Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Rha

(112 words)

Author(s): Danoff, Christo (Sofia)
[German version] (Ῥᾶ/ Rhâ, Ptol. 5,8,6 ff.; 6,14,1; 4; Ra, Amm. Marc. 22,8,27 ff.; modern Volga). Name of Finnish origin; in Scythian and Greek, the river was called Oarus in the 6th cent. BC (Ὄαρος/ Óaros, Hdt. 4,123 f.). Early in time, the Greek geographers already had a vague knowledge of the R. They thought it flowed into the Maeotis. Around the turn of the 1st cent. AD, the R. became known to Roman geographers: Marinus [1] (and Ptolemy) drafted a surprisingly accurate cartographical picture of the river. The extensive Volga …

Rhabdophoroi

(88 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ῥαβδοφόροι/ rhabdophóroi, 'staff-bearers', also referred to as ῥαβδοῦχοι/ rhabdoûchoi, 'staff-holders'). A term applied to various officials who carried a staff of office, in particular to officials at contests and other festivals, whether judges (Plat. Prot. 338a 8) or assistants of the judges who enforced discipline (for Athens: Aristoph. Pax 734; for Olympia: Thuc. 5,50,4). In Roman contexts the Greek words rhabdophóroi and rhabdoûchoi are used of the lictores ( lictor ) who carried the fasces before holders of imperium (Pol. 5, 26,10). Rhodes, Peter J. (Du…

Rhadamanthys

(302 words)

Author(s): Schlapbach, Karin (Zürich)
[German version] (Ῥαδάμανθυς; Rhadámanthys). Judge in the Underworld of Greek mythology (together with Minos and Aeacus; occasionally also Triptolemus: Pl. Ap. 41a 3 f.). R. was regarded as the king of Crete before the advent of the Greeks and ruler over the islands of the Aegean (Apollod. 3,6; Diod. Sic. 5,84). He was the son of Zeus and Europa, brother of Minos and Sarpedon (Hom. Il. 14,321 f.; Hes. fr. 140 f. M.-W.; Porph. De abstinentia 3,16 names Dike as his mother) [1]. R. was regarded as jus…

Rhadine and Leontichus

(169 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] (Ῥαδίνη, Λεόντιχος; Rhadínē, Leóntichos). Unfortunate pair of lovers in a Greek folk legend, which according to our main source, Str. 8,3,20, was treated by Stesichorus (PMGF Spur. 278 Davies). As the only discussion there is of παῖδες Σάμιοι/ paîdes Sámioi ('children of Samos'), we cannot decide with certainty where the plot is set. Strabo places the legend in Triphylian Samos, but Pausanias knows of a gravestone of the lovers- a place of pilgrimage for unhappy lovers - on the Ionian island of Samos, on the route from…

Rhaecelus

(106 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Ῥαίκηλος; Rhaíkēlos). According to Aristot. Ath. pol. 15,2, Peisistratus [4] and the Eretrieis (Eretria [1]) colonised a χωρίον/ chōríon ('spot') on the Thermaean Gulf (Thermaios Kolpos) called R., which, on the basis of Lycoph. 1236 f., scholars have from time to time identified with Aenea. In fact, however, it is probably the name of a region in the western Anthemus, in which at the time the Eretrian colony of Dicaea came into being. There is no further mention of the place in a historical context. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography D. Viviers, Pisistratus' Settlem…

Rhagae

(241 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (ἡ Ῥάγα/ hē Rhága: Str. 11,13,6; ἡ Ῥάγη/ hē Rhágē: Tobit 6,10; Ῥάγοι/ Rhágoi: Tobit 1,14 et alibi; (αἱ) Ῥάγαι/ (hai) Rhágai: Str. 11,9,1; Arr. Anab. 3,20,2 etc.). City (and district with a large population) of eastern Media, today an expanse of ruins south of Tehran. In the district of (Old Persian) Ragā (Elamic Rakka, Babylonian Raga), Darius [1] I captured the Median rebel Fravarti (Phraortes [3]) in 521 ([3. DB II 70 ff.]). In the summer of 330, Alexander [4] the Great rested his troops in R. for five days while in pursuit of Dariu…

Rhamnus

(549 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ῥαμνοῦς; Rhamnoûs). Large Attic Paralia-Demos, phyle Aiantis, with eight (twelve) bouleutaí, in the northern section of the east coast of Attica (formerly Ovriokastro). The urban centre of Ῥαμνουσία/ Rhamnousía, strongly fortified during the 4th cent. BC and including a citadel from 413/2 BC [3. 77 f., 80 f.] for the garrison, first documented for 342/1 BC (SEG 43,71), lies on an isolated rocky plateau. Conquered in 295 BC by Demetrius [I 2] Poliorketes, R. soon fell to Athens again and was a base for the a…

Rhamphias

(76 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ῥαμφίας; Rhamphías). Spartiate, father of Clearchus [2] (Thuc. 8,8,2). Member of the last Spartan delegation before the outbreak of the Peloponnesisan War (431 BC) that in Athens signaled a willingness for peace if the Athenians returned "independence to the Hellens" (Thuc. 1,139,3). R. was supposed to reinforce the army of Brasidas in the summer of 422 but in Thessaly he received news of his death and returned to Sparta. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Rhampsinitus

(216 words)

Author(s): Quack, Joachim (Berlin)
[German version] (Ῥαμψίνιτος; Rhampsínitos). According to Hdt. 2,121 f., R. was an Egyptian ruler. In scholarship, he is mostly (however, without conclusive arguments) equated with Ramesses [3] III. He is said to have been the successor of Proteus and the predecessor of Cheops. R. may be identified with a Remphis, who is mentioned in Diod. Sic. 1,62,5. The latter part of the name could contain the element s Njt, 'son of Neith', and possibly it should be corrected to Psammsinit, i.e. Psammetichus, son of Neith. R. is said to have constructed the western gateways of the Temple…

Rhaphia

(151 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] (Ῥαφία/ Rhaphía, Egyptian Rpḥ, Akkadian Rapiḫu). First mentioned in Egyptian city lists of the 2nd millennium BC, to be found southeast of Gaza in Ḫirbat Bir Rafaḥ. The first dispute between the Assyrians and Egyptians took place here when Ḫanūnu of Gaza with Egyptian support unsuccessfully fought against Sargon [3] II in 720 BC. In 217 BC in R., Ptolemy [7] IV Philopator was victorious over Antiochus [5] III (Pol. 5,82-86; 3 Macc 1:4). The latter established Seleucid rule in 200 BC and in 193 BC through …

Rhapsodes

(749 words)

