Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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(134 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
Uncommon family name. [German version] [1] C., P. Commander in Spain under Augustus Legatus Augusti pro praetore in Spain, defeated the Asturians in 25 BC, conquered the fortress of Lancia and settled veterans in the colonia Emerita (Flor. Ep. 2,33,54-58; Cass. Dio 53,25,8-26,1). In 22, he crushed an Asturian revolt (Cass. Dio 54,5,1f.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography RIC 11, Augustus, no. 277-303 P. le Roux, L'armée Romaine et l'organisation des provinces Ibériques, 1982, 64ff. [German version] [2] C., T. Mint master around 46 BC Mint master c. 46 BC (RRC 475f. no. 4…


(91 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] C.C. Fronto Official under Vespasian Senator from Caesarea in Pisidia. Vespasian made him inter tribunicios adlectus. He was the praetorian governor of Lycia-Pamphylia from AD 81- c. 83/84; cos. suff. 90 (AE 1949, 23); married to a Sergia Paulla (PIR2 C 423) [1. 109]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C.C. Julianus Official, around 100 AD Related to C. [1]; after an equestrian military service, he was admitted into the Senate; proconsul Achaiae probably AD 100/101 (PIR2 C 426) [1. 129; 2. 334]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Halfmann 2 W. Eck,…


(311 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Καρμανία, Karmanía, Latin Carmania; etymology unclear). Name of an Iranian area east of the Persis and west of the  Gedrosia. In western documents the inhabitants of C. are called Καρμάνιοι/ Karmánioi, Latin Carmanii. This tradition distinguishes at the same time the barren north (ἡ ἔρημος Κ., e.g. Ptol. 6,5,1) from C. proper, which is described as particularly fertile (Str. 15,2,14; Arr. Ind. 32,4f.; Amm. Marc. 23,6,48). In the Achaemenid royal inscriptions, C. is mentioned as the supplier of yakā wood for the palace of Darius I in Susa [2. 14…


(169 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Καρμάνωρ; Karmánōr). [German version] [1] Cretan seer A Cretan seer and priest of purification, as such closely connected with  Apollo, the god of ritual purification, and with Delphi, his centre of cult worship. He purifies Apollo and Artemis after the killing of the snake  Python (in Tarrha, Phaestus or Dion on Crete, Paus. 2,30,3; Euseb. Praep. evang. 5,31); in his house Apollo loves the nymph Acacallis who becomes mother of the founding heroes of the Cretan city Elyrus (on the myth of abandonment …


(116 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κάρμη; Kármē). By Zeus the mother of the Cretan local goddess Britomartis, who according to Paus. 2,30,3 and Diod. Sic. 5,76 is to be equated with  Dictynna. C. is the daughter of Eubulus and granddaughter of Carmanor [1], one of the close companions of Apollo, who atones him of the killing of the python; her mother is  Demeter. According to another genealogy, C. descends from the Agenor-son Phoenix and the Arabius-daughter Cassiopeia (Antoninus Liberalis 40). In view of these con…


(361 words)

Author(s): Lehmann, Gunnar (Jerusalem)
[German version] (Hebrew Bible: ‘orchard, tree grove’; Arabic Ǧabal Carmel or Ǧabal Mār Ilyās; Greek Κάρμηλος; Vulgate: Carmelus; crusader: Mons Carmel). Limestone and chalk mountains in northern Palestine, 5-8 km wide, 23 km long and up to 552 metres high. According to Biblical tradition the Carmel was situated south of the Asher tribe (Jos. 19,26). The Hebrew Bible praises the beauty of the mountain range (HL 7,6; Is. 33,9; 35,2; Jer. 46,18; 50,19; Am 1,2; 9,3; Nah 1,4). In Egyptian sources of the 3rd and 2nd millennium BC, Carme…


(4 words)

see  Song

Carmen ad Flavium Felicem

(94 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[German version] In c. AD 500, a Christian anonymous author, probably in Africa, wrote the C., a poem of 406 hexameters with epyllic qualities; its topic was the proof of the resurrection of the dead (102-136) and the divine last judgement of good (186-268) and evil (269-355) people. Its style frequently imitates that of  Virgil, but also that of Christian poets [1; 2. 118ff.]; furthermore, verses frequently end in pseudo-rhymes. Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) Bibliography 1 J. H. Waszink, Florilegium Patristicum Suppl. 1, 1937, 47-116 2 S. Isetta, C., in: Vetera Christianorum…

Carmen ad quendam senatorem

(95 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[German version] In the C. (end of 4th cent. AD [3. 124-130]), a Christian anonymous author speaks out -- in 85 hexameters -- against the absurdity of the pagan cults of  Mater Magna (6-20) and  Isis (21-34), triggered by the apostasy (1-5; 35-50) of a formerly Christian legate (27). The pamphlet copies some satirical elements from  Horace and especially  Juvenal [2. 156f.]. Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) Bibliography Edition: 1 R. Peiper, CSEL 23, 1891, 227-230. Secondary literature: 2 R. B. Begley, The C., diss. Ann Arbor 1984 3 L. Cracco Ruggini, Il paganesimo romano tra re…

Carmen adversus Marcionitas

(124 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[German version] (previously: Marcionem). Hexametrical Christian didactic poem ( didactic poetry) in 5 bks. (summary 5,1-18), which is aimed at the heretical positions of the Marcionites ( Marcion) (1,141-144). It is not written by   Tertullian, but rather by an anonymous author, whose origins are difficult to ascertain [2. 15-22, 29f.]. The poem was written sometime between AD 420-450 [2. 28-33]. Bk. 3 takes up the concept of the ecclesia ab Abel from Aug. Civ. 15. In order to prove the unity of OT and NT, the author employs numerous, and at times complex,  ty…

