Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

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Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Mors litis

(172 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] (literally: ‘death of a lawsuit’). According to Gai. Inst. 4,104 a means introduced by the l. Iulia iudiciorum privatorum specially for the iudicium legitimum ( iudicium ), to limit the duration of lawsuits. Whereas all other lawsuits were limited by the period in office of the magistrates who appointed judges, ML was what happened when after 18 months there had been no judgment. From the lex Irnitana (ch. 91, l.2) it followed that this regulation was transferred - evidently by pretending that the municipal process was identical to the iudicium legitimum - also to this…

Morta

(90 words)

Author(s): Kunz, Heike (Tübingen)
[German version] In Livius Andronicus (Odusia fr. 23 FPL according to Caesellius Vindex in Gell. 3,16,11) M. foretold the day of a person's death. According to Gell. ibid., M. is the Latin translation of the Greek Moira, which can be considered etymologically certain owing to their having the same origin. Caesellius Vindex's grouping of M. with Nona and Decuma as the tria fata (contradicted by Varro at Gell. 3,16,10) is an antiquarian construct and provides no key to the significance of M. to Roman religion. Kunz, Heike (Tübingen)

Mortality

(735 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] I. General Before the so-called ‘demographic transition’ with its change to lower birth and death rates, societies generally  have high natality and mortality, especially infant mortality and concomitant low average life expectancy for new-born babies. This must have been the same in Antiquity, although less is known about Greece than about the Imperium Romanum. Modern scholarship assumes an ancient life expectancy of c. 20-25 years. According to modern mortality table ‘West, level 3 - often used for comparison with Rome - a ‘stable populatio…

Mortar

(231 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ὅλμος/ hólmos, ἴγδις/ ígdis, θύεια/ thýeia, ὕπερον/ hýperon, Latin mortarium, pistillum, pila). Mortars and pestles of various materials were among the household utensils (Plaut. Aul. 94-95; Household equipment) necessary for kneading dough, grinding corn, chopping and mixing fruits, vegetables, etc. Mortars were also used for preparing cosmetics and drugs, pigments and metal alloys. Mortars included smaller grinding bowls (with or without a lip and round grinding stone, called a coticula in Latin, Plin. HN 34,106; made of granite for eye ointment…

Mortarium

(4 words)

see Mortar

Mortis causa capio

(120 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[German version] In Roman law, any ‘acquisition mortis causa ’not based on succession or legacy (Inheritance law III. H.): (1) gift mortis causa ( donatio ); what someone (2) received in fulfilment of a condition of a will or (3) on the condition that a third party (not the executing party) would die, or in exchange (4) for waiving an acquisition under inheritance law or (5) for an application for provisional safeguarding of an estate in favour of an unborn child ( missio in possessionem ) (Dig. 39,6,38; 31 pr./2; 8 pr.; 12). Manthe, Ulrich (Passau) Bibliography Kaser, RPR 1, 765; 2, 567  P. Voci,…

Morychus

(32 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] Tragedian from the closing years of the 5th cent. BC; according to the scholia on Aristophanes he was known for his gluttony (TrGF I 30 T 1-3). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Morzius

(86 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μόρζιος; Mórzios) of Gangra, prince of (south) Paphlagonia (Str. 12,562,41). As an alleged ally of Antiochus [5] III, like Ariarathes IV of Cappadocia, M. supported the Celts against Cn. Manlius [I 24] Vulso (Liv. 38,26,4) in 189 BC. Around 182/180 Pharnaces of Pontus plundered M.'s territory and in 179 had to pay him compensation as part of the peace treaty with the main enemy, Eumenes [3] II of Pergamon (Pol. 25,2,5;9). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography J. Hopp, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der letzten Attaliden, 1977, 46.

Mosa

(431 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] River, present-day R. Maas River, modern name Maas, which rises in Germania superior in the land of the Lingones, on the plateau of Langres (differently Caes. B Gall. 4,10,1: in the Vosges), then flows northwards through Belgica, cuts through the Ardennes shortly before Germania inferior and arrives at the Mare Germanicum in the land of the Batavi. The apparently contradictory information from classical authors, as to whether the M. flowed directly into the sea (Plin. HN. 4,100f.; Ptol. 2,9,3) or via the left arm of the Rhine, the Waal, (Caes. B Gall. 4,10,1: Vacalus; …

