Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Goat

(2,086 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Jameson, Michael (Stanford) | Ruffing, Kai (Münster)
[German version] [1] Goat or nymph, who nourished Zeus as a child (αἴξ aíx). According to the post-Hesiodic myth, Zeus was fed and nourished as a child in the Cretan cave by a goat ( Amalthea) or a nymph by the name of ‘Goat’. Zeus kills her, uses her coat as a shield ( Aegis) in the battle of the Titans and in gratitude sets her among the stars (Eratosth. Catast. 13 Capella; Ant. Lib. 36). The nymph is the mother of Aegipan and Aegocerus (Capricorn, Eratosth. Catast. 27). The representation of the constellation of Ἡνίοχος ( Hēníochos; Auriga) bearing the goat on the shoulder and her two …

Gobazes

(67 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Γωβάζης; Gōbázēs). King of the Lazes, abdicated in c. AD 456 in favour of his son under pressure from the Roman government, visited Constantinople in 465/6 for negotiations with Emperor Leo I, in which Daniel the Stylite, who lived there and whom he revered, supported him in a mediating role. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography PLRE 2, 515 ODB 1, 585, s.v. Daniel the Stylite.

Gobryas

(423 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Γωβρύας; Gōbrýas, Akkadian Gu/Gú-ba/bar-ru( -u; Elamite Kam-bar-ma, ancient Persian Gaubaruva-). Name of various Achaemenid dignitaries. [German version] [1] Governor of Cyrus the Gr. ‘Governor’ of Cyrus the Great known from the Nabonidus Chronicle (3,20 [4]) who after the conquest of Babylonia appointed administrative officials there. Presumably identical to Ugbaru, the ‘Governor of Gutium’ mentioned in 3,15 who captured Babylon for the Persian king and died there a few days after Cyrus' arrival. In this case it i…

Godigisclus

(92 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Godigisel, Godegisel). Burgundian king, son of  Gundiok, lived from c. AD 474 in Geneva, always in the shadow of his older brother  Gundobad (Ennod. Vita Epiphanii 174). In 500, together with the king of the Franks, Chlodovechus ( Clovis I), he defeated Gundobad at Dijon, but in 501 he was killed by the latter when Chlodovechus had to turn against the Visigoths (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,32f; Chron. min. 2,234 Mommsen). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography PLRE 2, 516 (Godigisel 2) Stein, Spätröm. R., 2, 144 with n. 2.

Godigiselus

(102 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] King of the Vandal Hasdingians around AD 400, father of  Gundericus and  Geisericus. Under G. the Hasdingians moved from Pannonia via Vindelicia and Noricum to the Rhine-Neckar area where G. fell in battle in 406 fighting the Franks, who were defending the Roman Rhine border (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,9); Procop. (Vand. 3,3,2; 22f.) and Theophanes (5931; 6026) erroneously report that G. led the Hasdingians to Spain. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography PLRE 2, 515f. F. Clover, The Late Roman West and the Vandals, 1993 Chr. Courtois, Les vanda…

Godomarus

(106 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Gundomarus, Gundomar). Son of  Gundobad, after the death of his brother Sigismundus (Greg. Tur. Franc. 3,6) in AD 524 he was elevated to the position of king of the Burgundians (Chron. min. 2,235 Mommsen). He defeated the Franks under Chlodomer at Vienne on 25 June 524, entered in 530 into an alliance with  Amalasuntha and bought the freedom of prisoners of war (CIL XII 2584). In 533 the Franks under Chlothachar and Childebert defeated G. at Autun and in 534 divided up the Burgundian kingdom amongst themselves (Greg. Tur. Franc. 3,11). PLRE 2, 517 G. (2). Meier, Mischa (Bie…

Gods, names of

(1,452 words)

Author(s): García-Ramón, José Luis (Cologne)
[German version] A. Greek and Italian names of gods ─ subsidiary tradition Although important Greek gods or heroes were adopted in Italy (including Etruria), the Italian names of gods are as a rule different from the Greek ones, cf. Ἄρης :  Mārs (Etruscan Laran); Ἀφροδίτη :  Venus (Etruscan Turan); Ἑρμῆς :  Mercurius (Etruscan Turms), whose traits have a parallel in Vedic Pūṣán- [8]; or Ἥφαιστος :  Vulcānus (Etruscan Śeθlans). There are formal correspondences or similarities only in the case of the subsidiary tradition of Greek names of gods or heroes in Ita…

