Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Calingae

(74 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] People on the east coast of India, Sanskrit Calinga, lived about where Orissa is today; capital city Pertalis (Plin. HN 6,64; 65; 7,30, perhaps following Megasthenes). Their land was conquered in 261 BC by  Aśoka in a bloody war and incorporated into the empire of the  Mauryas; probably identical with the Calliga of Ptol. (7,1,93, in the  Maesolia in eastern India). Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography A. Herrmann, s.v. Kalingai, RE 10, 1604f.

Caliph

(189 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( ḫalı̄fa). ‘Successor’, ‘representative’, elliptical for ‘successor of the Prophet’  Muhammad, since the Umayyads (661-750; contested, perhaps even earlier) ‘representative of Allah’. The following caliphs were regarded as ‘rightfully appointed’ (by election; Muhammad did not leave any regulations):  Abu Bakr (632-634),  Omar (634-644), who was the first to also hold the title ‘ruler of the believers’,  Othman (644-656), and  Ali (656-661). Since the  Umayyads, we find hereditary …

Callaeschrus

(52 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Κάλλαισχρος; Kállaischros). Son of Critias, Athenian, born about 490 BC, grand-nephew of Solon and father of the sophist  Critias (Diog. Laert. 3,1; Pl. Chrm. 153c; Pl. Prt. 316a). C. is possibly identical with an oligarch of the same name in 411 (Lys. 12,66). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies 8792,VI.

Callaici

(149 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtic tribe in north-western Hispania, giving its name to the modern region of Galicia. First mentioned in connection with the Celtiberian Wars (181-133 BC) (App. Ib. 300). The Roman governor Iunius Brutus, who crushed them between 138 and 136 BC, was given the cognomen Callaicus. Caesar, too, had dealings with them during his propraetorship in 60 BC. For a time, the C. appeared alongside the  Astures and  Cantabri, when Augustus was at war with these and subjugated them finally …

Callas

(43 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κάλλας; Kállas). River on the northern coast of Euboea [1] near Histiaea-Oreos, probably identical with the modern Xerias or Xeropotamos (Str. 10,1,4). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography F. Geyer, Top. und Gesch. der Insel Euboia 1, 1903, 9, 82 Philippson/Kirsten 1, 574f.

Callatis

(276 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Thraci, Thracia | | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Moesi, Moesia | Patricius (Κάλλατις; Kállatis). Port town on the western coast of the  Pontus Euxinus, modern Mangalia in Romania, founded at the end of the 6th cent. BC by  Heraclea [7] Pontica. The economic boom of the town was originally brought about by the agricultural production from its surrounding area; C. was of less importance as a harbour town, compared with Odessus, Tomis and …

Calleas

(80 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Καλλέας; Kalléas) of Argos. Otherwise unknown composer of a sympotic epigram (Anth. Pal. 11,232) based on the saying: ‘wine reveals one's character’, a version of the old saying in vino veritas (cf. Alcaeus fr. 333 Voigt; Thgn. 500; Aesch. fr. 393 Radt etc.). The very rare compound λυσσομανής (‘raging’, v. 2) was probably adopted from  Antipater [8] of Sidon (Anth. Pal. 6,219,2). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography V. Longo, L'epigramma scoptico greco, 1967, 106 H. Beckby, Anthologia Graeca, III-IV, 21967.

Calleva Atrebatum

(135 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Britannia | Britannia (modern Silchester). An Iron Age oppidum, main centre of the Atrebates [2], it developed from 100 BC into a significant political centre. Through its links with  Commius, the settlement boomed in the mid 1st cent. BC. It is likely that, after AD 43, Calleva Atrebatum (CA) was incorporated into Cogidubnus' empire. The early Roman town was established within the Iron Age fortifications [1]. From its very beginnings, CA's developmen…