Mosaic

(3,403 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Panayides, Aliki Maria (Berne)
[German version] I. Phoenician-Punic A fundamental technical innovation in the creation of floors first occurred in the 5th cent. BC in the region of Carthage (Kerkouane) [1]: the surface was designed with the help of small, rectangular or almost square cubes ( tessellae) made of terracotta ( opus figlinum, see below II.B.), limestone or marble, which were set into a bed of mortar with the tightest possible fit and were then polished for walking upon. It appears to have developed in this important metropolis of the central Mediterranean (Pavi…

Moscha

(137 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with (Μόσχα Λιμήν/ Mόscha Limḗn, Ptol. 6,7,10; Peripl. maris Erythraei 32). Port on the south coast of Arabia Felix in the territory of the Adramitai tribe (Hadhramaut). It was probably situated on the present-day Ḫaur Rūri (Yemen), where recent excavations indicate a strongly fortified town. According to inscriptions on some finds, it was founded on the orders of the king of Hadhramaut. M. might have been the port of Zafar but Zafar appears to have been founded later. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliograph…

Moschi

(112 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μόσχοι; Mόschoi). Caucasian tribe between Colchis and Armenia. The Moschikḗ was situated in the hinterland of Phasis (Μοσχική/ Moschikḗ, Str. 11,2,17), the Moschian mountains were to the south of Colchis (Str. 11,2,15; Moschorum tractus, Plin. HN 6,29). Hdt. 7,78 describes the M.'s primitive weapons (wooden helmets, small shields and lances). Under Dareius [1] I. and Xerxes the M. were part of the 19th Persian satrapy (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 288). A shrine to Leucothea and the so-called oracle of Phrixus, which was plu…

Moschion

(705 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Piccione, Rosa Maria
(Μοσχίων/ Moschíōn). [German version] [1] Tragedian, 3rd cent. BC Athenian tragedian, probably 2nd half of 3rd cent. BC, known almost solely through quotations by Stobaeus. Titles attested include ‘Telephos and two historical dramas: ‘Themistokles, at the heart of which was probably the naval battle at Salamis, following on from Aeschylus' ‘Persians, with the distinction that M. made Themistocles the protagonist; and ‘The Pheraeans, probably dealing with the death of Alexander [15] of Pherae. A lengthy f…

Moschopoulos, Manuel

(160 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] Byzantine philologist, lived c. AD 1265-1316, a pupil of Maximus Planudes. He was the author of the Erōtḗmata grammatiká (Ἐρωτήματα γραμματικά), a Greek grammar in the form of a dialogue, which was still respected by the early Humanists, and scholia on numerous ancient texts, including the first two books of the Iliad, Hesiod's Érga kai hēmérai, Pindar's ‘Olympian Odes, on the Byzantine Triad of Euripides ( Hekábē, Oréstēs, Phoiníssai) and of Sophocles ( Aías, Ēléktra, Oidípous Týrannos), also on works by Aristophanes [3], by Theocritus, the Batrachomyomachía , etc.…

Moschus

(655 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence)
(Μόσχος; Mόschos). [German version] [1] From Elis, pupil of Phaidon M. from Elis, with Anchipylus a pupil (or pupil of a pupil) of Phaedon of Elis and teacher of Asclepiades [3] of Phleius and Menedemus [5] of Eretria. According to an ancient piece of gossip M. and Anchipylus are supposed to have subsisted only on water and figs their whole lives (Diog. Laert. 2,126; Athen. 2,44c). M. is presumably identical with the homonymous person whose name is the title of a dialogue by Stilpon (Diog. Laert. 2,120). Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) Bibliography SSR III E. [German version] [2] M. from Lampsacus…

Mosella

(206 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (‘the little Maas’, diminutive of Mosa [1]). Lefthand, 545 km long tributary of the Rhine, today the Moselle. Its source was on the Vosegus in the territory of the Leuci, it flowed in the land of the Treveri through the provinces of Gallia Belgica and Germania superior, and its mouth was near Confluentes (Koblenz). Situated on the M. were Divodurum, Augusta [6] Treverorum and Rigodulum (cf. Tac. Ann. 13,53; Tac. Hist. 4,71; 77). The legate of Germania superior, L. Antistius Vetus,…

Moses

(1,439 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel (Berne) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Hebrew Mošæh, Greek Μω(υ)σῆς; Mō(y)sȇs). [1] Israelite religious founder [German version] I. Biblical tradition According to tradition, M. was a Levite who grew up as an Egyptian prince, was forced to flee to Midian, was called there by the god Yahweh to lead the enslaved Hebrew people out of Egypt; Biblical cultic and moral law were revealed to him on Mt. Sinai, and he led the Hebrew people through the desert to the edge of the Promised Land, where he died on Mount Nebo, across from Jericho (Ex 2 - Dt 34). …