Goes

(4 words)

see  Magic

Gogarene

(144 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Γωγαρηνή; Gōgarēnḗ), Str. 11,14,4f.; Ptol. 5,12,4; χωρίον μεταξὺ Κόλχων καὶ Ἰβήρων ανατολικῶν, Steph. Byz. 216; Armenian Gugark, AŠX 5,22 [1]). Fertile plateau in ancient times (olive-growing, etc.) in the Little Caucasus south-east of Cyrus bend, possibly corresponding to modern southern Georgia and parts of northern Armenia; frontier district between Armenia and Iberia with changing ownership: in the 5th/4th cents. BC G. belonged to Armenia, in the 3rd cent. to Iberia, in the 2nd cent. G. was…

Golan

(4 words)

see  Batanaea

Golasecca culture

(265 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] Chronologically, the Golasecca culture (GC) encompasses the 12th to the 4th cents. BC, with the proto-GC (12th-11th cents. BC) regarded as the first stage that was still Bronze Age; spatially the GC stretches from the source region of the Ticino via Lago Maggiore and Lago di Como to the Po. This culture which can mainly be understood through tomb inventories is divided up into three groups that initially all favoured cremation. The western group with the important necropoleis Sest…

Gold

(3,476 words)

Author(s): Riederer, Josef (Berlin) | Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
I. General [German version] A. Gold and gold deposits Gold is a soft precious metal that can be shaped well mechanically and so can be worked easily into sheets and wires, but it has a relatively high melting point at 1063°C that makes casting difficult. It is relatively rare in nature where it is present in the form of gold aggregates in solid rock from which it is extracted through mining methods, or it is present in the form of gold particles or grains in sandy deposits of weathered primary rock, from…

Golden Age

(8 words)

see  Origin myths;  Period, Era

Golden Ass

(6 words)

see  Ap(p)uleius [II 8]

Gold-ivory technique

(548 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (also called Chryselephantine technique). The naked parts of a statue were primarily worked from  ivory; and the garments and hair from sheet-gold, and materials like glass, precious stones and coloured metals were also used. Chryselephantine works were rare because of the value of their materials and are only extant in fragmentary form. The manufacturing technique is therefore not known in detail and appears to be mainly dependent on the size of the work. If the work was life-siz…

Golgi

(191 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Γολγοί; Golgoí). Town on Cyprus that is considered by the scholarly Alexandrian writers to be one of the main cult centres of  Aphrodite (Theoc. 15,100 and Lycophr. 589; Catull. 36,14; 64,69); its eponymous hero Golgus is considered to be the son of Aphrodite and  Adonis (Schol. Theoc. 15,100). According to Paus. 8,15,2, the sanctuary was the oldest on Cyprus; it was founded long before the establishment of the sanctuary in Paphus by Agapenor; the town itself was regarded as a col…

Golgotha

(4 words)

see  Jerusalem

Gomoarius

(79 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Of Germanic descent; tribunus scutariorum in AD 350.; a follower of  Vetranio, whom he betrayed to  Constantius [2] II. In 360 magister militum of the emperor  Iulianus; when the emperor removed him from office in the following spring, G. switched his allegiance to Constantius II. In 365/366, G. served as magister militum of the usurper  Procopius, in whose defeat G.'s switch of allegiance to  Valens played a decisive part. PLRE 1, 397f. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)

Gomphi

(239 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Γόμφοι; Gómphoi). Settlement created by synoecism in the 4th cent. BC; its location close to the modern G. (formerly Mouzaki) is verified. Together with  Metropolis, Pelinnaion, and  Tricca, G. formed the belt of fortifications of the Thessalian Hestiaeotis on the Pindus passes to Dolopia, Athamania, and Epirus. On coins from the 4th and 2nd cents., G. bears the name of Philippopolis (HN 295). Towards the end of the 3rd cent., G. was under Aetolian rule; during the wars of the ear…

Gonnus, Gonni

(151 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Γόννος; Gónnos, Γόννοι; Gónnoi). Town of the  Perrhaebi, located on three hills to the north of the Peneius at the western entry to the Tempe valley. Evidence of settlement dates back to the Neolithic. In historical times, after initial domination by Larissa, the town gained in strategic importance in the course of the 4th cent. BC, following Philip II's conquest of Thessalia. It became a Macedonian fortress with a garrison and influx of Macedonian population, and experienced a peri…
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