Calliades

(227 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Καλλιάδης; Kalliádēs). [German version] [1] Writer of New Comedy Writer of New Comedy, appearing on the inscription of Lenaea winners in 6th place after Menander, 5th after Philemon and 3rd after Diphilus [5], and thus to be dated to the end of the 4th cent. BC [1]. Ath. 9,401a quotes ‘Diphilus or C.’, as author of an Ágnoia, but at another point (15,700c) he talks only of Diphilus as author of this play. Even the barb against the orator Aristophon [2] that Ath. 13,577b attributes to C. is dubious [1. 53]. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 1983, 37. [German version] [2] Sculptor Scul…

Callianax

(110 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Καλλιάναξ; Kalliánax). Doctor, adherent of  Herophilus [1] and member of his ‘house’, which possibly refers to the fact that he worked in the mid 3rd cent. BC [1].  Bacchius [1] in his memoir on the early followers of Herophilus (Galen in Hippocratis Epidemiarum 6 comment. 4,10 = CMG V 10,2,2,203), mentions that C. quoted Homer and the Greek tragic writers if his patients told him that they were afraid of dying. He gave them to understand by this that only the immortals could esca…

Calliarus

(112 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Καλλίαρος, τὰ Καλλίαρα; Kallíaros, tà Kallíara). Listed as one of the east Locrian towns in Homer's ship catalogue (Hom. Il. 2,531), deserted at the time of Strabo (Str. 9,4,5; Hsch. s.v. C.); it took its name from the surrounding plain, etymologically derived from the eponymous hero in Steph. Byz. s.v. C. (= Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 13). The localization of C. near Skala Atalandis, the finding place of pottery from the Early and Middle Helladic as well as the Mycenaean period, is uncertain. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography W. A. Oldfather, s.v. K. (1) and (2…

Callias

(1,877 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Καλλίας; Kallías, Ion. Καλλίης; Kallíēs). Common Attic name from the 6th -- 4th cent. BC, especially in the rich priestly family (several dadouchoi) of the Ceryces, which was associated with the cult of Eleusis. C. appears there in alternation with  Hipponicus. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [1] Mythical son of the Heraclid Temenos Mythical son of the Heraclid  Temenus, king of Argos, and the brother of Agelaus, Eurypylus and  Hyrnetho. Since the king preferred Hyrnetho and her husband  Deiphontes to his sons, they had Temenus murder…

Callibius

(55 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Καλλίβιος; Kallíbios). Spartan, was sent as harmost to Athens in 404/3 BC at the request of the Thirty and after the intervention of Lysander. He was courted by the rulers there and attempted to support their regime (Xen. Hell. 2,3,13f.; [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 37,2; 38,2; Diod. Sic. 14,4,4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Callichoron

(4 words)

see  Athens

Callichorus

(79 words)

Author(s): Marek, Christian (Zürich)
[German version] (Καλλίχορος; Kallíchoros). River in Bithynia between  Heraclea [7] Pontica and Tieion (Apoll. Rhod. 2,904; Plin. HN 6,1; Amm. Marc. 22,8,23); it was allegedly named after the orgies of Dionysus, but also referred to as Oxynon (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,904; cf. Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 19; Peripl. m. eux. 12; Marcianus of Heraclea, Epit. peripli Menippi 8). Its equation with the Parthenius (Orph. A. 731) cannot be correct. Marek, Christian (Zürich) Bibliography J. Tischler, Kleinasiat. Hydronymie, 1977, 70.