Mos maiorum

(621 words)

Author(s): Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne)
[German version] (‘Custom of the fathers’, sometimes also mos patrius: Cic. Rep. 5,1; Cic. Cato 37; vetus mos: Cic. Rep. 5,1; Tac. Ann. 14,42,2; mos antiquus: Varro Sat. Men. fr. 303; Tac. Dial. 28,2; interpretational paraphrase e.g. Liv. 27,11,10: mos traditus a patribus) is the core concept of Roman traditionalism. As little in Rome was regulated by positive law, in all areas of life people in many respects followed custom ( mos; sometimes connected with disciplina, e.g. Cic. Flacc. 15; with consuetudo, e.g. Gell. 15,11,2; with institutum, Cic. Mur. 1; Cic. Dom. 56) and traditi…

Mosomagus

(104 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (‘Market on the Mosa’), present-day Mouzon (Dépt. Ardennes); town on the road from Durocortorum to Augusta [6] Treverorum, between the civitates of the Remi and the Treveri on an island between two arms of the Mosa [1]. It was a significant  trading centre especially from the 2nd cent. AD. A fortification dating from Late Antiquity has been archaeologically authenticated. Musmagenses under a magister equitum inter Gallias  are documented (Not. Dign. Occ. 7,105); Merovingian coins mention Mosomo castri. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliography J.-P. Levant, Mouzon…

Mosque

(110 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( masǧid; ‘place where one prostrates oneself (in prayer)’; the Arabic word is of Syrian origin: masgeḏā). Muslim (Islam) place of prayer; also, a social meeting-point and a place of teaching. In the course of time several architectural types of mosques developed and already existing cult buildings were taken over (Hagia Sophia, Constantinople; Ummayad Mosque, Damascus). All mosques have a prayer niche facing Mecca, washing facilities and usually one or more minarets (Muezzin). In special Friday mosques ( ǧāmi) the Friday prayer is performed together in th…

Mosquito

(424 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (ἡ ἐμπίς/ empís, ὁ κώνωψ/ kṓnōps, Diminutive κωνώπιον/ kōnṓpion, Lat. culex, culicellus, culiculus; conops: Dioscorides Longobardus 3,23) is the general name for these buzzing insects which cause irritation by sucking blood. Aristotle gives a clear account at Hist. an. 5,19,551b 27-552a 8 and 1,1,487b 3-5 (so [1]) of the development of a midge of the genus Chironomus including the metamorphosis of the empís. The culices ficarii which help to pollinate figs are wasps of the type Blastophaga psenes (Plin. HN 11,118; 15,80 and 17,255). The common mosquito is t…

Moss

(164 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] was evidently neither noticed nor unambiguously given a name by the Greeks. In Dioskurides (1,21 Wellmann) βρύον ( brýon), actually means, amongst other things, lichens on oak trees. The Latin muscus describes not only this lower plant but also often algae or lichens. In order to improve a poor meadow, Columella 2,17,2 and Pall. Agric. 10,10,3 recommend pulling out moss or eradicating it by scattering ashes. Moss should also be removed from the base of grape vines in order to promote their growth (Columella. 4…

Mossynoeci

(166 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Μοσσύνοικοι; Mossýnoikoi). People in the Paryadres mountains to the south of the Black Sea coast between Cerasus and Trapezus (Hekat. FGrH 1 F 204f.; Xen. An. 5,4,2; 5,1; Apoll. Rhod. 2,1016ff.; Diod. 14,30,5-7) to the east of the Tibareni and Chalybes, from time to time with a large sphere of influence (to the south: Strab. 11,14,5; to the west: Xen. An. 5,5,1). Under Darius I and Xerxes, the M. belonged to the 19th satrapy (Hdt. 3,94; 7,78), in Xenophon's time they were independ…

Mostene

(205 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μοστήνη; Mostḗnē). Lydian city (Ptol. 5,2,16), localised according to inscriptions and coins either at the eastern foot of Mount Sipylus near modern Çobanisa or Sancaklıboz or to the south of Thyateira or c. 40 km to the east of Magnesia [3] (modern Asartepe near Urganlı). In AD 17, M. was destroyed by an earthquake (Tac. Ann. 2,47,3). M. was one of 12 or 14 cities of the province of Asia that thanked Tiberius for help in rebuilding with honorary inscriptions and a monument in Rome (copy: Puteoli, CIL X 1624; I…

