Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Cane, club, stick

(402 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] These objects (βάκτρον/ báktron, κηρύκειον/ kerýkeion, ῥάβδος/ rhábdos, σκῆπτρον/ skêptron; Lat. baculum, caduceus, lituus [1], rudis , stimulus) could be straight, with a curvature at the top end, knotty, angled or smooth and could vary in thickness and length. They were carved from hard wood (e.g. olive or myrtle) and might be left plain or decorated with gold embellishments (Ath. 12,543 f.) or reinforced with iron (Theoc. Epigr. 17,31). They were used by old people (old men, teachers) and the …

Canethus

(60 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κάνηθος; Kánēthos). Hill on the mainland, which at the time of Alexander the Great was integrated into the fortifications of the town of Chalcis, modern Kara Baba; the site had previously served as a necropolis. Documentary evidence: Str. 9,2,8; 10,1,8; Theophr. Hist. pl. 8,8,5; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,77. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 1, 409, 602.

Canicula

(4 words)

see  Constellations

Canidia

(42 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Frequently mentioned by Horace because of her magic art and mixing of poisons (Epod. 3,8; 5,15; 17,6; sat. 1,8,24; 2,1,48; 8,95). It is assumed that in real life she was Gratidia, a perfume seller from Naples (Porphyrio). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Canidius

(126 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] C. Crassus, P., of unknown descent. In 43 BC, he served as legate of  Lepidus in Gaul (Cic. Fam. 10,21,4). Probably holder of a command position under M.  Antonius [I 9] in the Perusine War (App. B Civ. 5,50; MRR 2,373). Cos. suff. at the end of 40 BC; from 36 BC, he fought successfully in Armenia and in the Caucasus, and took part in Antony's Parthian campaigns. In the winter 33/32 BC, he returned to Antony from a command in Armenia, was in charge of the land forces at Actium; after the defeat, he fled to join Antony in …

Caninius

(427 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeian family name, attested from the 2nd cent. BC. (Schulze, 144; ThlL, Onom. 137f.). [German version] [1] C. Gallus, L. People's tribune 56 BC People's tribune 56 BC; he sought, without success, the reinstatement of Ptolemy Auletes in Egypt (MRR 2,209). In 56 BC, he was defended by Cicero (Fam. 7,1,4), in 51 BC in Athens frequently in his company, and visited him in Rome in 46 BC. He died in 44 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C. Gallus, L. Consul in 37 BC Son of C. [1], consul of 37 BC with M. Vipsanius  Agrippa (MRR 2,395; PIR 22 C 389). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) …

Canis

(4 words)

see  Constellations

Canistrum

(110 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (Greek κανοῦν; kanoûn). Flat wicker basket; it served as a fruit basket (Ov. Met. 8,675) and was used in agriculture (Verg. G. 4,280). Canistra of sturdy materials (clay, silver, gold) were used as receptacles for liquid substances, e.g. honey and oil. The canistrum was also a device for sacrifices (Tib. 1,10,27; Ov. Met. 2,713 and more); often represented in Roman art in this role, the canistrum contained incense, fruits and offering-cakes. The silver saucers for drinking vessels were called canistra siccaria (Serv. Aen. 1,706).  Kanoun Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bi…

Canitas

(91 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] One of the Scythian kings of Scythia Minor (Dobrudža) in the late 3rd/2nd cents. who became known for the coins they apparently issued in Tomis, Callatis, Dionysopolis and Odessus. C. minted several types and nominals of bronze coins while being referred to as the king of the Scythians in a decree from Odessus (CIG 2, 2056; IGBulg I2, 41; Moretti, 124). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography K. Regling, Charaspes, in: Corolla Numismatica, 1906, 259-265 J. Youroukova, Nouvelles données sur la chronologie des rois scythes en Dobrudža, in: Thracia 4, 1977, 105-121.