Carmen Arvale

(224 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] Hymn used by the   Arvales fratres to accompany their dance ( tripudium) for  Dea Dia and  Mars (CLE 1). Whilst its earliest transmission is an inaccurate inscription from AD 218 [1. 644-64], the text does preserve some characteristics of the early language (Lases without changing the intervocalic -s- - > -r-). In its substance, it must precede quite substantially the early Augustan reform of the cult, even if it was developed under Greek influence [2]; in any case, it is unlikely to be an archaistic creation of the middle Impe…

Carmen contra paganos

(123 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
[German version] The Parisian Cod. Lat. 8084 of Prudentius transmits in fol. 156r-158v 122 v. an anonymous defamatory poem (CPL 1431), directed against a praefectus ( urbis or praetorio orientis), presumably Virius Nicomachus  Flavianus [2] the Elder, but alternatively perhaps  Vettius Agorius Praetextatus. The text is not only a Christian reaction to the pagan Roman renaissance under  Symmachus, but also a testimony of the Christian reception of Virgil. The Carmen contra paganos belongs to the genre of apologetic poetry, and makes interesting references to the pag…

Carmen de aegritudine Perdicae

(8 words)

see  Aegritudo Perdicae

Carmen de bello Actiaco

(10 words)

see  Carmen de bello Aegyptiaco

Carmen de bello Aegyptiaco

(100 words)

Author(s): Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA)
[German version] (or Actiaco) is the modern title for 52 hexameters in eight columns and some fragments on P Hercul. 817. It is improbable that  Rabirius was their author; they were more likely part of the Res Romanae by  Cornelius Severus. The poem deals with Octavian's Egyptian campaign after Actium, and Cleopatra's preparations for suicide. Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) Bibliography G. Ferrara, Poematis latini reliquiae, 1908 G. Garuti, Bellum Actiacum, 1958 Courtney, 334 R. Seider, Paläographie der lat. Papyri, vol. 2.1, 1978, 4 (for the papyrus) M. Gigante, Catal…

Carmen de figuris

(133 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] Factual poem in 185 Latin hexameters, dealing in alphabetical order with rhetorical  figures; it was designed as an aide-mémoire in the teaching of rhetorics. It was evidently based on  Rutilius Lupus and  Alexander [25], son of Numenius. As a rule, three lines are offered per figure (the Greek designation, one line for the Latin definition, two lines of examples from Greek and Latin classics). The writer is anonymous (the addressee Messius is perhaps identical with Arusianus Messius); the late Lat…

Carmen de ligno crucis (de pascha)

(153 words)

Author(s): Schwind, Johannes (Trier)
[German version] A poem of 69 hexameters, also transmitted under the titles of De pascha or De cruce Domini nostri, and ascribed to  Cyprian, less commonly to  Victorinus of Pettau. It is unlikely that it was written earlier than AD 400, perhaps in northern Italy. As a tightly constructed  allegory, which combines Christ and his cross, the root of Jesse, the Tree of Life in paradise, and Jacob's ladder into the image of a tree, the poem provides a detailed and vivid description of the developmental history of Christianity as well as an individual's way to salvation.  Allegorical poetry Schwin…

Carmen de martyrio Maccabaeorum

(102 words)

Author(s): Roberts, Michael (Middletown, CT)
[German version] The C. (394 hexameters), which in MSS is attributed to  Hilarius of Poitiers or  Marius Victorinus, originates from an unknown author and an unknown period, most likely from the 5th cent. AD. It recounts the death of a mother and her seven sons at the hands of Antiochus, king of Syria (2 Macc. 7; 4 Macc. 8-18). The poem celebrates the unconquerable will of the mother in a series of speeches, which constitute the bulk of the text.  Bible poetry Roberts, Michael (Middletown, CT) Bibliography Edition: R. Peiper, CSEL 23,240-254. Secondary literature: D. Kartschoke, Bibeldi…

Carmen de ponderibus et mensuris

(116 words)

Author(s): Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] Anonymous Latin poem, dated between the end of the 4th and beginning of the 6th cent. AD, and dedicated to a Symmachus, perhaps the father-in-law of  Boethius; it is a skilfully formed and clearly structured didactic poem ( Didactic poetry) in 208 hexameters about weights and measures, the procedure for ascertaining the specific weight of fluids as well as the relative proportions of metals, especially of gold-silver alloys. Gruber, Joachim (Munich) Bibliography Editions: 1 F. Hultsch, Metrologicorum scriptorum reliquiae 2, 1866, 88-98 2 PLM 5, 71-82. Secondary…

Carmen de spe

(162 words)

Author(s): Simon, Walter (Tübingen)
[German version] The anonymous poem (Anth. Lat. 415) is extant only in the Codex Vossianus Leidensis Q 86 (c. 850), for that reason virtually unknown in the Middle Ages. However, after the first edition by J. J. Scaliger (1573), much attention has been paid to these 33 distichs. J. G. Herder translated verses 1-16. [2]. The probably medieval title of De spe queritur per exempla provides an exact definition of its contents: a complaint is made about hope as an illusion and a seductress in accordance with  chreia, and its treacherous deeds described in the t…
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