Author(s): Latacz, Joachim (Basle)
(ῥαψῳδοί/ rhapsōidoí). Professional reciters of (as a rule epic) poetry. The profession emerged in Greece in the 8th cent. BC as a consequence of the transition from speech to writing as a medium for the transmission of information (Literacy/Orality). [German version] A. Meaning and connotation The first component of the word is the stem of the verb ῥάπτειν/ rháptein, 'sew' (cf. modern Greek ῥαπτο-μηχανή/ rhapto-mēchanḗ, 'sewing machine'); the second element the stem of the noun ᾠδή/ ōidḗ (< ἀοιδή/ aoidḗ), 'song', in the role of object effected. The meaning is thus: 'he wh…

Rhascuporis

(433 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Name variations: Ῥασκύπορις/ Rhaskýporis, Ῥα(ι,η)σκούπορις/ Rha(i,ē)skoúporis, Ῥασκούπολις/ Rhaskoúpolis; Latin Rhascypolis, Rhascupolis, R(h)ascipolis, R(h)escuporis, Raescuporis). Kings of the Sapaei dynasty in Thrace (cf. stemma 8 in PIR2 R, vol. 7.1, p. 59). [German version] [1] R. I. Thracian king, fought for Pompey at Pharsalus in 48 BC He and his brother Rhascus succeeded their father Cotys [I 7] as rulers. In 48 BC R. fought at Pharsalus for Pompey [I 3] (Caes. B Civ. 3,4,3); however he was pardoned by Caesar due to the commendable…

Rhaucus

(146 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (Ῥαῦκος; Rhaûkos). Town in central Crete, c. 15 km southwest of Heracleum [1], present-day Agios Myron (named after a 3rd cent. bishop of R.), with Minoan remains in the surrounding area. The acropolis had been inhabited since the Late Mycenaean Period. At the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC, R. formed an alliance with Gortyn (Pol. 22,15,1) and in 166 BC it was the object of a combined military operation by Gortyn and Knossos (Pol. 31,1) [1. no. 4…

Rhea, Rheia

(196 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ῥέα/ Rhéa, Ῥέη/ Rhéē, Ῥεία/ Rheía, Ῥείη/ Rheíē). Greek goddess; daughter of Uranus and Gaia, sister and consort of her brother Kronos, and by him the mother of Zeus, Hera, Demeter, Hades, Poseidon and Hestia (Hes. Theog. 453-463). Kronos devours the children in order to avoid the danger of being deprived of his power by one of them. However R. hides Zeus in Crete and instead gives Kronos a stone wrapped in swaddling bands. When Zeus is grown up he frees his brothers and sisters and with…

Rhea Silvia

(341 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (also Rea Silvia). Poetically also Ilía (for identity of both: Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,76,3 i.a.). Mother of Romulus [1] and Remus. She is mentioned for the first time in Naevius (cf. Serv. Aen. 1,273; 6,777) and in Ennius (Ann. 29,34-50), apparently as the daughter of Aeneas [1]. Later sources, however, identify her as the daughter of Numitor and thereby move the founding of Rome several generations away from Aeneas and the ruin of Troy. The main version of the myth is essentially to be found in…

Rhebas

(153 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Ῥήβας/ Rhḗbas). [German version] [1] River in Bithynia, present-day Riva Deresi River in Bithynia (Apoll. Rhod. 2,343; 650; Tab. Peut. 9,2 written incorrectly as ad herbas), present-day Riva Deresi; it discharges on the north coast of the Bithynian peninsula east of where the Bosporus flows into the Pontos Euxeinos. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography IK 10,3, 1987, 141 f. [German version] [2] Left-hand tributary of the Lower Sangarius, present-day Gökcesu Left-hand tributary of the Lower Sangarius, which rises on Olympus [13], present-day Gökçesu. Its valle…

Rhecusporis

(313 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
Kings of the Regnum Bosporanum with the name Tiberius Julius R. (for name variations see Rhascypolis). [German version] [1] R. (II.) King of the Regnum Bosporanum from AD 68/9 to AD 91/2 Son of Cotys [II 1] I., ruled from AD 68/9 to AD 91/2 (IOSPE 2,52; 355; 358); he minted gold stateres and pursued a policy which was more independent of Rome PIR2 I 512; [1. 14-17, 93-103]. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] R. (III.) King of Bosporus and the surrounding peoples AD 210/1- AD 226/7 Son of Ti. Julius Sauromates II., ruled as 'king of Bosporus and the surroun…

Rheneia

(330 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Ῥήνεια/ Rhḗneia, Ῥήναια/ Rhḗnaia, Ῥήνη/ Rhḗnē; Latin Rhene, Plin. HN 4,67). An island of the Cyclades, consisting of two parts linked by a narrow isthmus (16 km2 in all, highest point 150 m). At its narrowest point R., present-day Megali Dilos, is 600 m from the neighbouring island of Delos to the east. The ancient polis of R. with its small territory lay on the west coast of the northern area. In 543 BC, Peisistratus [4] had graves transferred from Delos to R., inasfar as they were in sight of the temple of Apollo (Hdt. 1,64; Thuc. …

Rhenus

(1,104 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] [1] River in upper-Italy, present-day Reno in Emilia-Romagna River in Upper Italy, present-day Reno in Emilia-Romagna, right-hand feeding river of the Padus (Po), which rises in the Apennines above Pistoriae (Pistoia) and flows past Marzabotto through the region of Felsina (Bononia [1]). In Etruscan times it flowed into the Padus near Voghiera to the southeast of Ferrara, in Roman times somewhat more to the west. Nowadays it flows via an artificial canal directly into the Adriatic Sea. In…

Rhesis

(452 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (ἡ ῥῆσις/ hē rhêsis), generally 'speech' (Hom. Od. 21,291). As early as the 5th cent. BC, rhesis was a technical term for a speech in a play, especially in a tragedy (for the concept cf. Aristoph. Ach. 416, Nub. 1371, Vesp. 580, Ran. 151; Aristot. Poet. 1454a 31, 1456a 31). The length of a rhesis varies from c. 7 to over 100 verses (Eur. Ion 1122-1228, Phoen. 1090-1199, Bacch. 1043-1152). The most important function of rhḗseis in the context of the storyline is to supply information. The requisite details which are important for the storyline are frequen…

Rhesus

(268 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (῾Ρῆσος/ Rhêsos, Latin Rhesus). King of Thrace, son of Eïoneus (Hom. Il. 10,138) or of the river god Strymon ([Eur.] Rhes. 279). R. and his snow-white horse appear only in the tenth year of the war as an ally of the Trojans and dies on the first night, without having played any part in battle. Caught on his nightly tour of reconnoissance, Dolon has betrayed R. and his men. Diomedes kills the men in their sleep, as R. has foreseen in a nightmare, and Odysseus makes off with the horses…