Canius Rufus

(121 words)

Author(s): Auge, Oliver (Tübingen)
[German version] Known only through  Martial. He came from Gades (1,61), was married to the philosophically educated Theophila (7,69) and was friends with the Domitii Lucanus and Tullus, the citharode Pollio (3,20) and Martial (7,87; 10,48). According to 3,20, he may have written historical studies on Claudius and Nero, also prose fables as well as elegies, epics, tragedies, and, according to 7,69, a Pantaenis about  Sappho and her Lesbian girls. Martial praises C.'s narrative talent and humour (1,69; 3,20. 64). Following on from 1,61, Ps. Jer. Ep. 36 (PL 30) refers to him as poeta facu…

Can(n)a

(88 words)

Author(s): Belke, Klaus (Vienna)
[German version] (Κάν[ν]α; Kán[n]a). Town in eastern Lycaonia, modern Beşağıl (formerly Gene), east of  Iconium on the road from Amorium to the Cilician Gates [1. 100f., 185]. Seen by Ptol. 5,6,15 as part of Lycaonia (within Cappadocia). From AD 381 at the latest, there was a diocese in Lycaonia (suffragan of Iconium), which continued to exist into the 12th cent. [1. 185]. Inscriptions, amongst those two which bear the town's name, are extant from the 2nd cent. AD [2] onwards. Belke, Klaus (Vienna) Bibliography 1 Belke 2 MAMA 8, XIII, 38-40.

Cannae

(5 words)

see Battlefields

Cannae

(181 words)

Author(s): Garozzo, Bruno (Pisa)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Punic Wars Settlement between Barletta and Canosa on the Monte di Canne (Cic. Tusc. 1,89; Liv. 22,43; 49; Plin. HN 3,105; Sil. Pun. 8,624; Flor. Epit. 2,6), Κανναί (Pol. 3,107; App. Hann. 17). According to Liv. 22,43,10; 22,49,13, an unprotected vicus and ignobilis; Flor. Epit. 2,6,15; κώμη ( kṓmē ‘village’, App. Hann. 3,17), or, according to Polybius, a πόλις ( pólis, ‘town’), protected by an ἄκρα ( ákra ‘castle’). It is well known as the location of the defeat which Hannibal inflicted upon the Rom…

Cannelure

(4 words)

see  Column

Cannenefates

(101 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe, also known as Can(n)anefates, in their ‘extraction, dialect and bravery equal to the Batavi’ (Tac. Hist. 4,15,1; cf. Plin. HN 4,101), in the western part of the insula Batavorum, between Oude Rijn and Mosa (Helinium); cf. ‘Kennemerland’. Possibly subjugated by Tiberius (Vell. Pat. 2,105,1), they provided at the least one ala and one cohors (Tac. Ann. 4,73,2; Hist. 4,19,1). Their capital of Voorburg-Arentsburg became Forum Hadriani and municipium. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR M 31, 59 B. H. Stolte, s.v. Cananefaten, RGA 4, 329f. W. W…

Cannibalism

(441 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (ἀνθρωποφαγία/ anthrōpophagía, ‘the eating of humans’) appears in ancient myths and ethnographical reports. It was something that took place, in contrast to the here and now, either in the past or on the borders of the known world among ethnic groups who did not share the same basic values of Greek culture. It is also identified, in Dionysian myths, as the crossing of the limits in  ecstasy [1; 2]. In this structure, ancient reports coincide astoundingly with those of the modern age [3]. The Cyclops  Polyphemus, who is generally portrayed in the ‘Odyssey’ as the…

Cannita, Pizzo

(37 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Phoenician-Punic settlement, c. 10 km east of Palermo, known from the chance finds of two anthropoid sarcophagi (in 1695 and 1725), and from surface finds. Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography DCPP, s.v. C., 88.