Mostis

(106 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Μόστις/ Móstis). King, who probably ruled the Caeni in southeastern Thrace in the last quarter of the 2nd/beginning of the 1st cent. BC (earlier dating refuted). He is known only through tetradrachmai attesting to a 38 year reign, bronze coins and two inscriptions (BE 1972, 284; Moretti 2, 116; SEG XXXIV 696 and XXXVII 602; [3. 190]). He may have been a confederate of Mithradates [6] VI. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography 1 F. de Callataÿ, L'histoire des guerres Mithridatiques vue par les monnaies, 1997, 258-259 2 J. Jurukova, Monetite na trakijskite plemena i…

Mosyli

(83 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μόσυλοι; Mόsyloi). People on the south coast of the Gulf of Aden who have given their name to a port and a headland. References: Plin.HN. 6,174, promunturium et portus Mossylites; Ptol. 4,7,10; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μόσυλον. The port was situated two to three days' journey to the east of the ancient island of Mundu, Peripl. m. r. 10 (GGM I 265; τὸ Μόσυλλον). Export items were cinnamon and incense. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography F. Windberg, s.v. M., RE 16, 380f.

Motes

(49 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Μότης; Mόtēs). Ptolemaic strategos of Caria 248/7 BC who, together with the oikonómos Diodotus, intervened in the administration of the town of Kalynda (PCZ 59341). Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography R. Bagnall, The Administration of the Ptolemaic Possessions Outside Egypt, 1976, 99f., 216, 245  PP VI 15058.

Mothakes

(174 words)

Author(s): Cartledge, Paul A. (Cambridge)
[German version] (μόθακες/ móthakes). The móthakes, first mentioned in Phylarchus (FGrH 81 F 43) and probably identical with the μόθωνες/ móthōnes, either belonged to the Spartiatae or formed their own social stratum below the Spartan elite. Presumably they were children of a Spartan father and a helot mother (Helots), but they are not necessarily identical with the νόθοι/ nóthoi ( Nothos ), who according to Xenophon had received a Spartan upbringing ( agōgḗ ) (Xen. Hell. 5,3,9). According to Aelianus, high Spartan officers were originally móthakes (e.g. Callicratidas [1], Gyli…

Mother goddesses

(987 words)

Author(s): Borgeaud, Philippe (Geneva)
[German version] Numerous deities were referred to as ‘Mother’. In Greece, the oldest is a Mycenaean ‘Divine Mother’ ( Matere teija, in the dative: PY fr. 1202); the most important are Demeter, Rhea and Gaia, as well as the Lycian Leto and, above all, that goddess who actually was called ‘Mother’ ( Mḗtēr) or ‘Mother of the Gods’ ( Mḗtēr theṓn) and was considered exotic and at the same time very ancient (Cybele). Also well-known are the Sicilian Mothers, who were interpreted as the nurses of Zeus (Diod. Sic. 4,79-80; 5,64-65). In Rome, the cult of the Mat…

Mother-of-pearl

(81 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] ( unionum conchae). The pearl oyster ( concha, Plin. HN 9,106; cf. Shells D. 3.), imported from India (Plin. HN 9,106), provided the valuable pearl (μαργαρίτης/ margarítēs, margarita), but its shell covered with the same substance was scarcely used. We know only that Nero (Suet. Nero 31) had the walls in his palace in Rome, the domus aurea -- still partially traceable -- decorated with mother-of-pearl. Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) Bibliography A. Schramm, s.v. P., RE 19, 867  Blümner, Techn. 22, 380.

Motherwort

(5 words)

see Artemisia [3]

Moths

(4 words)

see Lepidoptera

Motif research

(484 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] is the study of the motif understood as the 'smallest unit of content' within traditional narratives (myth, legend, folktale [1]). Such a unit might be a plot (the burning of an object which is connected to a person's life will kill that person: Meleager [1]) or a characteristic person (the youngest son is the cleverest: Zeus). Motif research has long dominated the study of folk-tales and myths. However, a precise and standard definition of ‘motif’ and its distinction from related…

Motifs, history of

(10 words)

see Thematology/Subject and motif studies

Motion

(779 words)