Callicles

(471 words)

Author(s): Narcy, Michel (Paris) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Καλλικλῆς; Kalliklês). [German version] [1] Collocutor in Plato's Gorgias Collocutor in Plato's ‘ Gorgias; taking it as his premise that nature ranks above the law, he advocates the right of the stronger (Pl. Grg. 483 c-d). This is the lesson of the  Gorgias (Gorg. Encomium Helenae 6), understood by Aristotle (Aristot. Soph. el. 12,173a 8-16) as the conflict between truth and the opinion of the majority. C. is, however, no Sophist: on the contrary, he distances himself from them (Pl. Grg. 520a). From his So…

Callicolone

(174 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Καλλικολώνη; Kallikolṓnē). Place 40 stades east of Troy, the settlement mound of Karatepe east of Sarıçalı (also Sarçalı) [3. 110f.]. There, above the river Simois, Ares allegedly called the Trojans to battle (Hom. Il. 20,51; Str. 13,1,35). According to schol. Hom. Il. 20,3, it was also the location of the contest of the three goddesses Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite (judgement of  Paris). Whereas Forchhammer only discovered few traces of habitation and some foundations [1. 26], Virc…

Callicrates

(1,202 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Et al.
(Καλλικράτης; Kallikrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue and politician Athenian demagogue and politician in the succession of  Cleophon, he abolished the   diobelía with the promise of increasing it by an obolós; later sentenced to death (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 28,3). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Rhodes, 356-357. [German version] [2] Sculptor in Laconia Sculptor in Laconia. Together with  Myrmecides, C. was considered the legendary, probably archaic creator of microscopic sculptures made of iron, bronze, ivory and marble. An…

Callicratidas

(431 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Frede, Michael (Oxford)
(Καλλικρατίδας; Kallikratídas). [German version] [1] Spartan nauarch, 407/6 BC Spartan nauarch (naval commander) in 407/6 BC, was only able to relieve  Lysander of his command in the spring of 406 and was confronted through the latter's intrigues with extremely serious problems while preparing his operations. However, he was as unimpressed by these as by the affront he suffered from Cyrus the Younger. C. secured the finances for his warfare and took the initiative. After relocating his naval base from Ep…

Callicter

(111 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Καλλικτήρ; Kalliktḗr) of Manesium. Writer of epigrams, possibly from the 1st or 2nd cent. AD, to whom are ascribed the satirical two-line epigrams from the Anth. Pal. 11,2; 5; 6 and, according to Planudes, 333. The epigrams against doctors, 11,118-122, are probably his also; Planudes however assigns them to Nicarchus. The erotic poems Anth. Pal. 5,29 and 45 are attributed to the name Cillactor; the rarity of both names, not attested elsewhere and still of uncertain form, argues in favour of identification with C. Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography FGE 114f. V…

Callicula

(79 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Mountain north of Campania, which constituted the border of the ager Falernus at Casilino. It probably corresponds to the massif of Monte Maggiore (1037 m), which is encircled by a great loop of the river Volturnus. It was here that Q. Fabius Maximus attempted to halt Hannibal's progress in 217 BC (Liv. 22,15,3; 22,16,5). In Pol. 3,92 named as Ἐριβιανὸς λόφος, Eribianòs lóphos (possibly Τρεβιανὸς λόφος; Trebianòs lóphos, from Trebula). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 688.

Callidice

(111 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
(Καλλιδίκη; Kallidíkē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Celeus and Metaneira The most beautiful daughter of the Eleusinian king  Celeus and his wife  Metaneira. Along with her sisters Cleisidice, Demo, and Callithoe, she meets  Demeter who is mourning her daughter  Persephone and invites her home in the name of her sisters (H. Hom. 2.110; 146). Michel, Raphael (Basle) [German version] [2] Wife of Odysseus Queen of Thesprotia in Epirus. In the Cyclic epic  Telegonia, she becomes the wife of  Odysseus once his journey comes to an end. After her death, Odysse…

Callidromus

(115 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (ὁ/ἡ Καλλίδρομος; ho/hē Kallídromos; τὸ Καλλίδρομον; tò Kallídromon; Lat. Callidromus). Name of the massif above  Thermopylae (Str. 9,4,13), modern Saromata, up to 1374 m in height, its spatial extent variously defined. Generally it is seen as part of the Oete ( Oetaei). The C. massif consists of Mount Acrurium (later known as Galate, Plut. Phocion 33), Mount C. itself, Mount Phricion (summit with the fortress of C., Liv. 16-18; App. Syr. 77; 81; 85). By going across Mount C., both the Persians in 480 BC ( Persian War) and the Romans in 191 BC bypassed Thermopylae. Kramol…