Rhetoric

(25,145 words)

Author(s): Worstbrock, Franz Josef | Bittner, Stefan | Ranieri, Filippo (Saarbrücken RWG) | Schmitz, Thomas A.
Worstbrock, Franz Josef I. History and System (CT) [German version] A. Old European Tradition and New Rhetoric (CT) Ancient rhetoric was constantly present in the European world from the time that world first coalesced in the late 8th cent., and from the beginning it was instrumental as one of the foundations of European literacy. Anchored in the school system, ars rhetorica, however it was delivered, served up or interpreted, was of the essence of any decent education. But knowledge of rhetoric was not merely a tool for the production of texts and was …

Rhetoric

(12,493 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] I. Terminology Generic term: Greek τέχνη ῥητορική/ téchnē rhētorikḗ; from Plato onwards, the technical term is ῥητορική/ rhētorikḗ [43]; Latin: ars oratoria, ars dicendi (rhetoric as an acquired skill), or eloquentia (as an ability). Performers: Greek ῥήτωρ/ rhḗtōr (Homeric ῥήτηρ/ rhḗtēr); Latin orator (initially referring to any orator; later used in the specific context of rhetoric), rhetor (technical term for a teacher of rhetoric). Activity: Greek είρειν/ eírein (‘say’ in formal language) or more generally λέγειν/ légein (‘speak’); the Latin equivalen…

Rhetorica ad Alexandrum

(419 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] Greek rhetoric textbook, amounting to some 100 pages of modern print, recorded in the MSS (none earlier than the 14th cent.) as a work of Aristotle (Aristoteles [6]), but not appearing in the ancient title lists of the Corpus Aristotelicum (e.g. in Diog. Laert. 5,22-27). The earliest surviving attribution to Aristotle is by Syrianus (In Hermog. comm. 2, p. 11,17-21 Rabe). According to Quint. Inst. 3,4,9, Anaximenes [2] of Lampsacus (2nd half 4th cent. BC) distinguished types of speech (εἴδη/ eídē) in his rhetorical textbook ( téchnē); the same distinction occurs at…

Rhetorica ad Herennium

(224 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] Latin textbook of rhetoric from the late Republican Period (dating to c. 50 BC compellingly argued in [5. 65 ff.]). It deals in 4 books with the canon of the officia oratoris ( officium [7]). Its source was a Latin textbook also used by Cicero for his De inventione ([4; 6];  [7. 271 ff.] newly adopted the old idea that Cicero used the Rhetorica ad Herennium). Attributed to Cicero from Late Antiquity on, the work is today - although with insufficient proof - often attributed to an author by the name of Cornificius named by Quint. Inst. 3,1,21 …

Rhetoric textbooks

(5 words)

see Rhetoric

Rhetorius

(267 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] (Ῥητόριος; Rhētórios). R. was the last Greek-writing expert on astrology in Egypt before the Arab conquest in AD 640, . He played an important role in the transmission of older theories to the Middle Ages. His work, which has been preserved in compilations, probably even incomplete, of 90 and 117 chapters, draws in particular on Antiochus [23] and Teucer of Babylon, as well as on Claudius Ptolemaeus [65], Vettius Valens, Iulianus [19] of Laodicea and Olympiodorus' [4] commentaries …

Rhetra

(758 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(ῥήτρα/ rhḗtra, Ionian ῥήτρη/ rhḗtrē, Elean ράτρα/ wrátra; related to εἴρειν/ eírein ('speak')). [German version] [1] Contract (general) Generally 'ceremonial utterance, something said with a claim to authority', figuratively also 'agreement, contract' (e.g., Hom. Il. 14,393; Syll.3 9, Elis, 6th cent. BC), later 'resolution, law' [1. 17-22; 2. 431; 3. 120283]. The phrase εὐθεῖαι ῥῆτραι/ eutheîai rhêtrai ('legal covenants') attested in Tyrtaeus fr. 1b,6 = °14,6 Gentili/Prato (2nd half of 7th cent. BC) expresses an ideal of a consensus extending to all po…

Rhexenor

(115 words)

Author(s): Antoni, Silke (Kiel)
(Ῥηξήνωρ/ Rhēxḗnōr). [German version] [1] Brother of Alcinous and father of Arete, Alcinous's wife Son of Nausithous [1], brother of Alcinous [1]. He dies shortly after his wedding, leaving as his only child his daughter Arete [1], the later wife of Alcinous (Hom. Od. 7,63-66; 146; Schol. Hom. Od. 7,56; Eust. ad Hom. Od. 7,63-65). Antoni, Silke (Kiel) [German version] [2] Father of Chalciope [1], the second wife of Aegeus Father of Chalciope [1], the second wife of Aegeus (Apollod. 3,207; Tzetz. Ad Lycophr. 494; Phanodemus FGrH 325 F 5). Alternatively, Chalcodon (…

Rhianus

(552 words)

Author(s): Latacz, Joachim (Basle)
(Ῥιανός/ Rhianós) of Crete. Epic poet, writer of epigrams and Homeric philologist of the second half of the 3rd cent. BC. [German version] A. Life The only coherent source is an entry in the Suda consisting of only three sentences (according to [3. 781] they go back to Dionysius [18] of Halicarnassus). According to this R. comes from Bene (near Gortyn; exact ancient situation unknown) or Ceraea in Crete (Bene was probably his place of birth and Ceraea where he went to school: [8. 85]). R. is apparently said to have risen from being an attendant in a gymnasium with slave status to a grammatikós

Rhinoceros

(520 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] The Indian rhinoceros ( Rhinoceros unicornis L.) and the two African species, the Black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis L.) and White rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum Burch.), were referred to without distinction as ῥινόκερως/ rhinókerōs, more rarely μονόκερως/ monókerōs (literally 'unicorn' and translated as unicornis in Isid. Orig. 12,2,12), Latin rhinoceros, monoceros. 1. Indian rhinoceros: in literature, the Indian rhinoceros was known only from Ctesias (fr. 14; Phot. Bibl. 72,48b 19ff. Bekker), used by Aristot. Hist. an. 2,1,49…

Rhinon

(186 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ῥίνων; Rhínōn). Attic politician, who was a member (Paredros) of the Hellēnotamíai in 417/6 BC and after the fall of the Thirty (Triakonta) was one of the committee of the Ten (Deka), which in 403 achieved reconciliation with the democrats in Piraeus and their return to the city. After democracy was restored, R. accounted for his actions in office and was elected stratēgós for 403/2 and treasurer of the goddess Athena and the other gods for the year 402/1 (ML 77,26 f.; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 38,3 f.; Aristot. fr. 611 Rose2; Isoc. Or. 18,6; 18,8; IG II/II2 1371). Aeschines [1]…