Author(s): Meyer-Schwelling, Stefan (Tübingen)
[German version] (κίνησις/ kínēsis, φορά/phorā́; motus, motio). In Antiquity, there were two senses of the term ‘motion’, a narrow one (change of place, φορά/ phorā́) and a broad one (change, μεταβολή/ metabolḗ). Pre-Socratic philosophers since Anaximander had been occupied with the problem whether being is at rest or in motion. The Heracliteans claimed everything is in permanent motion and explained stability as an illusion. The Eleatic School at the other hand denied the reality of motion. Zeno tried to corroborate this the…

Motya

(277 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni (Μοτύα, Μοτύη; Motýa, Motýē). Phoenician-Carthaginian settlement on an island ( c. 45 ha) in the lagoon 8 km to the north of Marsala, modern Mozia on San Pantaleo. With Solus and Panormus, M. was the last fortress held by the Phoenicians in their retreat from the Greeks in western Sicily (Thuc. 6,2,6; own coins inscribed in Greek and Phoenician in the 5th and 4th cents. BC: HN 157f.) and was conquered and destroyed by Dionys…

Motyca

(87 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μότυκα, Μότουκα; Mótyka, Mόtouka). City of the Siculi in the southeast of Sicily (Ptol. 3,4,14), modern Módica to the south of Ragusa. Finds from as early as the prehistorical period. Ancient inscriptions from the area (IG XIV 243-253). The ager Mutycensis was the ager decumanus of the Roman province of Sicilia (Cic. Verr. 2,3,101; 120), the Mutycenses were stipendiarii (Plin. HN 3,91). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. M., RE 16, 407  BTCGI 10, 169-177  Morgantina Studies, 5 vols., 1981-1996.

Motyum

(62 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μότυον; Mótyon). Fort in the region of  Acragas, occupied by Ducetius in 451 BC, reconquered by Acragas the following year (Diod. 11,91,1; 4). Possible location at modern Vassallaggi. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography G. Tigano, Vassallaggi: nuove ricerche e nuovi dati, in: P. Melli, G. Cavaleri (eds.), Atti Convegno su Antichità e Storia della bassa Valle dell'Himera, (1987), 1993, 191-204.

Mountain passes

(404 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] Way from one region to another across or through a narrow place sketched out by nature (a saddle at a relatively low point of a watershed, water gap of a river flowing across a mountain chain, or between the sea and steeply rising mountains). The modern term 'pass', like the late mediaeval term littera passus (‘document of passage’), derives from the Latin passus, which in mediaeval Latin usage already had the meaning (among others) of  ‘way through or across’. Locally other terms, frequently oriented towards the character of the landscape, …

Mountain sanctuaries

(357 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen) | Kunz, Heike (Tübingen)
[German version] MS (= sanctuaries on rises or anticlines) were to be found in various ancient civilizations. Among the oldest monuments known to archeology are the so-called fire sanctuaries of Baal in the Near East [1]. It has been assumed that the numerous sanctuaries of the 2nd millennium on Crete were influenced by this tradition [2. 60f.]. More than 20 MS have been found there, identifiable by excavated clay figures and traces of altars. Another form of MS is represented by Greek cult sites of the Classical period (mainland, islands, Asia Minor) on heights outs…

Mourning

(981 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Literary sources In Greece and Rome, deaths and accidents, financial and business losses and military defeats were occasions for mourning (πένθος/ pénthos; Lat. luctus). Aside from the characteristic mourning dress, women displayed their mourning by renouncing gold jewellery (Dion. Hal. Ant. 5,48,4; Liv. 34,7,10), by beating, and sometimes baring, their chests (Prop. 2,13,27; Petron. 111,2), by loosening and tearing their hair (Catull. 64,348-351; Tib. 1,1,67 f.; Liv. 1,26,2), by crying and wailing (P…

Mourning dress

(253 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] In the first place mourning dress belonged in the personal area of family and friends, but it could also accompany public mourning. In Homer only mourning goddesses wore dark veils (Hom. Il. 24,93 f.; Hom. H. 2,42). The society described by Homer contented itself with dirtying their clothes with dust and ashes or tearing them (Hom. Il. 18,22 f.; 23,40 f.; 24,640; 28,25). Such behaviour was retained in the historical period by the Greeks and the Romans (e.g. Plut. Solon 21; Eur. El…

