Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Rhodes

(4,290 words)

Author(s): Livadiotti | Papachristodoulou, Ioannis
Livadiotti [German version] I. Archaeological History until 1948 (CT) It was during the first investigations, carried out in the second half of the 19th cent. by E. Biliotti and A. Salzmann with the sole purpose of salvaging collectors’ items, that the necropolises of Kamiros and Ialysos came to light. Systematic archaeological research did not begin until 1902; this was still before the arrival of the Italians. In this year a Danish archaeological expedition led by K. F. Kinch and assisted by Chr. S. Bl…

Rhodian Vases

(7 words)

see East Greek pottery

Rhodiapolis

(157 words)

Author(s): Thomsen, Andreas (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia | Education / Culture (Ῥοδιάπολις; Rhodiápolis). Town in southeastern Lycia, c. 10 km north of modern Kumluca. According to Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 103,15, it was named after Rhode, a daughter of Mopsus. R. was probably a Rhodian (Rhodos) colony. Rock-cut tombs and inscriptions testify to its significance in the Classical Period. Coins show R. as a member of the Lycian League since 167 BC. Its most significant citizen was Opramoas, an euergétēs of influence in all of Lycia under the empe…

Rhodius

(95 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ῥόδιος/ Rhódios). River in the Troad (Hom. Il. 12,20), modern Koca Çay. It rises in the Ida [2] mountains and flows into the Hellespont between Abydus and Dardanus (Str. 13,1,28). The towns of Gordus and Cleandrea were in its source region (Str. 13,1,44). Coins from Dardanus that date to the Roman period show the river god R. (SNG Danish Nat. Mus., Troas, no. 310). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s. v. R. (2), RE 1 A, 956  W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 207 f.  J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1973, 55.

Rhododendron

(260 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (ῥοδοδένδρον/ rhododéndron or ῥοδοδάφνη/ rhododáphnē, in Latin for the first time in Ps.-Verg. Culex 402, νήριον/ nḗrion e.g. in Dioscorides 4,81 Wellmann = 4,82 Berendes, Latin nerium, rododafne in Pall. Agric. 1,35,9), the rosebay, the oleander ( Nerium oleander) or the alpenrose ( R. ferrugineum and hirsutum L.), appears only in the 1st cent. AD in Plin. HN 16,79 (and Dioscorides, see below) with all three names ( rhododendron, rhododaphne and nerium) and hence is presumably of Greek origin. This evergreen plant with rose-like flowers,  which grow…

Rhodogune

(226 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
(Ῥοδογούνη/ Rhodogoúnē). [German version] [1] Mother of Darius I Wife of Hystaspes [2], mother of Darius [1] I (Suda and Harpocr., s. v.). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of Darius [1] I Daughter of Darius [1] I? (Hier. Adversus Iovinianum 1,45; PL 23, p. 287). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [3] Daughter of Xerxes I Daughter of Xerxes I (Ctes. FGrH 688 F 13). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [4] Daughter of Artaxerxes [2] II Daughter of Artaxerxes [2] II, wife of Orontes [2] I (Plut. Artaxerxes 27,7; cf. Xen. An. 2,4,8) an…

Rhodope

(106 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ῥοδόπη/ Rhodópē). Mountain range stretching from the northern shores of the Aigaion Pelagos (Aegean Sea) to the Thracian plain around Philippopolis, mostly high, up to 2000 m in height, and inaccessible, modern Rhodopi, east of the mountain chain border between Greece and Bulgaria. According to ancient tradition R. also included the modern Rila and Pirin chains (Hdt. 4,49; 8,116; Thuc. 2,96-98; Str. 7,5,1; 7, fr. 36). Rich ore production (gold, silver, copper). R. was the area whe…

Rhodopis

(133 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ῥοδῶπις/ Rhodôpis, 'of rosy appearance'). Legendary hetaera in Naucratis (1st half of the 6th cent. BC), Thracian (?), slave of Iadmon of Samos, then taken by the Samian Xanthus to Egypt, where Charax, brother of  Sappho, is supposed to have bought her freedom (Hdt. 2,134,3; 135,1 f.); her identification with Doricha, the object of Charax' fatal love (Sappho fr. 26,11 Diehl; cf. fr. 7 Lobel/Page), is unclear (Hdt. 2,135,5; Str. 17,1,33; contra: Ath. 13,596b-d). R. acquired a fortu…