Rhinthon

(243 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ῥίνθων/ Rhínthōn). Poet, composer of literary Phlyakes plays (of which he is said to have written 38 [1. test. 2 and 3]), from Syracuse [1. test. 1], active at Tarentum [1. test. 2 and 3] in the reign of Ptolemy I (Ptolemaeus [1]) (322-283 BC, reigned from 305). Of nine surviving titles, eight are identifiable as parodies of tragedies by Euripides [1]: Ἀμφιτρύων/ Amphitryon , Ἡρακλῆς/ Heracles , Ἰφιγένεια ἁ ἐν Αὐλίδι/ Iphigeneia at Aulis, Ἰφιγένεια ἁ ἐν Ταύροις/ Iphigeneia among the Taurians, Δοῦλος Μελέαγρος/ Meleager the Slave, Μήδεια/ Medea , Ὀρέστας/ Orestes , Τήλεφο…

Rhion

(196 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ῥίον; Rhíon). Flat coastal projection in Achaea, about 8 km to the northeast of modern Patras [1. 226-227; 2. 199 f.], modern Rhio, which, with Antirrhion (or also R. or Ῥίον τὸ Μολυκρικόν/ Rhíon tò Molykrikón after Molycrium; modern Antirio) to the north across the approximately 2 km wide sound (also called R., cf. Pol. 4,64,2; Liv. 27,29,9; Mela 2,52), forms the western entrance to the Gulf of Corinth (Corinth, Gulf of) (Thuc. 2,86,3; Ps.-Scyl. 35; 42; Scymn. 478; in Str. 8,2,3, as in Ptol. 3,15,5 incorrectly…

Rhipaia orē

(470 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Ῥιπαῖα ὄρη; Rhipaîa órē). Mythical chain of mountains on the northern edge of the world, already known from Alcm. fr. 90 PMGF with a somewhat different name form. Sophocles, who used it to denote the north (Soph. OC 1248 with schol.; cf. Aesch. TrGF 3 F 68), also knew it as Rhípai. Both these authors, and others as well, associate the Rhipaia orē (RO) with night (Nyx). This has its roots in speculations about the path of the sun: according to a commonly held theory, the sun goes around the Earth after setting, but in doing so is …

Rhithymna

(106 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (Ῥίθυμνα/ Rhíthymna). City on the northwest coast of Crete (Plin. HN 4,59), modern Rethymnon, settled already in the Minoan period (temple and necropolis in the south of the city). Its temporary renaming as Arsinoe (after the wife of Ptolemaeus [7] IV) in the 3rd century BC indicates Ptolemaic influence. No remains from the Classical and Hellenistic periods survive, but one building from the late Roman period does. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography M. Guarducci, Inscriptiones Creticae 2, 268-277  I. F. San…

Rhizon

(5 words)

see Risinum, Rhizon

Rhodanus

(260 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Ῥοδανός/ Rhodanós). The biggest and, at 812 km, the second longest river in Gaul (Gallia), modern Rhône, with an extremely fertile drainage basin of 99,000 km2, navigable up to and above Lugdunum (for an unsuccessful attempt to connect the R. and the Rhenus/Rhine by means of a canal, cf. Tac. Ann. 13,53), an important axis of commerce with trade centres at Massalia (Marseilles), Arelate (Arles) and Lugdunum (Lyon) between the Mediterranean (Mare Nostrum) and the interior of Gaul. It rises near the spr…

Rhodaspes

(92 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Ρωδάσπης; Rhōdáspēs). Son of the Parthian king  Phraates [4] IV. In order to secure the royal succession of Phraates [5] V, his father sent him in 10/9 BC, with other sons and grandsons, to Augustus in Rome (R. Gest. div. Aug. 32; Str. 16,1,28; Vell. Pat. 2,94,4; Tac. Ann. 2,1,2; Suet. Aug. 21,3; 43,4) where he died (tomb inscription: ILS 842). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography 1 E. Nedergaard, The Four Sons of Phraates IV in Rome, in: Acta Hyperborea 1, 1988, 102-115 2 K.-H. Ziegler, Die Beziehungen zwischen Rom und dem Partherreich, 1964, 51 f.

Rhode

(173 words)

Author(s): Eiben, Susanne (Kiel)
[German version] (Ῥόδη; Rhódē). Presumably identical with Rhódos (Ῥόδος; cf. the form of the name in Pind. Ol. 7,71b and schol. Pind. Ol. 7,71b), the eponym of the island of Rhodes (Diod. Sic. 5,56,3; schol. Pind. Ol. 7,24g), daughter of Poseidon and Amphitrite (Apollod. 1,28) or Aphrodite (Pind. O. 7,14; schol. Pind. Ol. 7,24 f) or Halia [2] (Diod. Sic. 5,55,4), alternatively of Oceanus (Epimenides FHG 4,404) or Asopus (schol. Hom. Od. 17,208); wife of Helios (Sol; Pind. Ol. 7,14), the main god of the…

Rhodes

(4,290 words)

Author(s): Livadiotti | Papachristodoulou, Ioannis
Livadiotti [German version] I. Archaeological History until 1948 (CT) It was during the first investigations, carried out in the second half of the 19th cent. by E. Biliotti and A. Salzmann with the sole purpose of salvaging collectors’ items, that the necropolises of Kamiros and Ialysos came to light. Systematic archaeological research did not begin until 1902; this was still before the arrival of the Italians. In this year a Danish archaeological expedition led by K. F. Kinch and assisted by Chr. S. Bl…

Rhodian Vases

(7 words)

see East Greek pottery

Rhodiapolis

(157 words)

Author(s): Thomsen, Andreas (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia | Education / Culture (Ῥοδιάπολις; Rhodiápolis). Town in southeastern Lycia, c. 10 km north of modern Kumluca. According to Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 103,15, it was named after Rhode, a daughter of Mopsus. R. was probably a Rhodian (Rhodos) colony. Rock-cut tombs and inscriptions testify to its significance in the Classical Period. Coins show R. as a member of the Lycian League since 167 BC. Its most significant citizen was Opramoas, an euergétēs of influence in all of Lycia under the empe…

Rhodius

(95 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ῥόδιος/ Rhódios). River in the Troad (Hom. Il. 12,20), modern Koca Çay. It rises in the Ida [2] mountains and flows into the Hellespont between Abydus and Dardanus (Str. 13,1,28). The towns of Gordus and Cleandrea were in its source region (Str. 13,1,44). Coins from Dardanus that date to the Roman period show the river god R. (SNG Danish Nat. Mus., Troas, no. 310). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s. v. R. (2), RE 1 A, 956  W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 207 f.  J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1973, 55.

