)

Author(s): Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne)
[German version] ( Agon Capitolinus). In contrast to the Neroneia, the Capitolea festival, introduced by the emperor Domitian in Rome in AD 86 (Suet. Dom. 4,4), considerably outlasted their founder because of their name connection with Jupiter Capitolinus. The highly regarded contest based on the Greek model and consisting of an athletic (held in the stadium Domitiani, now the Piazza Navona [1]), musical and hippic programme, certainly won by 64 victors [2. 123-155], still existed in the middle of the 4th cent. During Domitian's rule, it also comprised a cursus virginum (‘race of yo…

Capitoline museums

(6 words)

see Rome

Capitolinus

(64 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, probably originally an indication of the bearer's or his family's place of residence. For the early Republican Age, it is transmitted for the families of the Maelii, Quinctii, and Tarpei, and prominent with the Manlii; in the Imperial Age, it was widespread. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography ThlL, Onom. 166f. Kajanto, Cognomina, 183 H. Gundel, s.v. Quinctii Capitolini, RE 24, 1010.

Capitolium

(1,021 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] I. Capitol Hill in Rome, consisting of a summit called C. in the south (46 m) and the Arx in the north (49 m), linked by the depression of the asylum. Until Trajan's forum was built, the C. was the south-western spur of the Quirinal and linked with it by a bridge. From archaic times, buildings on the C. had to have very deep foundations because of unfavourable geological conditions; in addition, since ancient times, there have been landslides, terracing (in the 15th and 16th cents.), as well as other substa…

Capiton

(87 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Καπίτων; Kapítōn). Otherwise unknown epigrammatist, of whom a witty distichon has survived: beauty without grace is compared with a ‘bait without rod’ (Anth. Pal. 5,67,2). C. (Capito) is quite a widespread Roman cognomen: the assumption that he might be identical with the epic poet from Alexandria, mentioned in Ath. 10,425, is thus without foundation; equally, it hardly is likely that he is identical with Pompeius C., who demonstrates his mastery in every metre and rhythm (TrGF 186). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography FGE 34.

Capitulation

(7 words)

see  Deditio;  Law of war

Capitulum

(4 words)

see  Columns

Cappadocia, I.

(1,327 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Καππαδοκία; Kappadokía). Region and kingdom in Asia Minor [German version] A. Geography and population C. (Str. 12,1f.) extends from the Taurus to the Black Sea coast; its western border to Paphlagonia and Phrygia, later also to Galatia, is at the Halys (and Lake Tatta); in the south-west, it borders on Lycaonia, in the east on Colchis, Lesser Armenia, and the upper reaches of the Euphrates, in the south on Cilicia and Commagene. The entire region is seen as an ethnic-linguistic entity, part of the Luwian-sp…

Cappadocia, II.

(639 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] Roman province in central and eastern Asia Minor, with Caesarea [3] as its capital. After the death of  Archealus [7] I in AD 17, the kingdom of  Cappadocia was annexed in 18/19 under the command of Q. Veranius, a legate of Germanicus (Tac. Ann. 2,42,4). The province with an auxiliary garrison was under the administration of a procurator (Tac. Ann. 12,49; Cass. Dio 57,17,7); under Cn. Domitius Corbulo (55-61 and 63-65/66) and L. Iunius Caesennius Paetus (61-63), it was united with  Galatia. In 70/71, the Legio XII Fulminata was transferred to Melitene (Joseph BJ 7,1…

Cappadox

(48 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Καππάδοξ; Kappádox). Tributary of the  Halys, modern Delice Irmağı (upper course: Karanlık/Boğazlıyan Çayı, north-eastern tributary: Kanak Çayı); rising in northern Cappadocia, the C. is the main river of eastern Galatia. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. K., RE 10, 1919f. K. Strobel, Die Galater, 1, 1996.