Mouse

(1,145 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (ὁ μῦς/ ho mŷs, in dialects σμῦς/ smŷs, σμίς/ smís, σμίνθος/ smínthos, σμίνθα/ smíntha; Latin mus, dimin. musculus; in this regard [4. 2,132]), representative of the family Muridae of rodents (Rodentia), rich in species, with constantly regrowing incisor teeth. The terms mentioned mostly refer to the long-tailed mice, the house mouse ( Mus musculus L.), wood mouse ( Apodemus sylvaticus L.), the harvest mouse that builds a nest of grass above the ground ( Micromys minutus Pallas) as well as the field mouse ( Microtus arvalis Pallas) that belongs to the vole family ( Arvico…

Mouseion

(1,930 words)

Author(s): Glock, Andreas (Bremen)
(Μουσεῖον/ Mouseîon sc. ἱερόν/ hierón, pl. Μουσεῖα/ Mouseîa, Lat. museum). [German version] A. Definition Sanctuary of the Muses; a place to experience the powers of the Muses, celebrate them in cult or give them cultural expression. The Muses gave humankind memory and expression – the prerequisite for intellectual and artistic traditions – thus inspiring dance and music, song and poetry and the preservation of this tradition in cult and schools ( mousikḗ as well as gymnastikḗ sc. téchnē [9. 680-687]; Education). Just as wide as the Muses’ sphere of influence was the ran…

Mousike

(241 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
[German version] (μουσική/ mousikḗ sc. τέχνη/ téchnē) encompassed the skills and arts imparted by the Muses that were cultivated ‘for their own sake’. The origin of the word is unclear (perhaps since Lasus [1] of Hermione), first found in Pindar (Ol. 1,15) and Epicharmus (CGF 91). In classical texts, it primarily refers to poetry, music and dance, then to training in the fine arts (Pl. Resp. 401d), musical harmonics (Archyt. 47B 1 DK), as well as philosophising (Plat. Phd. 61a). There were contests in the fine arts in Sparta, Delphi, Argos beginning in ancient times; contests in mousike are …

Muawiya

(92 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( Muāwiya, Greek Μαυΐας/ Mauïas). Founder of the dynasty of Umayyads, Caliph AD 661-680. From 634 onwards, the caliphs Abu Bakr and later Omar had already entrusted M. with various capacities as commander and governor in Syria. During his rule he consolidated this firm position internally, maintaining and incorporating the tribal structure. In foreign policy he built on earlier advances, particularly against North Africa and Byzantium, and achieved further military successes. Testimonials: Theophanes, p. 346-348, 355f. de Boor. Ali Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saa…

Mucelli

(51 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Ligurian peoples of the Appenninus north of the Arno, named after the settlement of Moukéllē (Μουκέλλη, Procop. Goth. 3,5) in the modern Mugello, upper Sieve valley, through which the road to Faventia led. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography C.A. Mastrelli, Sul nome del Mugello, in: SE 37, 1969, 109-126.

Mucianus

(61 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, first denoting adoption from the family of the Mucii. Especially widespread among the family of the Licinii, later also in other gentes. The most prominent bearers were L. Licinius [I 19] Crassus Dives M. ( cos. 131 BC) and C. Licinius [II 14] M. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 259 2 Ders., FCap, 146 3 Kajanto, Cognomina, 18; 32; 158.

Mucia Tertia

(193 words)

Author(s): Stegmann, Helena (Bonn)
[German version] Daughter of Q. Mucius [I 9] Scaevola, a close relative of Q. Caecilius [I 22] Metellus Celer and Q. Caecilius [I 29] Metellus Nepos. From 80/79 BC the third wife of Cn.Pompeius, with whom she had three children: Gnaeus, Sextus and Pompeia (Ascon. p. 19f. Clark). Pompey divorced M. late in 62, purportedly for her extra-marital affairs, specifically with Caesar (Plut. Pompeius 42,13; Suet. Iul. 50,1; Zon. 10,5), but probably for political reasons, on his return from the east (Cass. …

Mucius

(2,116 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
Name of a Roman gens (in inscriptions also Muucius, CIL I2, 584, Greek Μούκιος/ Moúkios). Tradition tells us of the legendary C.M. [I 2] Cordus Scaevola; the great age of the family is perhaps demonstrated by the name Mucia Prata of a place to the east of the Tiber [1]. In the historical period (from the 3rd century BC) the family was plebeian and provided a series of significant lawyers (M. [I 5; I 8-9]). One of M. [I 4]'s sons was adopted by a P. Licinius Crassus and as P. Licinius [I 19] Crassus Dives Mucianus founded the reputation of this branch of the family of Licinii Crassi. I. Republican …
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