Rhododendron

(260 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (ῥοδοδένδρον/ rhododéndron or ῥοδοδάφνη/ rhododáphnē, in Latin for the first time in Ps.-Verg. Culex 402, νήριον/ nḗrion e.g. in Dioscorides 4,81 Wellmann = 4,82 Berendes, Latin nerium, rododafne in Pall. Agric. 1,35,9), the rosebay, the oleander ( Nerium oleander) or the alpenrose ( R. ferrugineum and hirsutum L.), appears only in the 1st cent. AD in Plin. HN 16,79 (and Dioscorides, see below) with all three names ( rhododendron, rhododaphne and nerium) and hence is presumably of Greek origin. This evergreen plant with rose-like flowers,  which grow…

Rhodogune

(226 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Ῥοδογούνη/ Rhodogoúnē). [German version] [1] Mother of Darius I Wife of Hystaspes [2], mother of Darius [1] I (Suda and Harpocr., s. v.). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of Darius [1] I Daughter of Darius [1] I? (Hier. Adversus Iovinianum 1,45; PL 23, p. 287). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [3] Daughter of Xerxes I Daughter of Xerxes I (Ctes. FGrH 688 F 13). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [4] Daughter of Artaxerxes [2] II Daughter of Artaxerxes [2] II, wife of Orontes [2] I (Plut. Artaxerxes 27,7; cf. Xen. An. 2,4,8) an…

Rhodope

(106 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ῥοδόπη/ Rhodópē). Mountain range stretching from the northern shores of the Aigaion Pelagos (Aegean Sea) to the Thracian plain around Philippopolis, mostly high, up to 2000 m in height, and inaccessible, modern Rhodopi, east of the mountain chain border between Greece and Bulgaria. According to ancient tradition R. also included the modern Rila and Pirin chains (Hdt. 4,49; 8,116; Thuc. 2,96-98; Str. 7,5,1; 7, fr. 36). Rich ore production (gold, silver, copper). R. was the area whe…

Rhodopis

(133 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ῥοδῶπις/ Rhodôpis, 'of rosy appearance'). Legendary hetaera in Naucratis (1st half of the 6th cent. BC), Thracian (?), slave of Iadmon of Samos, then taken by the Samian Xanthus to Egypt, where Charax, brother of  Sappho, is supposed to have bought her freedom (Hdt. 2,134,3; 135,1 f.); her identification with Doricha, the object of Charax' fatal love (Sappho fr. 26,11 Diehl; cf. fr. 7 Lobel/Page), is unclear (Hdt. 2,135,5; Str. 17,1,33; contra: Ath. 13,596b-d). R. acquired a fortu…

Rhodos

(1,647 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Theatre | Byzantium | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Colonization | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Pompeius | Rome | Rome | Athletes | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Ῥόδος; Rhódos). [German version] I. Geography Island in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the southwestern coast of Asia Minor, now part of the Dodecanese archipelago, with an area of 1400 km2. A good part of the ancient history of the island was shaped by its geographical situ…

Rhoecus

(496 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt)
(Ῥοῖκος/ Rhoîkos). [German version] [1] One of the Centaurs One of the Centaurs. R. is killed together with his companion Hylaeus by Atalante for importuning her (Callim. H. 3,221 with schol.; Apollod. 3,106; Ael. VH 13,1). Possibly identical with the Centaur Rhoetus (Ov. Met. 12,271-301; variants Rhoetus/ Rhoecus e.g. Verg. G. 2,456; Luc. 6,390; Val. Fl. 1,141; 3,65). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) [German version] [2] Character in a Greek tale Cnidian, who has an oak which is threatening to topple propped up, thereby saving the life of the tree's nymph (Hamadryads), wh…

Rhoemetalces

(578 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Ῥοιμητάλκης/ Rhoimētálkēs). Kings of Thrace (cf. stemma 22 in PIR2 P, vol. 6, p. 233; Thraci, Thracia). [German version] [1] R. I Roman vassal prince from 22 BC In 31 BC, he changed sides from Mark Antony (Antonius [II I 9]) to Octavian (Octavianus [1]) (Plut. Mor. 207a; Plut. Romulus 17,3). Around 22 BC, he succeeded his brother-in-law Cotys [I 6] as Roman vassal prince, taking guardianship of his son Rhascuporis [2]; in 19/8 BC, he assisted M. Lollius [II 1] against the Bessi (Cass. Dio 54,20,3), who succeeded in drivin…

Rhoeo

(132 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ῥοιώ; Rhoiṓ). Daughter of Staphylus and Chrysothemis [1], sister of Molpadia [1] and Parthenus [2]. After the sisters fail to guard their father's newly produced wine, they throw themselves into the sea and are rescued by Apollo, who fathers Anius with R. Staphylus locks the pregnant R. in a chest, which comes ashore in Delos (or Euboea, Tzetz. Lycoph. 570), where Apollo tends to his son (Diod. 5,62 f.; Dion. Hal. De Dinarcho 11,17; Lycoph. 570). In the story of the Argive Lyrcus,…

Rhoeteum

(208 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Ῥοίτειον; Rhoíteion). Coastal town in Troas in the foothills of the same name, probably founded by Astypalaea (Str. 13,1,42), about 4 km to the southwest of Ophryneum, 9 km south of Kepez on the Baba Kalesi [1. 79 f., 87-89]. In 480 BC Xerxes marched past R. (Hdt. 7,43). In 425/4 BC R. paid eight talents in the Delian League (ATL 1,393; 544; 2,82; 4,108). Its favourably sited harbour seems to have made R. rich (Thuc. 4,52; 8,101; Dio…

Rhomaea

(181 words)

Author(s): Price, Simon R. F. (Oxford)
[German version] (Ῥωμαῖα; Rhōmaîa). The Rhomaea were quinquennial or yearly festivals, which were celebrated in the Greek world from the early 2nd cent. BC onwards in honour of Roma [IV.]. Their model were the traditional indigenous cults of deities and heroes (Hero cult); in individual cases the Rhomaea were celebrated together with an already existing local cult. The Rhomaea comprised processions, sacrifices and agones (cf. SEG 30,1073: Chios) - e.g. athletic and musical competitions (Xanthus, SEG 28,1246) and games on horseback (Oropus and Magnesia: [1. …