Cannophori

(155 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Richard L. (Ilmmünster)
[German version] ( cannofori, καννηφόροι; kannēphóroi). The younger of the two colleges connected with the cult of Magna Mater; founded as part of Antoninus Pius' reorganization of the cult (2nd cent. AD). It was their ritual function in Rome, on 15 March to carry a bundle of reeds to the temple on the Palatine as part of the joyful procession commemorating the discovery of the young Attis by the Magna Mater on the banks of the  Gallus (Iul. or. 5,165b) [1] ( canna intrat, calendar of Philocalus, CIL I2 p. 260). On the same day, the Archigallus and the C. sacrificed a bull to ensur…

Cannutia Crescentina

(26 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Vestal. Sentenced by Caracalla for incest, she took her own life (Cass. Dio 77,16,1; 3; PIR2 C 400). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Cannutius

(170 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] [1] P. Orator, 1st cent. BC C. is mentioned in Cic. Brut. 205 as copyist (ed.?) of the speeches of P. Sulpicius and as an extremely eloquent orator (positive, in Cic. Clu. 29, 50, 73f.), whereas Aper in Tac. Dial. 21,1 regards him as too old. He was not a senator, but appeared in the trial of Oppianicus (Clu. 58). The passive use of admirari in the only quote in Prisc. Gramm. 2,381,12f. leads to the conclusion that C. was an analogist.  Histrio Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna) Bibliography Edition: ORF4, 371f. Literature: Münzer, s.v. C. 2, RE 3, 1485 A. E. Douglas, Comm. in Cicero…

Canobus

(4 words)

see  Canopus

Canon

(2,022 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Vogt-Spira, Gregor (Greifswald) | Rese, Martin (Münster) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[1] [German version] I. General points The Greek word canon (κανών, kanṓn) was probably derived from κάννα ( kánna: ‘bulrush reed or rod’), a Semitic loan word in the Greek language. The original meaning of ‘straight reed, stick, rod (in different uses)’ developed into several more specific and technical meanings. As a result, the Greek word canon designates a carpenter's or bricklayer's measuring stick or square, a chronological or astrological table, a monochord in music terminology (from Euclides [3]) etc. In …

Canon

(1,976 words)

Author(s): Hölter, Achim (Münster RWG)
[English version] Until the dawn of the modern era, the term was unusual in the sense in which it is now used by literary scholars; namely, to mean ‘standard’, ‘rule’, or ‘model’ (first used by D. Ruhnken in 1768 to mean a literary corpus), although the contrasting sense of the ‘inspired’ canon of the Bible, or religious law and ‘apocryphal’ writings, was available to suggest an analogy that could be applied to secular items. Concentration and extent of transmission are indicators of canonicity. As early as the manuscript tradition of, for example, the Greek tragedian…

Canonical collections

(6 words)

see  Collectiones canonum

Canonics

(8 words)

see Epistemology

Canonists

(2,147 words)

Author(s): Dolezalek, Gero (Aberdeen RWG)
[English version] Experts in Church law, and thus of canon(ical) law, were termed ‘canonists’, from the Greek kanṓn = ‘rule’, in particular, religious rule. The term canonist came into use in the 12th cent., to distinguish them from ‘civilists’, experts in the Roman Corpus iuris civilis, who appeared from that time on in Church courts in competition with canonists. The word ‘ canon’ was applied in medieval Latin mainly to excerpts from juridical texts of authoritative writings. Canones were taken from the Bible, conciliar decisions, the writings of the early Church Fath…

Canope

(133 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] Name of the (mostly stone) jugs in which the Egyptians interred entrails, often stored in their own boxes. They came under the protection of four gods (‘Sons of Horus’) and four goddesses ( Isis,  Nephthys,  Neith,  Selcis) and often are inscribed with sayings that correlate the parts of the corpse with the corresponding divinities. From the 1st interim period (2190-1990 BC) the lid of the Canope was mostly shaped like the head of a human, from the 19th dynasty also as heads of th…

Canopus

(234 words)