Rhodos

(1,647 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Theatre | Byzantium | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Colonization | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Pompeius | Rome | Rome | Athletes | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Ῥόδος; Rhódos). [German version] I. Geography Island in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the southwestern coast of Asia Minor, now part of the Dodecanese archipelago, with an area of 1400 km2. A good part of the ancient history of the island was shaped by its geographical situ…

Rhoecus

(496 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt)
(Ῥοῖκος/ Rhoîkos). [German version] [1] One of the Centaurs One of the Centaurs. R. is killed together with his companion Hylaeus by Atalante for importuning her (Callim. H. 3,221 with schol.; Apollod. 3,106; Ael. VH 13,1). Possibly identical with the Centaur Rhoetus (Ov. Met. 12,271-301; variants Rhoetus/ Rhoecus e.g. Verg. G. 2,456; Luc. 6,390; Val. Fl. 1,141; 3,65). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) [German version] [2] Character in a Greek tale Cnidian, who has an oak which is threatening to topple propped up, thereby saving the life of the tree's nymph (Hamadryads), wh…

Rhoemetalces

(578 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Ῥοιμητάλκης/ Rhoimētálkēs). Kings of Thrace (cf. stemma 22 in PIR2 P, vol. 6, p. 233; Thraci, Thracia). [German version] [1] R. I Roman vassal prince from 22 BC In 31 BC, he changed sides from Mark Antony (Antonius [II I 9]) to Octavian (Octavianus [1]) (Plut. Mor. 207a; Plut. Romulus 17,3). Around 22 BC, he succeeded his brother-in-law Cotys [I 6] as Roman vassal prince, taking guardianship of his son Rhascuporis [2]; in 19/8 BC, he assisted M. Lollius [II 1] against the Bessi (Cass. Dio 54,20,3), who succeeded in drivin…

Rhoeo

(132 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ῥοιώ; Rhoiṓ). Daughter of Staphylus and Chrysothemis [1], sister of Molpadia [1] and Parthenus [2]. After the sisters fail to guard their father's newly produced wine, they throw themselves into the sea and are rescued by Apollo, who fathers Anius with R. Staphylus locks the pregnant R. in a chest, which comes ashore in Delos (or Euboea, Tzetz. Lycoph. 570), where Apollo tends to his son (Diod. 5,62 f.; Dion. Hal. De Dinarcho 11,17; Lycoph. 570). In the story of the Argive Lyrcus,…

Rhoeteum

(208 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Ῥοίτειον; Rhoíteion). Coastal town in Troas in the foothills of the same name, probably founded by Astypalaea (Str. 13,1,42), about 4 km to the southwest of Ophryneum, 9 km south of Kepez on the Baba Kalesi [1. 79 f., 87-89]. In 480 BC Xerxes marched past R. (Hdt. 7,43). In 425/4 BC R. paid eight talents in the Delian League (ATL 1,393; 544; 2,82; 4,108). Its favourably sited harbour seems to have made R. rich (Thuc. 4,52; 8,101; Dio…

Rhomaea

(181 words)

Author(s): Price, Simon R. F. (Oxford)
[German version] (Ῥωμαῖα; Rhōmaîa). The Rhomaea were quinquennial or yearly festivals, which were celebrated in the Greek world from the early 2nd cent. BC onwards in honour of Roma [IV.]. Their model were the traditional indigenous cults of deities and heroes (Hero cult); in individual cases the Rhomaea were celebrated together with an already existing local cult. The Rhomaea comprised processions, sacrifices and agones (cf. SEG 30,1073: Chios) - e.g. athletic and musical competitions (Xanthus, SEG 28,1246) and games on horseback (Oropus and Magnesia: [1. …

Rhomaioi

(443 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] (Ῥωμαῖοι). Rhōmaîos is the original Greek name for 'Romans', found in this sense especially in Greek historiographers (e. g. Polybius [2] or Dionysius [18] of Halicarnassus). As the imperial capital moved to Byzantium (Constantinople), however, Rhōmaîos came to be increasingly used for the Greek-speaking Byzantines; an initially still existing differentiation between οἱ ἐῷοι Ῥωμαῖοι/ hoi eṓioi Rhōmaîoi ('the eastern R.') and οἱ ἑσπέριοι Ῥωμαῖοι/ hoi hespérioi Rhōmaîoi ('the western R.' ) finally became obsolete with the decline of the western empire …

Rhomanos

(4 words)

see Romanos

Rhombites

(141 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Ῥομβίτης/ Rhombítēs). Two rivers flowing from the east into the Maeotis, where they are abundant in fish, distinguished by their epithets 'the Great' and 'the Lesser' (Str. 11,2,4; cf. Ptol. 5,9,3 f.; 26; Amm. