Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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(79 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Tribe living in Gallia Lugdunensis between the Seine and the Loire, neighbours of the Senones (Str. 4,2,3; 4,3,4; Tib. 1,7,12; Ptol. 2,8,10). After fierce resistance, they were conquered by Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 2-8 passim; Plin. HN 4,107; Carnuti foederati). Their most important towns were Cenabum and Autricum. It was a Carnutan tradition for their  druids to annually hold court in a sacred location. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography M. Provost, Le Val de Loire dans l'Antiquité, 1993.

Carolingian Renaissance

(6,900 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Jürgen (Bochum RWG) | Jakobi-Mirwald, Christine (Weiler RWG) | Schupp, Volker (Freiburg i. Br. RWG)
Strothmann, Jürgen (Bochum RWG) [German version] I. Political (CT) Strothmann, Jürgen (Bochum RWG) [German version] A. Concept (CT) The enormous renewal of Latin writing according to classical models, the extensive copying of classical writings beginning around 780 and extending well into the 9th cent., and not least the intellectual and literary efforts of numerous scholars arising apparently out of nowhere at the court of Charlemagne meant that the term renaissance, chosen by analogy with the ‘Italian Renaissan…


(224 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (Family of the Cyprinidae). (1.) The carp that lives in rivers and ponds (Ath. 7,309a) ( Cyprinus carpio L.; κυπρῖνος/ kyprînos, Latin cyprinus or carpa) was a popular edible fish (Cassiod. Var. 12,4,1; cf. Nep. Themistocles 10,3). Aristotle describes its fleshy palate, οὐρανός/ uranós, that simulates a tongue (Hist. an. 4,8,533a 28-30), and mentions that thunderstorms drive it into a daze (Hist. an. 7(8),20,602b 23f.; Plin. HN 9,58). Supposedly it spawns five to six times a year (Aristot. Hist. an. 6,14,568a 16f.; Plin. H…


(160 words)

Author(s): Senff, Reinhard (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Kypros | (Καρπασία, Καρπάσεια; Karpasía, Karpáseia). Town on the north coast of the northern tip of Cyprus -- also named C. -- north of the modern Rizokarpaso (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 57). Remains of port installations, town walls and necropolis with chamber tombs; so far, houses from classical to Roman times have been excavated, also an early Christian basilica complex. In 306 BC, C. was captured by  Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes. As an independent pólis, C. is epigraphically verified only for the Ptolemaic period. Bishop'…


(209 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Καρπάτης ὄρος/Κάρπαθον ὄρος; Karpátēs óros/ Kárpathon óros, Lat. Carpates montes, Carpatae, Alpes Bastarnicae). Arch-shaped mountain range, rich in forests and water, between the Balkans ( Haemus) and the Alps, the natural border between the Balkan peninsula and the steppes of north-eastern Europe. Marinus (Ptol. 3,5,6; 15; 18; 20; 7,1; 8,1) was the first to recognize the C. as a separate mountain range, whereas they were previously mainly seen as being part of the Alps or the Haemus. Gold, …


(465 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κάρπαθος; Kárpathos, Lat. Carpathus). With an area of c. 332 km2the second largest island of the Dodecanes between Crete and Rhodes, with a coastal length of about 160 km (in the south the peak of Kali Limni with a height of 1220 m). The statement in Diod. Sic. (5,54,4,) that C. (the name is pre-Greek, Hom. Il. 2,676 refers to the island as Κράπαθος, Krápathos) once belonged to the kingdom of the  Minos is confirmed by archaeological finds. In the modern Karpathos on the south-eastern coast, Minoan-influenced pottery was found in a Mycenaea…


(4 words)

see  Rug


(180 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The C. are mentioned by Pol. 3,14,2 in the context of  Hannibal's expansion into central Spain as the most powerful tribal group of that region. Hannibal clashed with them when he went to war against the Olcades in 221 BC, and against the Vaccaei a year later. When he wanted to cross the Tagus, he faced opposition from the C. (Pol. 3,14,5-9). Hannibal attacked them again in 219 BC during the siege of  Saguntum, alongside the  Oretani (Liv. 21,11,13). In line with most Spanish trib…


(99 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Καρφ-/Καρπυλλίδης; Karph-/Karpyllídēs). Epigrammatist, probably of the ‘Garland’ of Meleager. Under the lemma Καρφυλλ- an epigrammatic epitaph is extant (Anth. Pal. 7,260), in which the deceased looks back with content onto his long life, crowned by the love of his children and grandchildren. Of lesser stylistic value is an epideictic poem, transmitted under the lemma Καρπυλλ- (9,52): The rareness of his name, which in neither of its two forms is evident anywhere else, is an argument against the assumption of two separate authors (Knaack). Albiani, Maria Grazia…


(130 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Κάρποι; Kárpoi). Important Dacian tribe; its original settlement area was located between Olbia and the mouth of the Danube. In the 3rd cent. AD, the C. settled in the lower Danube region. From then on, they were frequently in bloody disputes with Rome, initially in Dacia, later also in Moesia and Thrace; these opened the way into the Roman empire for other tribes, especially the Goths. From the time of the emperor Aurelian, the Romans settled individual groups of the C. in Roman …


(74 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Κάρπις; Kárpis). Punic settlement on the western base of the Bon peninsula (probably near Mraïssa). Sources: Plin. HN 5,24; Ptol. 4,3,7; Geogr. Rav. 37,49; 88,39; Guido 132,60). C. rose to become a colonia in around AD 1 (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 25417). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 993-998; Suppl. 1, 12454f.; Suppl. 4, 24106f. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine 2, 1981, 281f. P. Trousset, s.v. C., EB, 1779f.