Author(s): Felber, Heinz (Leipzig)
[German version] Town at the mouth of the then westernmost branch of the Nile, Egyptian P(r)-gwtj, near what is now Abū Qīr west of Alexandria; as a seaport C. was the gate of Egypt (road to  Naucratis) from the 8th cent. BC onwards, until Alexandria, to which C. was linked via a canal, took on this role. C. was an important religious centre with  Sarapis as its principal god (famous temple as the place of healing sleep and of oracles [1; 2]). Isis and Harpocrates were worshipped here. An  Ibis cemetery from t…

Canosa Vases

(129 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Type of  Apulian vases, between c. 350 and 300 BC, probably made exclusively for use in graves. Their distinguishing feature is their decoration in a variety of water-soluble pigments (blue, red/pink, yellow, pale purple, brown) on a white background. Preferred  vessel forms are the volute-krater, cantharus, oinochoe, and askos, whose main bodies were frequently decorated with figures of women on small pedestals and with three-dimensional decor (winged heads, gorgoneia et al.). The gre…

Cantabri

(147 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Alongside the  Astures, the C. were the most important tribe of the Spanish Atlantic coastal region. The main income of this tribe, which was split up into various groups, was derived from breeding cattle in the mountainous regions of the modern districts of Asturia and Santander; arable farming was very much of secondary importance only. Food shortages in the mountains may have been the motivation for the C.'s raids on the  Vaccaei, who settled in the fertile Duero valley. The C.…

Cantharides

(168 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (κανθαρίδες; kantharídes) are slim, metallic-green oil beetles, such as the so-called Spanish fly ( Lytta vesicatoria), that were used for medicines; when taken orally, their active ingredient -- cantharidin -- leads to poisoning, as Plin. HN 29,93-96 (cf. [1. 70f.]) shows with reference to one case. Externally applied to wounds together with e.g. mutton suet, the cantharidae were said to be useful because of their blistening, caustic effect which the Middle Ages learnt about through Isid. Orig. 12,5,5. The beetles -- that lived on pl…

Cantharus

(417 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Michel, Raphael (Basle) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κάνθαρος; Kántharos. Cp. Kantharos) [German version] [1] Main harbour of Piraeus The main harbour of Piraeus (Plut. Phocion 28,3; Aristoph. Pax 145 with schol.; Hesch. s.v. Κάνθαρος; Anecd. Bekk. 1,271,8), otherwise referred to simply as mégas or mégistos limḗn ('large' or 'largest harbour'; Plut. Themistocles 32,4; Paus. 1,1,2; IG II2 1035,45f.) [1. 61f.; 2. 9], modern Kentrikos limen. Named after an otherwise unknown heros [1] C. (Philochorus, FGrH 328 F 203) or after the pottery shape Kantharos [1] (cf. [3]). Moles narrowed the entry into the C. which, as limḕn kleistós ('close…

Canthus

(120 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κάνθος; Kánthos). Argonaut from Euboea, in Apollonius Rhodius the son of Canethus, the eponym of a Euboean mountain, and grandson of Abas [1c], the eponym of the whole island under its old name Abantis (1,77). In Valerius Flaccus, C. is the son of Abas. C. scarcely makes an appearance in the story of the Argonauts, only his death in battle - either on the return journey in Libya (Apoll. Rhod. 4,1485-1501: he is the only one of the Argonauts to fall in battle there; cf. Orph. Arg. 141-143), or in Colchis fighting the Iazyges (Val. Fl. 6,317-341) is described in some detail. Visser…

Cantiaci

(107 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Tribe in the area of Kent and East Sussex. Its name is derived from the region of Cantium. Caes. B Gall. 5,22,1 tells of four indigenous kings; this account allows the conclusion that there were a number of sub-tribes. The tribal centre was  Durovernum, also important was Durobrivae (modern Rochester). Numerous villae were built in C. in the early Imperial Age, especially in eastern and southern Kent. In the 3rd cent.,  Rutupiae,  Dubrae, Regulbium (modern Reculver) and  Portus Lemanae (modern Lympne) were garrisons of the classis Britannica. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bib…