Capra

(4 words)

see  Constellations

Caprasia

(50 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Etruscan island between Populonia and  Corsica (Capraria, Αἰγίλιον; Aigílion, Plin. HN 3,81), modern Capraia, province of Livorno. Magnificent Roman villa near Assunta, inhabited by monks in the 5th cent. (Rut. Namat. 1,439; Oros. 7,36,5; Aug. Epist. 48). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. Riparbelli, Aegilon, 1973 BTCGI 4, 443-445.

Capratinae (Nonae)

(221 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] Festival of the city of Rome, celebrated on July 7 ( Nonae), a festival of ritual reversal resembling the Saturnalia; its main characteristics were sacrifices by women (Varro, Ling. 6,18), a festive meal under a wild fig-tree, and by the major role of female slaves in begging processions and mock battles (Plut. Camillus 33; Romulus 29,9; Macrob. Sat. 1,11,36-40) [1]. The aitia in Plutarch and Macrobius link the festival to an attack by the Latin towns immediately after the departure of the G…

Capreae

(213 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] Island off the coast of Campania in the southern part of the Gulf of Naples (today Capri). Verg. Aen. 7,735 provides a legendary link of an early Greek settlement with  Telon and the  Teleboae: Serv. Aen. 7,735; Tac. Ann. 4,67. The Greeks linked both settlement centres (modern Capri, Anacapri) by a flight of steps which, in parts, are still usable today (Scala Fenicia). In 29 BC, Augustus acquired C. from Neapolis in exchange for Aenaria ( Pithecussae; Suet. Aug. 92; Cass. Dio 52,…

Capricorn

(4 words)

see  Constellations

Caprotina

(5 words)

see  Capratinae (Nonae)

Caprus

(135 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
(Κάπρος; Kápros). [German version] [1] River is eastern Caria River in the upper catchment area of the  Maeander in eastern Caria, modern Başlı Çay; it passes  Laodicea [4] closely to the east (Plin. HN 5,105) and discharges perennially into the Lycus, which runs about 1.5 km below the town in a north-westerly direction towards the Maeander (Str. 12,8,16; Plin. HN 2,225). Coins of the town depict a river god with the C. legend. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography G. E. Bean, Kleinasien 3, 1974, 259, 263 Magie 2, 785; 986 Miller, 726 Ramsay 1, 35. [German version] [2] Eastern tributar…

Capsa

(168 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Africa | Limes Oasis town in southern Tunisia, modern Gafsa. C. was probably never Phoenician (despite Oros. 5,15,8; cf. Sall. Iug. 89,4). It is questionable whether it was ever Carthaginian. It was an important road junction from at the latest the Numidian period -- i. a. it lay on the road from Theveste to Takape (Sall. Iug. 89,4f.). In the course of the Jugurthine War, Marius conquered and destroyed C. in 106 BC (Sall. Iug. 91,3; Str. 17,3,12). In the Imperial Age, C. was rebuilt and given a constitution with sufetes: C…

Captatio benevolentiae

(305 words)

Author(s): Calboli Montefusco, Lucia (Bologna)
[German version] Of the rhetorical methods essential to convince and persuade listeners, the captatio benevolentiae is one of the most effective. Cicero saw it as one of the pillars upon which the entire edifice of oratory art is based (De or. 2,115). It is concerned with a moderate incitement of feelings, with particular emphasis on the ethical qualities of the orator and his cliens (ibid. 182ff.; or. 128); it makes use of a lenitas orationis (Cic. De or. 2,128f.), which is evident not only in the elocutio, but also the actio, and thereby has an impact on the orator's actions as a w…

Captivitas

(6 words)

see  Prisoners of war

Capua

(1,305 words)

Author(s): Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Theatre | Tribus | Caesar | Christianity | | Coloniae | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages | Colonization | Punic Wars | Regio, regiones | Rome [German version] A. Foundation period Inland town in Campania, modern Santa Maria Capua Vetere; the modern city of Capua corresponds with  Casilinum. According to literary tradition, it was founded in 800 BC, together with Nola (Vell. Pat. 1,7,3f. as against Cato and his foundation date of 471 BC); according to Liv. 4,37,1, C.…