Callieis

(208 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Καλλιεῖς; Kallieîs). The westernmost branch of the Aetolian  Ophieis in the upper Daphnus valley (modern Mornos; Thuc. 3,96,3). Their chief place of Callion (or Callipolis, modern Kallion, formerly Velouchovo) occupied a strategic position above the right bank of the Daphnus, and, for that reason, is mentioned in connection with the campaigns of  Demosthenes [1] in 426 BC, of  Acilius [I 10] Glabrio in 191 BC, and also the raid by Gauls in 279 BC (in which the town and its inhabit…

Calliena

(87 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with According to Peripl. M. Rubr. 52f., an empórion on the west coast of India close to what is now Bombay, Sanskrit Kalyāṇa. C. was established by the elder Saraganes as an important commercial harbour; under Sandanes in the 1st cent. AD it was abandoned in favour of  Barygaza. Also attested in Cosmas [2] Indikopleustes as Calliana (11,16; 11,22). Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography H. P. Ray, Monastery and Guild. Commerce under the Sātavāhanas, 1986.

Calligenea

(72 words)

Author(s): Frey, Jörg (Stuttgart)
[German version] (ἡ Καλλιγένεια; hē Kalligéneia). Goddess of birth and growth, whose name is derived from the C. festival, which was particularly celebrated in Athens (Aristoph. Thesm. 298 with schol.; Alci. 2.37). Even in antiquity, C. was interpreted in various ways: as epithet to Ge ( Gaia) or  Demeter (Hsch. s.v. K.; CIG III 5432) or as wet-nurse, priestess, or servant of Demeter.  Thesmophoria Frey, Jörg (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Usener, Götternamen, 1896, 122ff.

Calligone (novel)

(158 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence)
[German version] Name given to a Greek novel of which only two fragments are extant; one has yet to be published [3]; in the other (PSI 981, 2nd cent. AD) the female protagonist, C., enters the tent of an Eubiotos; her grief appears to have been caused by news of the fate of an Erasinus. C. thus reaches for her sword but, with prudent foresight, Eubiotos had already taken it away when he stood next to her. The name Eubiotos and the reference to the Sauromatae suggest a link with Lucian's ‘Toxaris [4]. Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) Galli, Lucia (Florence) Bibliography First edition: 1 M. Norsa, PSI…

Callimachus

(3,899 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Lehnus, Luigi (Milan) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Καλλίμαχος; Kallímachos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 490 BC archon and supreme commander at Marathon Athenian, árchōn polémarchos ( Archontes) in 490 BC, supreme commander at  Marathon (490 BC). It is disputed if C. was appointed polémarchos by lot (Hdt. 6,109). Aristotle's claim (Ath. Pol. 22,5) that the archontes were first selected by lot in 487/86 appears preferable. But perhaps areas of responsibility were already distributed among them by lot after 509/8. C. only nominally held supreme command, but he was a voting mem…

Callimander

(30 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Καλλίμανδρος; Kallímandros). Delegate of the Alexandrians who was to offer the Egyptian monarchy to a Seleucid prince in 56 BC. PP 6, 14768. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Callimedes

(25 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Καλλιμήδης; Kallimḗdēs). Ptolemaic local commander, who surrendered  Aenus [1] in 200 BC to Philip V. PP 6, 15113. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Callimedon

(176 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Καλλιμέδων; Kallimédōn). Athenian, son of Callicrates, pro-oligarchic politician. He was forced to leave Athens before 324 BC because of his pro-Macedonian position. In Megara he participated in the anti-constitutional activities of the Athenian émigrés, which is why Demosthenes [2] had an   eisangelia issued against him (Din. 1,94). During the  Lamian War C. stayed with  Antipater [1], upon whose orders he attempted to prevent the Peloponnesian states from joining the Hellenic League (Plut. Demosthen…