Canticum

(467 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] In the Plautus manuscripts, all scenes in a metre other than the iambic senarius were headed canticum (re exceptions see [3. 220, note]), i.e. all parts accompanied by music (cf. Plaut. Stich. 758-768: while the flute player had a break for a drink, the metre changed to the senarius). Canticum therefore also includes parts that consisted of trochaic and iambic septenarii and octonarii arranged side by side and was generally understood as recitatives (cf. however [3]); canticum in the narrower sense (described by Donat. comm. Adelph. praef. 1,7 as MMC = Mutatis Modis Ca…

Canuleia

(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] According to Plutarch (Numa 10,1), one of the first Roman Vestals installed by king Numa. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Canuleius

(321 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Name of a plebeian gens, attested from the 5th cent. BC (variant Canoleius; Greek Κανουλήϊος; Kanoulḗïos); from the 1st cent. AD, the name becomes rare (ThlL, Onom. 2,148f.). [German version] [1] C., C. Tribunus plebis 445 BC tribunus plebis of 445 BC, who is said to have introduced a plebiscitum Canuleium de conubio, repealing the bar to marriage between patricians and plebeians (Cic. Rep. 2,63; Liv. 4,1,1-6). As it is hard to imagine that a people's tribune of the 5th cent. BC could so decisively intervene in the legislative process, the reliab…

Canus

(61 words)

Author(s): Zanoncelli, Luisa (Milan)
[German version] Roman aulete, was celebrated as the most outstanding virtuoso of his time; he served, amongst others, at Galba's court (Mart. 10, 3; 4,5 and Plut. Galba 16, 1; Mor. 10, 786c). Philostr. (Ap. 5, 21) has him appear in a conversation with Apollonius of Tyana about the technique of playing. Zanoncelli, Luisa (Milan) Bibliography G. Wille, Musica Romana, 1967.

Canusium

(248 words)

Author(s): Garozzo, Bruno (Pisa)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Coloniae Daunian town in Apulia on the right bank of the Aufidus, on the border to the Peucetii (Cic. Att. passim; Caes. B Civ. 1,24,1; Hor. Sat. 1,5,91f.; 2,3,168; Liv. 22 passim; 23,5,1; 27,12,7; 42,16; Mela 2,66; Plin. HN 3,104; 8,190f.; Κανύσιον: App. B Civ. 1,52; 84; App. Hann. 24; 26; Cass. Dio 57; Plut. Marc. 25,3; Steph. Byz. s.v.; Κανούσιον: Plut. Marc. 9,2; Ptol. 3,1; Procop. Goth. 3,18,18; Canusio: Hil. 2,15; It. Ant. 116,3), m…

Canytelis

(116 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Kanytella?). Large village (κώμη) within the chora of  Elaiussa (epigraphically only evident as Κανυτηλλέων or Κανυτηλιδέων δήμος; Kanytēléōn/ Kanytēlidéōn dḗmos [1. 49]), which, centred around a c. 60 m deep karst dolina on a hillside above the Cilician coast, was already in existence at the time of the Hellenistic priest-rulers of  Olba; a three-storey dynastic dwelling-tower dates from that period. From the late Hellenistic to early Byzantine periods, there are numerous residential buildings; at the s…

Capaneus

(154 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Καπανεύς; Kapaneús). Son of Hipponous [3], married to  Evadne [2] and father of  Sthenelus. C. is one of the  Seven against Thebes (and is therefore to be included in the Theban epics even if he does not appear in the surviving fragments). His boastful statement that not even the strike of a thunderbolt from Zeus could prevent him from taking part in the conquest of Thebes provokes Zeus to strike him down just so (Aesch. Sept. 423ff.). According to Stesichorus (fr. 194 PMG),  Ascl…

Cape Bon

(155 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] The peninsula, which bounds the gulf of Tunis to the east, extensively covered with fertile horticultural land (Diod. Sic. 10,8,3-4; Pol. 1,29,7), was probably as early as the 5th cent. BC part of the Carthaginian chora and protected by coastal fortifications (Aspis/ Clupea, modern Kélibia, Ras ed-Drek [Hermaia? Str. 17,3,16], Ras el-Fortass). The almost completely excavated small Punic town of Kerkouane on the eastern coast is exemplary for the prosperity of Cape Bon under Carthaginian rule. Also of significance in this were the quarries near El Haouaria in the n…