Caput Oli

(95 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] According to Roman tradition, the head ( caput) of the Etruscan hero Aulus Vibenna ( olus), discovered when the foundation stone was laid for the Roman temple of Jupiter in the 6th cent. BC, prophesying the future greatness of Rome (Liv. 1,55,5; 5,54,7; Arnob. 6,7; Serv. Aen. 8,345). The historicity of an Aulus Vibenna from Vulci is evident in Etruscan and Latin inscriptions and grave paintings. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography A. Alföldi, Das frühe Rom und die Latiner, 1977, 200-204 with fn. 162 M. Pallottino, in: F. Buranelli (ed.), La Tomba François d…

Capys

(234 words)

Author(s): Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) | Walde, Christine (Basle)
(Κάπυς; Kápys; Lat. Capys). [German version] [1] Vater des Anchises Trojan, descendant of Dardanus ( Dardanidae), father of  Anchises (Hom. Il. 20.239). According to some myths, his grandson Aeneas [1] founded the Arcadian Kap(h)yae (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1.49.1; Steph. Byz. s.v. Καφύαι), his great-grandson Rhomus founded Capua (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1.73.3) and named it after him. Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) [German version] [2] Founder of Capua In Virgil and others (Verg. Aen. 10.145 with Servius ad loc.), a Trojan of the same name from the generation of Ae…

Car

(78 words)

Author(s): Zingg, Reto (Basle)
(Κάρ; Kár). [German version] [1] Son of Phoroneus Eponym of the fortress of Megara (originally Caria) (Paus. 1,39,5), son of  Phoroneus; founder of the Demeter Temple. Zingg, Reto (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Zeus and Crete Eponym of  Carians in Asia Minor; brother of Lydus and Mysus (Hdt. 1,171; Str. 14,659). Son of Zeus and Crete (Ael. NA 12,30); founder of the city of  Alabanda, buried in Euangela (Steph. Byz. s.v. K.). Zingg, Reto (Basle)

Caracalla

(889 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] (Nickname based on his Celtic robe; originally, he was called Bassianus, Cass. Dio 78,9,3) = M. Aurelius Antoninus Caesar (from AD 195, ILS 8805; RIU 3,840) = M. Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus (from AD 198, cf. [1]). Born on 4 April AD 188 in Lyons as the eldest son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna (Cass. Dio 78,6,5; cf. 77,10,2; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 21,1; SHA Sept. Sev. 3,9; differing information elsewhere). He accompanied his father to the east from the middle of 19…

Carales

(607 words)

Author(s): Mastino, Attilio (Sassari)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sardinia et Corsica | Christianity | Wine | | Rome | Rome (Caralis, Karalis). Harbour town (shipyards: Liv. 27,6,14) in southern Sardinia, situated in a bay (Καραλιτανὸς κόλπος; Karalitanòs kólpos: Ptol. 3,3,4) on a low hill ( tenuis collis: Claud. De bello Gildonis 15,521f.) close to foothills ( Caralitanum promunturium: Plin. HN 3,85), modern Cagliari. The ancient Phoenician/Punic harbour of Karaly (Krly) lay to the north-west in the lagoon of Santa Gilla, near an indigenous settlement of t…

Carallia

(88 words)

Author(s): Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] (Καράλ(λ)ια; Karál(l)ia). Town in  Cilicia Tracheia (Hierocles, Synekdemos 682,10; coins and inscriptions Καραλλια), modern Güney Kalesi, 20 km north-east of Coracesium. Verified as a pólis from the early imperial age by inscriptions and coins, later diocese [2. 244ff.]. Archaeological finds: walled town structure with a building dedicated to the ruler cult, temples and churches; a necropolis to the west [1. 59; 2. 237ff., 268 plan]. Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) Bibliography 1 G. E. Bean, T. B. Mitford, Journeys in Rough Cilicia 1964-1968, 1970 2) J. Nollé, …