Callimorphus

(80 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Military doctor, who according to Lucian (Quomodo historia 16,24 = FGrH II 210), wrote, in a highly tragic and stilted style, a history of the Parthian Wars of Lucius Verus in the years AD 162-166 that bore the title Parthica. Unless this was a figment of Lucian's imagination, it appears that he served in the Parthian War, either in the legio VI Ferrata, or in an ala contariorum (a troop division of pike-bearers). Nutton, Vivian (London)

Callinicus

(455 words)

Author(s): Willi, Andreas (Basle) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Καλλίν(ε)ικος; Kallín(e)ikos: ‘The noble victor’). [German version] [1] Epithet of Heracles Epithet of  Heracles (Eur. Herc. 582; Aristid. Or. 40.15; OGIS 53; Iscrizioni di Cos ED 180,28ff.; SEG 28.616), according to Archil. fr. 324 IEG in a hymn used as a victory song in Olympia (Pind. Ol. 9,1ff. with schol.; according to schol. Aristoph. Av. 1764 composed in Paros: cf. IG XII5, 234); probably first used for Heracles as a victorious warrior (cf. the aetiologic myth in Apollod. 2.135), later often in an apotropaic epigram (Preger, Inscr. Graecae metricae 213; EpGr 1138). Willi, Andrea…

Callinus

(432 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Καλλῖνος; Kallînos). [German version] [1] Elegiac poet Elegiac poet from Ephesus, c. 650 BC. His only long fr. (21 verses, 1 W./G.-P., from Stobaeus) urges young men ( néoi), presumably symposiasts, to defend their city. The enemy were perhaps the Cimmerians -- they are mentioned in a hexameter in 5(a) W./G.-P., which was adduced by Str. 14,1,40 (cf. 13,4,8) as evidence for a Cimmerian invasion that led to the capture of Sardes (thus c. 652 BC). This invasion had taken place earlier than that of the Trerians (also in 4 W./G.-P.), which destroyed Magnesia. In theme, …

Calliope

(291 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] [1] A Muse (Greek Καλλιόπη, Καλλιόπεια; Kalliópē, Kalliópeia; Lat. Calliopa; on the etymology Diod. Sic. 4.3). Of the nine  Muses (Hes. Theog. 79), C. is mentioned most often and is particularly depicted on an individual level. She was originally the Muse of epic poetry honouring warfare, but later, in a paradoxical turnaround, of the ‘peaceful’ Roman love elegy (Prop. 3.3) or of lofty poetry in general (Ov. Tr. 2, 568). C. is considered the patroness of poetry and, among others, is appe…

Calliphana

(117 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva)
[German version] (Lat. Calliphana, also Calliphoena). Priestess of Ceres in Rome. Originally a priestess of Demeter in Elea/Velia. In accordance to the concept that Ceres was a goddess of Greek origin and that her ritual must observe Greek form, she was brought to Rome from Elea, like most priestesses dedicated to Ceres. However, in order for her to be able to fulfil her duties as a citizen in the service of fellow citizens ( civis pro civibus) (and with the appropriate fundamental attitude) -- according to Cic. Balb. 55, she was granted Roman citizenship by the praetor…

Callipolis

(459 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Et al.
(Καλλίπολις; Kallípolis). [German version] [1] Place in Caria Place in Caria (Arr. Anab. 2,5,7; Steph. Byz. s.v. Callipolis), its location disputed: either near the modern Gelibolu, south of the eastern end of the Ceramic Gulf (ancient and medieval remains, no finds indicating a settlement),or east of it, 10 km inland, near Duran Çiftlik (remains of an ancient sanctuary and a church; the associated settlement about 1.5 km east of Kızılkaya, stone-cist tombs on the eastern side of the mound). C. was unde…