Rhomaioi

(443 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] (Ῥωμαῖοι). Rhōmaîos is the original Greek name for 'Romans', found in this sense especially in Greek historiographers (e. g. Polybius [2] or Dionysius [18] of Halicarnassus). As the imperial capital moved to Byzantium (Constantinople), however, Rhōmaîos came to be increasingly used for the Greek-speaking Byzantines; an initially still existing differentiation between οἱ ἐῷοι Ῥωμαῖοι/ hoi eṓioi Rhōmaîoi ('the eastern R.') and οἱ ἑσπέριοι Ῥωμαῖοι/ hoi hespérioi Rhōmaîoi ('the western R.' ) finally became obsolete with the decline of the western empire …

Rhomanos

(4 words)

see Romanos

Rhombites

(141 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Ῥομβίτης/ Rhombítēs). Two rivers flowing from the east into the Maeotis, where they are abundant in fish, distinguished by their epithets 'the Great' and 'the Lesser' (Str. 11,2,4; cf. Ptol. 5,9,3 f.; 26; Amm. Marc. 22,8,29). [German version] [1] R. Megas (ὁ μέγας Ῥ./ ho mégas R., 'the Great R.'). Further north, modern Jeja; according to Str. ibid., 800 stadia from the mouth of the Tanais (Don). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] R. Elatton (ὁ ἐλάττων Ῥ./ ho eláttōn R., 'the Lesser R.'). Further south; according to Str. ibid., 800 stadia from R. [1…

Rhombos

(129 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle)
[German version] (ῥόμβος/ rhómbos, Lat. rhombus, ‘bull-roarer’), a wooden object which, when attached to a string (Schol. Clem. Al. Protrepticus 2,17,2) and twirled in the air (Eur. Hel. 1362), produced a loud (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,1139), hissing (Schol. Clem. Al. ibid.) sound, the volume of which depended on the force of the motion (Archyt. fr. 1). It was used in the mysteries of Dionysus (Anth. Pal. 6,165), Cybele (Ath. 14,636a) and Demeter (OF 110). The rhombos as a tool of magic - often connected with the wryneck ( iynx ) - is barely distinguishable in the sources ( e.g., Theoc. Id. 2,3…

Rhombus

(103 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
(ῥόμβος/ rhómbos). [German version] [1] Geometric shape In the plane, a rectangle with four sides of equal length but with unequal angles ( i.e., with two acute and two obtuse angles; Euc. 1, Def. 22; Censorinus, DN 83,14 Jahn). In three dimensions, a rhombus is the solid of revolution consisting of two cones with the same base (Archim. De sphaera et cylindro 1, def. 6). Folkerts, Menso (Munich) Bibliography 1 T. L. Heath, The Thirteen Books of Euclid's Elements, vol. 1, 21925, 189 2 A. Hug, s.v. Ῥόμβος ( rhombus), RE 1 A, 1069. [German version] [2] See Top see Top [German version] [3] See Rho…

Rhomphaia

(99 words)

Author(s): Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle)
[German version] (ῥομφαία/ rhomphaía). A big, double-edged iron sword similar to a halberd. It had a long wooden handle and was worn over the right shoulder. In the Hellenistic Period, it was the characteristic weapon of the Thracians (Plut. Aemilius 18,3; Liv. 31,39,11: rumpia); Phylarchus FGrH 81 F 57; Arr. FGrH 156 F 103; Gell. NA 10,25,4; Val. Fl. 6,98). In Jewish-Christian literature, however, rhomphaia refers to any big double-edged sword (LXX Gn 3,24; 1 Sam 17,51 (Goliath's sword); Lc 2,35; Ios. Ant. Iud. 6,190). Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) Bibliography H. O. Fiebiger, s. v. ῥ…

Rhoptron

(7 words)

see Musical instruments (V. D.)

Rhosus

(96 words)

Author(s): Sayar, Mustafa H. (Cologne)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Syria (Ῥωσός/ Rhōsós). Small town on the Gulf of Issus in Syria (Str. 14,5,19; Ptol. 5,15,2: Ρῶσσος/ Rhȏssos), 31 km to the southwest of Alexandria [3] on the coastal road to Seleucia Pieria, first recorded in the late 4th cent. BC. From the later Augustus, R. received the title ἱερά, ἄσυλος καὶ αὐτόνομος/ hierá, ásylos kaì autónomos ('sacred, entitled to grant asylum and autonomous'). In the 5th century AD, however, Hierocles (Synekdemos 705,7) counts R. among the cities of Cilicia Secunda. Sayar, Mustafa H. (Cologne) Bibliog…

Rhotacism

(234 words)

Author(s): Haebler, Claus (Münster)
[German version] (ῥωτακισμός/ rhotakismós), technical term used by Greek grammarians and referring to the (frequent) use of the sound [r] represented by the letter referred to as ῥῶ/ rhō; coined in analogy with ἰωτακισμός/ iōtakismós, Itacism). Rhotacism involves the change of a voiced dental or alveolar consonant in an intervocalic position into the liquid [r], or more precisely its replacement by [r]. Rhotacism sometimes leads to the alternation of /s/ and /r/ observed in inflexion and/or word formation. The typical and most frequent case is ([s] >) [z] > [r]: Latin * eset > ezet (ESED…

Rhoxane

(278 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Ῥωξάνη/ Rhōxánē). [German version] [1] Wife of Cambyses [2] II Wife of Cambyses [2] II (Ctesias FGrH 688 F 13). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of Hydarnes Daughter of Hydarnes, half-sister of Terituchmes, fell victim with her whole family to the vengeance of Parysatis [1] (Ctesias FGrH 688 F 15) because Terituchmes had turned away from his wife Amestris and devoted himself to R. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [3] Daughter of Darius [3] III According to Julius Valerius 2,33 among others, daughter of Darius [3] III who in 332 offered her…

Rhoxolani

(277 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ῥωξολανοί/ Rhōxolanoí, Lat. Roxolani). Sarmatic tribe or group of tribes (Sarmatae; Str. 2,5,7, cf. 7,2,4; 7,3,17 in connection with Hipparchus [6], Eratosthenes [2]) that lived in the period approximately up to the time of Christ in the steppes between Tanais (Don) and Borysthenes (Dniepr) north of the Maeotis (Plin. HN 4,80; Ptol. 3,5,19; 24 f.). In the battle against Diophantus [3], general of Mithridates [6] VI, the R. fought under their king Tasius on the side of Palacus, king of the Scythians (113 BC?; Syll.3 709). In the 1st cent. AD, the R. settled on th…

Rhubarb

(120 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] ( reubarbarum sive reuponticum in Isid. Etym. 17,9,40, usually ῥᾶ/ rhâ, ῥῆον/ rhêon in Dioscorides 3,2 Wellmann and Berendes, rhecoma in Plin. HN 27,128, in the Middle Ages rhabarber), plant of the knot-grass family (Polygonaceae) Rheum rhabarbarum L., R. officinale L., R. rhaponticum L., named rha ponticum after the river Rha (= Volga) on the Black Sea (Amm. Marc. 22,8) and hence probably introduced from Asia. Plin.  HN 27,128-130 (similarly Dioscorides 3,2) recommends the ground-up root externally for its warming and astringent…

Rhus

(29 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Ῥοῦς; Rhoûs). Place near Megara [2] (Paus. 1,41,2; Plut. Theseus 27,8). Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography E. Meyer, s. v. Megara (2), RE 29, 152-205, esp. 163.