Carambis

(99 words)

Author(s): Marek, Christian (Zürich)
[German version] (Κάραμβις; Kárambis, Lat. Carambis). Foothills on the Black Sea coast of Paphlagonia, modern Kerempe Burnu west of İnebolu (Apoll. Rhod. 2,361; Ps.-Scymn. 953; Lucian Toxaris 57; Str. 2,5,22; 7,4,3; 11,2,14; 12,3,10; Plin. HN 4,86) with a village of the same name (Eust. Comm. in Hom. Il. 1,570). The cape is directly opposite the  Criu Metopon, the southern tip of the Taurian peninsula (modern Crimea). Between these two promontories, ancient seafarers crossed the Black Sea. Marek, Christian (Zürich) Bibliography Ch. Marek, Stadt, Ära und Territorium in Pontus…

Carambolo, El

(69 words)

Author(s): Blech, Michael (Madrid)
[German version] On the C., a hilltop west of Seville above the plains of the Guadalquivir, there had once been a late Bronze Age to early Iron Age settlement, known as the finding-place of an orientalizing gold treasure.  Tartessus Blech, Michael (Madrid) Bibliography J.d. M. Carriazo, Tartesos y el Carambolo, 1973 G. Nicolini, Techniques des ors antigues, 1990 M. E. Aubet-Semmler, Maluquer y el Carambolo, in: Tabona 8, 1993/94, 329-349.

Caranis

(93 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Καρανίς; Karanís). Important Greek settlement (κώμη) on the northern edge of the  Fayum, now Kom Ausīm; founded in the early Ptolemaic period and abandoned again in the 5th cent. AD. Large parts of the town are still well preserved and have been carefully excavated; among these are two temples. From C. come c. 5,000 Greek Papyri and Ostraka, mostly from Roman times (2nd-3rd cents. AD). Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography A. Calderini, s.v. Karanis, Dizionario dei nomi geografici e topografici 3, 1978, 70-79 R. Alston, Soldier and Society in Roman Egypt…

Caranus

(99 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Κάρανος; Káranos). [German version] [1] Founded the Macedonian royal house Founded the Macedonian royal house according to Diod. Sic. 7. 15-17 as a descendant of the Heraclid Temenus (Theopompus FGrH 115 F 393) after immigrating from Argus. He replaces  Perdiccas, named as progenitor of the Macedons in Hdt. 8. 137-139. Michel, Raphael (Basle) [German version] [2] Alleged son of Philippus II Alleged son of  Philippus II, killed by  Alexander [4] the Great after Philippus' death (Just. Epit. 11. 2. 3). Since  Satyrus in Athenaeus (12.557) does not name him, his existence is doubtful. Bad…

Caratacus

(96 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[German version] Britannic king and military commander, son of  Cunobellinus; between AD 43 and 51, he organized, initially together with his brother Togodumnus, the resistance against the Claudian invasion force. After the occupation of the south-east, C. transferred his operational basis to the  Silures and  Ordovices in Wales. Following his defeat in 51, he fled to  Cartimandua, who handed him over to Rome. In 52, he was part of Claudius' triumphal procession, together with his wife, children and brothers; Claudius later pardoned C. (Tac. Ann. 12,33ff.). Kunst, Christiane (Pot…

Carausius

(207 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] M. Aurelius Maus(aeus?), AD 286-293.A Menapian by birth, and by profession a former helmsman, C. excelled himself in the Bagaudian War under  Maximianus. Subsequently, as commander of a fleet based in Bononia (Boulogne-sur-Mer), he was given the task of fighting the piratical Franks and Saxons. Based on suspicions that he had withheld war booty, the order was given to kill C.; in consequence, C. had himself proclaimed emperor in 286, and assumed the rule of Britannia. He was also …
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