Callip(p)idae

(90 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Καλλιπ(π)ίδαι; Kallip(p)ídai). Name of the inhabitants of the region neighbouring the emporium of Borysthenes on the modern Dnieper, characterized as Hellenoskýthai (Ἑλληνοσκύθαι, Hdt. 4,17; cf. Str. 12,3,21; Mela 2,7). They seem to be identical with the Graeco-Scythian population, referred to as Mixhéllēnes (Μιξέλληνες) in decree IOSPE 12 32, Z. 26f. The name alludes both to the Scythians as an equestrian people and to the derisive nickname of C. (‘unlucky fellow’). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography I. von Bredow, Der Begriff der Mixh…

Callippides

(224 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] (Καλλιππίδης; Kallippídēs). Tragic actor of the 5th/4th cents. BC, who, popular and controversial, was remembered long after his death. He himself was many times the victorious  protagonist, for example at the Lenaia of the year 418, but the tetralogy of his poet did not win a prize [1]. His expressive gesticulation, aimed at producing a realistic effect, was modern in its style; it displeased Mynniscus who had once appeared with Aeschylus and who described the young colleague as a…

Callippus

(640 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
(Κάλλιππος; Kállippos). [German version] [1] Athenian student of Plato Athenian student of  Plato, who took Callistratus, who had been sentenced in an   eisangelía proceeding, to Thasos in 361 BC on the order of the stratēgós Timomachus (Dem. Or. 50,47-52). In 357 C. evaded charges in Athens by accompanying  Dion [I 1] during his enforced return to Sicily (Plut. Dion 22,5 and 54,1; Pl. Ep. 7, 333e). Though initially held in high esteem by Dion as a philosophical and political advisor and ‘condottiere’, C. turned against Dion in 3…

Callipus

(90 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] Earlier thought to be a writer of comedies because of a transcription error in Ath. 15,668c, where three lines are quoted from Κάλλιπος ἐν Παννυχίδι (‘C. in the Pannychís). Since the appearance of the PBerolinensis 13417 with the rest of the drinking poem Pannychís by  Callimachus [3], including the lines quoted by Athenaeus, there can be no doubt that the phrase in question should read Καλλίμαχος [1; 2]. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 A. Körte, s.v. C. (18), RE 10, 1667 2 R. Pfeiffer, Callimachus I, 1949, 217 (F 227).

Callirhoe

(335 words)

Author(s): Zingg, Reto (Basle) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
(Καλλιρ[ρ]όη; Kallir(r)hóē, ‘the fair-flowing’). [German version] [1] Daughter of Oceanus Daughter of Oceanus, wife of  Chrysaor [4], mother of  Geryoneus (Hes. Theog. 351; 979ff.; Apollod. 2.106; Hyg. Fab. 151). She appears in the circle of  Persephone (H. Hom. 5,419); also mentioned as wife of Manes or of Poseidon (Dion. Hal. Ant. 1.27.1; schol. Pind. O. 14.5). Zingg, Reto (Basle) [German version] [2] Daughter of Achelous Daughter of Achelous, wife of  Alcmaeon [1], mother of Amphoterus and Acarnan (Apollod. 3.88ff.; Eur. Alcestis TGF fr. 79). Zingg, Reto (Basle) …

Callisthenes

(547 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg)
(Καλλισθένης; Kallisthénēs). [German version] [1] Of Olynthus, Alexander historian, related to Aristotle Callisthenes of  Olynthus,  Alexander historian, son of a female cousin of  Aristotle [6], who raised him (Plut. Alexander 55,8) and whom he accompanied to  Assos, Macedonia and then perhaps to Athens. After the death of  Hermias [1] he wrote in praise of him (quoted by Didymus, In Demosthenem 5-6). Together with Aristotle he composed a list of Pythionikai ( Pythia) and agonothetai ( Agonothetes) of the Pythian Games for which the two were honoured in Delphi (Syll.3 275). The…

