Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Gyarus

(163 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Γύαρος; Gýaros). Island 17 km2 in size, uninhabited today (micaceous slate) of the north-western Cyclades, modern Jura or Gioura. On the eastern side there are traces of old terrace cultures, and close to a spring and an old mole are the remains of the ancient town of G. that minted its own copper coins in the 3rd cent. BC; at the time of Strabo G. was still only a poor fishing village, in the Imperial period it was a feared place of exile (Tac. Ann. 3,68; 4,30; Plut. Mor. 602c.; Ju…

Gyas

(108 words)

Author(s): Zingg, Reto (Basle)
[German version] [1] Companion of Aeneas Companion of  Aeneas (Verg. Aen. 1,222; 1,612; 12,460). As a skipper he took part in the regatta in honour of Anchises (Verg. Aen. 5,114f.; Hyg. Fab. 273). The patrician house of the Geganii, was, according to Servius (Aen. 5,117) descended from him, although this is probably a later fabrication. Zingg, Reto (Basle) [German version] [2] Latin giant with a club A Latin, a giant with a club, son of Melampus, who for his part is said to have come to Italy with Hercules. He and his brother Cisseus were killed in battle by Aeneas (Verg. Aen. 10,317). Zingg, Ret…

Gye

(113 words)

Author(s): Stumpf, Gerd (Munich)
[German version] (γύη, γύης; Gýē, Gýēs) is mentioned in Homer (Il. 9,579, Od. 7,113; 18,374) as the multiple of a land measure. The exact size of the measure cannot be determined, as in later commentaries (Eust.) and Lexica (Hsch.) different information is to be found. In this way gye could be equated on the one hand with 1/2   pléthron and also 1 Roman   iugerum or 1 pléthron. In Il. 9,579 and Od. 18,374 it probably corresponds approximately to the pléthron, whilst in Od. 7,113 it is at least 12 pléthra. In lower Italy there is a gye with 50 pléthra. Stumpf, Gerd (Munich) Bibliography F. Hultsch, G…

Gyenus

(114 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Γυηνός; Gyēnós). Town in the  Colchis (Ps.-Scyl. 81). Now linked with the ancient settlement (6th cent. BC ─ 6th cent. AD) near Očamčire on the Georgian Pontus coast, discovered in 1935/6 during the construction of the harbour. The ancient finding points to three man-made hills surrounded by ditches with remains of wooden architecture with a pounded clay floor; apart from Colchic ceramics, fragments of ancient Ionian and Attic red-figured ceramics as well as black-glazed ceramics were found. Worthy of mention as the latest building is a hall church with pastophoria ( o…

Gyes

(31 words)

Author(s): Zingg, Reto (Basle)
[German version] (Γύης; Gýēs). According to the MSS [1], probably the incorrectly written form of Gyges, one of the  Hecatoncheires. Zingg, Reto (Basle) Bibliography 1 M. L. West, Hesiod, Theogony, 1966, 210.

Gygaie limne

(281 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Γυγαίη λίμνη; Gygaíē límnē). Lake in Lydia north of  Hermus and of  Sardis, to which in the south adjoin the Lydian royal necropolis (modern Bintepe, ‘Thousand Hills’) with the tomb tumuli of  Alyattes,  Gyges and other princes (Hipponax fr. 42 Masson); possibly called after the ancestors of  Gyges (Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 46) by the same name or a legendary figure. Gygaiae limne (GL) is already mentioned in Homer (Hom. Il. 20,390f.; cf. 2,865), mythographical fantastic stori…

Gyges

(420 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Γύγης; Gýgēs). [German version] [1] Lyd. king, 7th cent BC Lydian king ( c. 680-644 BC) and founder of the Mermnade Dynasty, is said, according to Herodotus (1,12), to have married the wife of his predecessor  Candaules, murdered by him, and (in this way) to have won rule in Sardis. It is uncertain from where the Lydian-speaking Mermnades came (from Maionia/Mysia?). In any case they were probably not in Sardis until the 1st millennium. Their relationship with the Luvian-speaking ([1. 384,10]  Luvian,  Lydia…

Gylippus

(285 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γύλιππος; Gýlippos). Spartiate, son of Cleandridas. His education (  agōgḗ ) was perhaps (at times?) made possible by an affluent Spartan, as Aelianus (Var. 12,43) calls him mothax (‘Bastard’) [1. 434]. When Syracuse asked Sparta for help against the Athenians, he was sent to Sicily (Thuc. 6,93; 104), reached Himera in the summer of 414 BC with a small force, reinforced his army there considerably, broke through to Syracuse, organized the resistance and prevented the encircling of the city (Thuc. 7,1-7). A…

Gylis

(44 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γῦλις; Gŷlis). Spartiate, in 394 BC polemarch, assumed command of the army of Agesilaus [2] II after the battle of Coronea and advanced to Locris. He fell in battle after the retreat (Xen. Ages. 2,15; Hell. 4,3,21-23). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Gylon