Rhyndacus

(106 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ῥύνδακος/ Rhýndakos). River in the Troad, not regarded as a single body today (Koca Çay, Kocasu Çayı, Orhaneli Çayı). It rises in Mysia Abbaïtis and flows through Phrygia (Phryges). It formed the frontier between Mysia and Bithynia, forms lacus Apolloniatis (Uluabat Gölü), exiting the lake at the northwest and flowing into the Propontis south of the island of Besbikos (modern Imralı Adası). During the Roman Period, it formed the boundary between the provinces of Asia [2] and Bithynia. In 73 BC, Licinius [I 26] Lucullu…

Rhypes

(195 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Ῥύπες/ Rhýpes). Town in Achaea (Achaeans, Achaea [1], with map), probably to be identified with the few ancient remains (including traces of Mycenaean settlement [2. 123-127; 3. 35]) on the plateau of Trapeza at Koumaris, c. 6 km southwest of Aegium. The find sites on the fortified hill on the left bank of the Phoenix, c. 8 km northwest of Aegium [1. 193, 417-418] and on the right bank of the Tholopotamus, 5.2 km north west of Aegium, have also been suggested. With eleven other ci…

Rhythm

(992 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
[German version] I. Terminology In Greek Antiquity, ῥυθμική, sc. τέχνη ( rhythmikḗ, sc. téchnē) was, from Aristoxenus [1] on, the theory of rhythm. The original meaning of ῥυθμός ( rhythmós), long controversial, seems to have been ‘flowing’, ‘a stream’ [12]. Rhythmós referred to bodily and tonal movements, but also to immobile bodies and statues (Arist. Quint. 31 Meibom). R hythmós is attested in Archil. 67a 7 Diehl, in the context of μουσική ( mousikḗ ; Pl. Leg. 665a: κινήσεως τάξις/ kinḗseōs táxis, ‘order in movement’), in rhetoric (Aristot. Rh. 3,8,1408b-1409a), and as a …

Rhytium

(92 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ῥύτιον/ Rhýtion). City in southern central Crete (Plin. HN 4,59), today's Rhotasi. Traces of settlements from late Minoan to Venetian periods. First literary mention at Hom. Il. 2,648 (reference to its being well populated). Rhytium was important beyond its borders as a cultic site for Zeus Skylios [1. 141]. Politically, R. was dependant on Gortyn  (Str. 10,4,14). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 H. Verbruggen, Le Zeus crétois, 1981. H. Beister, s. v. Pyrgos, in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 580  M. Guarducci, Inscriptiones Creticae 1, 1935, 303 f.  I. F.…

Rhyton

(619 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
(τὸ ῥυτόν/ tò rhytón). [German version] I. Object Funnel-shaped vessel for dispensing and drinking, usually ending in the head, or protome, of an animal; the name is derived from ῥύσις/ rhýsis (‘stream’) because the liquid could run out through a small hole at the bottom as long as it was not held closed [1; 2]. Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld) Bibliography 1 F. von Lorentz, s.v. Rhyton, RE Suppl. 6, 643 2 W.H. Gross, s. v. Rhyton, KlP 4, 1426 f. [German version] II. Ancient Near East The only evidence of rhyta in the Ancient Near East and Egypt before the Achaemenids is in Anatolia,…

Rice

(4 words)

see Grain

Richomeres

(117 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Frank in Roman service. As comes domesticorum sent by Gratianus [2] from Gallia to Thracia in AD 377/378 (Amm. Marc. 31,7,4); he became magister militum per orientem in 383, consul in 384. In 388 he took part in the campaign against Maximus [II 7]. R. introduced Eugenius [1] to his nephew Arbogastes (Zos. 4,54,1) who installed Eugenius as emperor on 22 August 392. R. returned to the East. He died in 393 prior to the campaign against Eugenius. R. was in contact with Libanius (cf. Lib. Ep. 972) and Symmachus (Symmachus Ep. 3,54-69). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE…

Ricimer

(386 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Magister militum et patricius AD 457-472, de facto ruler in the Western Roman Empire in this period. R.'s father was a Suebian, his mother a Goth, daughter of Vallia. Born c. 419 (?) [5] (possibly related through his mother to the Frankish kings: [2. 16 f.], contra [5. 380]). A sister of R. married the Burgundian Gundiok in c. 450. In 456, R. defeated the Vandali (Chron. min. 2,29) with his fleet, acting as comes on behalf of the Western Roman emperor Avitus [1], then he became  magister militum. Together with Maiorianus [1] he rose up against Avitus, defeating hi…

Riddles

(1,754 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Böck, Barbara (Madrid)
[German version] I. Definition a) A riddle is an encrypted formulation, related to the figurative speech of metaphor and posing a question; its answer (= solution) requires - indeed, provokes - the memory and imagination of the person addressed; an analogical inference is generally helpful to finding the answer [1. 261]. The person who poses the riddle has superior knowledge; hence the addressee concedes expertise to that person or authority (e.g., the seer or oracle); at the same time, the guesser …

Rider

(235 words)

Author(s): Cabanes, Pierre (Clermont-Ferrand)
[German version] Chief town of the Dalmatae, about 45 km west of Salona and 10 km southeast of Scardona, near modern Danilo Kraljice in Croatia. Originally built on an elevation, in the Roman Period R. was relocated to the  plain (Danilsko polje). Initially a simple vicus under magistri, in the early Imperial Period R. was given  a vexillatio from the Legio VII Claudia (CIL III 2772) to protect the road between Salona and Scardona. Not later than under the Flavians (end of the 1st century AD) R. became a municipium, whose duoviri were given Roman citizenship (CIL III 2026; 2774; 128…

Riding

(494 words)

Author(s): Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne)
[German version] (Sport; κέλης/ kélēs). Although there is evidence, for instance from Egypt [1], of riding on horseback as early as the mid-2nd mill. BC, it was only in Greece that it became a sporting discipline, riding competitions having apparently taken place at the Olympic Games (Olympia IV) from 648 BC. Like chariot-racing (Circus II, Hippodromos [1]), riding was the province of the nobility. Among the 31 preserved names of Olympic victors in riding are well-known names such as Hieron [1] I, t…