Callisto

(331 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Καλλιστώ; Kallistṓ, Lat. Callisto). Arcadian nymph or princess, daughter of  Lycaon (Eumelus of Corinth, EpGF p. 100 fr. 10; Hes. Cat. fr. 163; Apollod. 3.100), according to Asius (EpGF p. 90 fr. 9) of Nycteus, according to Pherecydes (FGrH 3 fr. 157) of Ceteus; Hunting companion of Artemis who falls in love with Zeus. He approaches her in the shape of Artemis or Apollo and either seduces or rapes her (Amphis, CAF II fr. 47; Apollod. 3.100; Ov. Met. 2,425). Artemis (Hes. Cat. fr. …

Callistratus

(1,229 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Καλλίστρατος; Kallístratos). [German version] [I 1] Tragedian Tragedian (TrGF I 38), whose ‘Amphilochus and ‘Ixion (DID A 2b, 80) won him second place at the Lenaea of 418 BC; probably not identical with the didáskalos (‘director’) of  Aristophanes [3]. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) Bibliography P. Geißler, Chronologie der altatt. Komödie, 1969, 6f. PCG IV, p. 56. [German version] [I 2] Important Athenian politician, elected strategos in 378/7 BC Important Athenian politician and outstanding orator, nephew of  Agyrrhius and kēdestḗs (probably fat…

Callistus

(78 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Κάλλιστος; Kállistos). Author of an epic about the Persian Wars of Emperor  Iulianus, whom he accompanied on his campaigns in his role as domesticus (Socr. 3,21,14-17). He reports how the emperor died having been slain by a daimon. Possibly he is identical with Callistion, the epic poet and assessor of the praefectus praetorio Orientis Sallustius Secundus, to whom Libanius addressed his letters no. 1233 and 1251. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography O. Seeck, RE Suppl. 4, 864.

Callithera

(93 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Καλλιθήρα; Kallithḗra). Southern Thessalian town, the target of an Aetolian raid in 198 BC; they drove the inhabitants of C. back inside their walls, but were unable to capture the town (Liv. 32,13,11f.). Judging by the itinerary of the Aetolians, C. is not to be located near the modern Kallithira (formerly Seklitsa), but about 10 km south-east of it near Paliuri. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 48-91, especially 77ff. F. Stählin…

Callithoe

(162 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle) | Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva)
[German version] [1] Daughter of Celeus and Metaneira (Καλλιθόη, Kallithóe, ‘excelling in speed’). Oldest daughter of  Celeus, King of Eleusis, and of  Metaneira. C. and her sisters Callidice, Cleisidice and Demo invited  Demeter, who was grieving for her daughter Persephone, to their home (H. Hom. 2,110). Michel, Raphael (Basle) Bibliography N. J. Richardson, The Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 1974, 183-185. [German version] [2] First priestess of Hera First priestess of Hera Argia's sanctuary in Argos or in Tiryns [1]. She was the first to decorate a column with w…

Callixeinus

(115 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Καλλίξεινος; Kallíxeinos) of Rhodes, probably 2nd cent. BC. Wrote ‘On Alexandria’ in at least four bks. Two longer quotes are preserved in Athenaeus (5,196a-206c): F 2 on a splendid procession ( pompḗ) of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (279/78? BC), the other F 1 on the grand shipbuilding of Ptolemy IV Philopator (221-204). The work was neither a local history nor a perihegesis ( Periegetes) of Alexandria, but rather a collection of reports on special events ordered according to content. FGrH 627. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography G. Grimm, Alexandreia. Die erste K…

Callixenus

(112 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Καλλίξενος; Kallíxenos). Athenian, successfully pleaded in the Council in 406 BC for a sentencing of the generals because they failed to rescue shipwreck victims after the battle of the Arginusae; his request to have the generals executed when found guilty was submitted to the popular assembly. After  Euryptolemus was forced to drop a suit of unlawfulness ( Paranomon graphe), the generals were sentenced to death. Later when proceedings were initiated against the accusers, C. fled …
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