(111 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Γύλων; Gýlōn). Athenian, is said at the end of the 5th cent. BC to have been responsible for the northern Pontic  Nymphaeum that belonged to Athens being ‘Handed to the enemies’, for which he was given the death penalty (Aeschin. In Ctes. 171); probably his offence was less serious (Dem. Or. 28,3). G. was allocated by the Bosporanian rulers the town of Kepoi with its territory, from which he collected high taxes. He married a rich Scythian and returned to Athens with her. One of his daughters was the mother of  Demosthenes [2] (Traill, PAA 282005). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigh…

Gymnasiarchus

(4 words)

see  Gymnasiarchy

Gymnasiarchy

(238 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (γυμνασιαρχία; Gymnasiarchía). Supervision of a  gymnasium by a gymnasiarchus, whose functions varied in scope and importance depending on the place and time. In Athens the gymnasiarchy in the 5th and 4th cents. BC was a one-year   leitoūrgía (λειτουργία; And. 1,132; Dem. Or. 20,21), the task being to train a certain number of runners for torch competitions at the Great Panathenaea, Hephaistia, Promethia and festivals of Pan and to supply them with all their requisites. At the end of the 4th cent. the gymnasiarchy be…

Gymnasium

(3,037 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
(γυμνάσιον; gymnásion). [German version] I. Building style Public facility for sporting and musical leisure activities in the Greek polis; the term is derived from γυμνός/ gymnós (naked) and refers to the  nakedness at sports practices and competitions. Synonymous with gymnasium for the period from the 4th cent. BC in ancient written sources as well as in modern specialized literature is the concept of the  palaistra (cf. Vitruvius 5,11). This as the ‘Wrestler school’ originally referred only to a functionally determine…

Gymnastics

(4 words)

see  Sports

Gymnetes

(349 words)

Author(s): Cartledge, Paul A. (Cambridge)
[German version] (γυμνῆτες; Gymnêtes). Lightly-armed men. Pollux (3,83) describes the lower-ranking people in Argus as gymnetes and compares them with the  helots in Sparta, the  penestae in Thessaly and the  korynephoroi in Sicyon. However in Argus (as in Sicyon) they tended to be dependents rather than slaves, and Stephanus of Byzantium (s.v. χίος) probably describes them correctly as gymnḗsioi. The error of Pollux should perhaps be explained by the fact that the helots often fought as lightly-armed soldiers ( psíloi, Hdt. 9,29), for whom the Greeks used the term gymnetes. The gymne…

Gymnias

(56 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Γυμνιάς; Gymniás, Xen. An. 4,7,19). Large, heavily populated and affluent town of the Skythēnoí on the left bank of the Harpasus (modern Çoruh su), at the location of or near modern Bayburt. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography O. Lendle, Kommentar zu Xenophons Anabasis, 1995, 270-272.

Gymnosophists

(399 words)

Author(s): Muckensturm-Poulle, Claire (Besançon)
[German version] (Γυμνοσοφισταί; Gymnosophistaí). Literally: ‘the naked wise men’; the word appears for the first time in the papyrus Berol. 13044 (1st cent. BC) to describe the ten Indian wise men with whom Alexander the Great is said to have held a conversation that was most certainly legendary [3] [1]. The first nine of these wise men each had to answer a question posed by Alexander that was of a scientific or metaphysical nature, whilst the tenth wise man had to assess the value of these respon…

Gynaecocracy

(553 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] (γυναικοκρατία; gynaikokratía). The term gynaecocracy (‘Rule of women’, from Greek γυνή/ gynḗ, ‘woman’ and κρατεῖν/ krateín, ‘to rule’; cf. gynaikokrateísthai, ‘to be ruled by women’) is first attested in philosophical texts from the 4th cent. BC. The use is almost always polemical. In Aristotle the gynaecocracy becomes a theme in the context of criticism of the politeía (constitution) of the Spartans and was considered as the prerequisite for greed and an extremely unequal distribution of land (Aristot. Pol. 1269b 12-1270a 31; cf. als…

Gynaecology

(2,609 words)

Author(s): King, Helen (Reading)
[German version] A. Specialized field in the Hippocratic School The question whether gynaecology should be regarded as a field of medical specialization was a matter of controversy in antiquity. This debate whose rudiments can be reconstructed and can be traced back to Hesiod who programmatically represents the descendants of  Pandora, the first woman, as their own ‘race’ (γένος γυναικῶν; Theog. 585-590). Gynaikeía (which can be used to describe the female sex organs, menstruation as well as the treatment of women's diseases) is the Greek title of the two…

Gynaikonitis

(94 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] (γυναικωνῖτις; gynaikōnîtis). In contrast to the   andrṓn [4], gynaikonitis describes the introverted women's wing in the Greek  house that as a rule was closed off in the upper floor from the rather extroverted area of the world of men and that also held the tools of economic production of the woman (weaving stool, spinning wheel etc.); the inferior position of the  woman in the patriarchal society of Greece was expressed in this hierarchization of building conditions. Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) Bibliography W. Hoepfner, E. L. Schwandner, Haus und Stadt im kla…
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