Rigging

(287 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] From the Archaic Period on, Greek trading ships were no longer propelled by oarsmen but had a large sail attached to a yard (ἐπίκριον/ epíkrion; Lat. antemna/ antenna), allowing them to use wind power. Even the long warships had a mast with a yardsail; as these ships, however, had to be used regardless of wind conditions and in naval battles required great manoeuvrability, oarsmen could not be dispensed with; they used the sail on longer journeys in favourable wind. Greek warships in the 5th-4th cents. BC not only had the big sails (μεγάλα ἱστία/ megála histía; Xen. Hell. 1…

Rigodulum

(115 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt Town located on the right shore of the Mosella, present-day Riol; its name is Celtic. In AD 70, during the Batavian Revolt, it was the location of the battle between the entrenched Treveri under Iulius [II 43] Civilis and the Romans who had been brought there from Mogontiacum (Mainz) by Petilius [II 1] Cerialis. During this battle, the most prominent of the Belgae were taken prisoner by the Romans (cf. Tac. Hist. 4,71,4 f.). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography J. Keune, s. v. R., RE 1 A, 803 f.  H. Heubner, P. Co…

Rigomagus

(288 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) | Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] [1] Roman fort in Germania Inferior Roman fort in Germania Inferior (Germani [1] II.) on the road from Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) to Confluentes [1] (Koblenz), modern Remagen. At least from the Claudian era a wood and earth fort existed; from the Flavian era, a stone fort stood in the same place. Numerous stone inscriptions are extant. R. was a beneficiarii station from the 2nd half of the 2nd to the middle of the 3rd cents. AD. A hoard of coins from AD 270/280 (274/5?) has been connected with the occupation of …

Ring

(802 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (δακτύλιος/ daktýlios, ἀκαρές/ akarés; Latin anulus). In the following, ring refers exclusively to finger rings (for earrings, see Ear ornaments). The rings in the Aegina and Thyreatis treasures from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC already display outstanding technical command and high artistic quality. From the early Mycenaean period, gold wire and silver rings deserve note, along with the so-called shield rings, which developed into a leading form of Mycenaean jewellery. They …

Riparienses milites

(195 words)

Author(s): Campbell, J. Brian (Belfast)
[German version] RM are first mentioned (in the form ripenses) in a decision of Constantine I in AD 325 (Cod. Theod. 7,20,4), where they are distinguished from the comitatenses , the field army. Ripenses ranked just below the comitatenses, but above the soldiers of the alae and cohorts, who made up the auxiliary troops (Auxilia). They obtained exemption from the poll tax for themselves and their wives after twenty-four years' service, but were less privileged than the comitatenses in the case of a medical discharge. It is possible that the ripenses or RM (Cod. Theod. 7,1,18; 7,4,14) …

Risinum (Rhizon)

(362 words)

Author(s): Cabanes, Pierre (Clermont-Ferrand)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia | Punic Wars City and river on the Dalmatian coast in the territory of the Ardiaei (Ps.-Scyl. 24 f.: Ῥιζοῦς/ Rhizoûs; Pol. 2,11,16: Ῥίζων/ Rhízōn, city and river; Str.  7,5,7: ὁ Ῥιζονικὸς κόλπος/ ho Rhizonikòs kólpos and Ῥίζων πόλις/ Rhízōn pólis; Plin.  HN 3,144: Rhizinium, mentioned among the oppida civium Romanorum; Ptol. 2,17,5: Ῥίσινον/ Rhísinon on the Ῥιζόνικος κόλπος/ Rhizónikos kólpos; Ptol. 2,17,12: Ῥιζάνα/ Rhizána; Tab. Peut. 7,1: Resinum; Geogr. Rav. 5,379: Rucinium; Steph. Byz. s.v. Βουθόη,…

Ritterakademie (Academy for Knights)

(1,182 words)

Author(s): Keck, Rudolf W.
Keck, Rudolf W. [German version] A. Concept and Genesis (CT) In the spirit of the social-historical clash of Renaissance and Reformation, the decline of knighthood and the rise of the cities, new models were developed for the estates and the new professional and trade classes that in turn necessitated a corresponding special education. Until this point the scholar had been not only teacher and mediator between the generations but also a figure consulted by legations and involved in political dealings. Cor…

Ritual

(8,221 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | von Lieven, Alexandra (Berlin) | Böck, Barbara (Madrid) | Haas, Volkert (Berlin) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Et al.
[German version] I. Term Ritual refers to an elaborate sequence of individual rites which, following an established ritual syntax, are logically connected within a certain functional context. Rituals are not limited to religious contexts but exist in other cultural contexts, political as well as social. The significance of rituals for those who participate in them can be reduced neither to an integrative function (legitimation ritual) nor to a temporary disabling of the regular structure - the two e…

River

(230 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Terrestrial relief and climate determine the size and direction of river courses; and for their part, the major river valleys of the inhabited world determined the trade and commerce of those societies through whose regions they passed, offering them both infrastructural and economic advantages. They seldom represented insurmountable obstacles to traffic. Rather, in varying degree they directed traffic flow over particular routes (fords, bridges). The economic usefulness of river …

River gods

(1,397 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] I. Egypt see Nile. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) II. Greece and Rome [German version] A. General The personification of conditions from the physical environment is part of many myths and religions in antiquity. Apart from the sun and the moon, the mountains and rivers are of special significance: they firmly belong to a particular local environment, and thus define identity and home. Whereas the mountain gods in the Greco-Roman world have only mythological and hardly any cultic reality, the worship …

Rivers, names of

(9 words)

see Ancient European; Geographical names

R (linguistics)

(387 words)

Author(s): Meiser, Gerhard (Halle/Saale)
[German version] In Greek and Latin, the letter R denotes a voiced alveolar trill ('R rolled with the tip of the tongue'); however, the aspirated r in ῥ θρ φρ χρ (cf. Latin rhetor, Armen. xṙetor for Greek ῥήτωρ, Latin Trhaso for Greek Θράσων) was voiceless [1. 39 f.; 2. 32; 3. 65, 204]. In inherited Greek and Latin words, r is derived from Proto-Indo-European r (Greek τρεῖς, Latin trēs < Proto-Indoeuropean* tréi̯es 'three'). In initial position, Greek ῥ- can be traced back to sr- or u̯r- , which in Latin appears as fr- or r- (Greek ῥῖγος, Latin frīgus 'coldness'< * srīg- became Polish śryż 'drift…

Ro

(44 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] ( r­, literally 'cup') is an Egyptian measure of capacity for fluids and dry goods at 1/32 Hin ( c. 0,48 l) and corresponds to c. 0,015 l. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 W. Helck, S. Vleming, s. v. Maße u. Gewichte, LÄ 3, 1201 f.
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