Capellianus

(62 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] As praetorian governor of Numidia in AD 238 (perhaps identical with the epigraphically attested legatus Augusti pro praetore L. Ovinius Pudens Capella, PIR2 O 189), with the legio III Augusta, he quelled the revolt in Gordiane (Herodian. 7,9,11; SHA Maximin. 19,20, Gord. 15-16; ILS 8499). PIR2 C 404. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) Bibliography K.-H. Dietz, Senatus contra principem, 1980, 109ff.

Capena

(218 words)

Author(s): Bianchetti, Serena (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Tribus | Umbri, Umbria Town on the hill of Civitucola, 3 km north of the modern Capena, overlaid by the medieval Leprignano; according to Cato (fr. 48 P 2; Prisc. 4,21; 7,60), it had been founded by an envoy of the Veiian king Propertius. The good relations which C. enjoyed with the Veii and Falerii, allies in the war against Rome, may be taken as supporting the story of its foundation (Liv. 5,8,10-14; 16-19; 24). In 295 BC, the settlement was forced to capitulate and allocated to the tribus S…

Capercaillie

(192 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (τέτραξ, tétrax). Plin. HN 10,56 distinguishes between a smaller black variety (i.e. the black grouse) and one living in the north and in the Alps, similar in colour to but much bigger than a vulture, which because of its weight could be caught on the ground [1. 234f.]. When kept in a cage, their meat supposedly lost its taste, and the birds stopped breathing and died. Whether the bird from Mysia in Ath. 9,398e-f refers to the capercaillie remains uncertain. Other mentions of its n…

Capernaum

(472 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] City in  Galilaea on the north-west shore of the Sea of Galilee ( Tiberias). The Greek designation Καφαρναούμ ( Kapharnaoúm), in the NT in some variants also Καπερναούμ ( Kapernaoúm Mk 1,21), is derived from the Hebrew Kefar Naḥūm (village of Naḥūm) which appears in a Byzantine inscription found in the synagogue of Ḥammaṯ-Gāder. In later Jewish tradition, the name was changed to Kefar Tanḥūm or simply Tanḥūm, which in turn gave rise to the current Arab name Talḥūm (but not Tall Ḥūm as a derivation of Tall Naḥūm). Even though C. was inhabited from the 3rd millennium B…

Capetis

(6 words)

see  Volume 3, Addenda

Caphene

(58 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Καφένη; Kaphénē). Carian maiden, who, out of love for the Melian Nymphius betrays her people by divulging their plan to invite the Melians to a feast so as to kill them underhandedly. Instead, the Carians were slain. In return, C. becomes the wife of Nymphius (Plut. Mor. 246d-247a, 207f.; Polyaen. 8,46). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Caphereus

(43 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Καφηρεύς, Καφαρεύς; Kaphēreús, Kaphareús). Much feared south-eastern cape of Euboea, modern Kavo Doro. Documentary evidence: Hdt. 8,7,1; Str. 8,6,2; Ptol. 3,14,22; Plin. HN 4,63; Mela 2,107. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography F. Geyer, Top. und Gesch. der Insel Euboia 1, 1903, 6f.

Caphisodorus

(69 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Καφισόδωρος; Kaphisódōros). Son of Caphisodorus; father of Metrophanes (PP 6, 14679) and Ptolemaeus (PP 6, 14688); between 163 and 145 BC archisōmatophýlax ( Court titles B.2.); stratēgós of the Egyptian district Xoite and priest of the políteuma of the Boeotians; in 156/55 eponymous priest of Alexander. PP 1/8, 269; 3/9, 5167. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Clarysse, G. v. d. Veken, The Eponymous Priests of Ptolemaic Egypt, 1983, 28.
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