(59 words)

Author(s): Schaffner, Brigitte (Basle)
[German version] (Καρπώ; Karpō). Like Thallo, Auxo and Hegemon, an Attic cult name of goddesses who are concerned with fertility and the well-being of the state. Pausanias (9,35,1f.) attempts to classify them into  Charites and  Horae; evidently on account of its name ( karpós = ‘Fruit’, ‘Crop’) C. is regarded as one of the Horae. Schaffner, Brigitte (Basle)

Carpocrates, Carpocratians

(213 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg)
[German version] Clemens Alexandrinus (strom. 3. 2) documents a C. of Alexandria, whose son Epiphanes died early and who in a writing ‘About Justice taught that everything is common to everyone. In AD 160  Marcellina is supposed to have spread the teaching of C. in Rome (Iren. 1,25,6; Orig. 5,62). The world was created by angels; the soul has to escape from them in order to return to the eternal father; it would escape the coercion of reincarnation if it despised the earthly and the (Jewish) laws …


(196 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
(Κάρπος; Kárpos). [German version] [1] Son of Zephyrus and a certain Hore Handsome youth, son of Zephyrus and of a certain Hore ( Horae). He organizes a swimming race with  Calamus, his best friend, but drowns in the event. In mourning, his friend kills himself and is turned into reeds. C. is turned into a crop of the field (Nonnus, Dion. 11,385-481). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] C. of Antioch Mathematician A mathematician, who lived presumably in the 1st or 2nd cent. AD. Information on him is given in four fragments by Pappus (8,3), Proclus (in Euc…

Carrhae (Karrhai)

(5 words)

see  Ḥarran


(99 words)

Author(s): Buonocore, Marco (Rome)
[German version] Central Italian tribe between the Frentani and the  Samnites, in whose territory lay the municipia Cluviae and Iuvanum of the regio IV ( Caraceni is transmitted, cf. Ptol. 3,1,66ff., but incorrect). Mentioned in connection with the Second Samnite War in 311 BC (Diod. Sic. 20,26,3f.; Liv. 9,31,2-5) and with the revolt of the Samnite Lollius against Rome, who in 269 BC found refuge with the C. (Zon. 8,7,1). Buonocore, Marco (Rome) Bibliography A. La Regina, Cluvienses Carricini, in: ArchCl 25/26, 1973/74, 331-340 G. Firpo, in: G. Firpo, M. Buonocore (ed.), Fonti la…


(416 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Roman family name, presumably of Etruscan origin (in Greek also Καρείνας, Καρρείνας; Kareínas, Karreínas), reliably attested from the 1st cent. BC (ThlL, Onom. 2,209f.). I. Republican Age [German version] [I 1] C., C. Follower of Marius Follower of Marius, in the Civil War sent to Picenum against  Pompeius in 83 BC (Plut. Pompeius 7); he was praetor in 82 BC , and suffered a number of defeats in northern and central Italy. After the flight of the consul Cn.  Papirius Carbo to Africa, the remaining Marian military leaders united their troops with the Samn…


(199 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] This biennial vegetable, Daucus carota L., that grew wild in Europe and belonged to the family of the umbelliferous plants σταφυλῖνος ( staphylînos), was called καρωτόν ( karōtón), δαῦκον ( daûkon: Theophr. Hist. pl. 9,15,5), Latin pastinaca, daucus. Through cultivation the originally dry and woody root became pleasant-tasting, nutritious and sweet. Dioscorides (3,52,1 Wellmann and Berendes) describes the one purple-coloured ornamental flower of the staphylínos ágrios in the middle of the otherwise white umbel and recommends (cf. Plin. HN 20,30…

Carsidius Sacerdos

(54 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Acquitted in AD 23 of the charge that he provided grain to  Tacfarinas in Africa (Tac. Ann. 4,13,3). Praetor urbanus in 27 (InscrIt 13,1 p. 299). In 37, he was exiled to an island because of his contact with  Albucilla (Tac. Ann. 6,48,4). PIR2 C 451. Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)

Carsioli, Carseoli

(222 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Coloniae | Coloniae A town of the  Aequi on the upper course of the Turano between Arsoli and Carsòli. Colonia latina (302-298 BC) on the via Valeria, 42 miles from Rome. In 168 BC, Bithys, the son of the Thracian king, was exiled there. From 89 BC a municipium of the tribus Aniensis. Ovid staid there (Ov. Fast. 4,681ff.). Few pre-Roman remains, regular town structure with tufa walls in opus quadratum and polygonal limestone terracing. Temple complex; 3 km to the east a votive repository of the 6th-2nd cen…
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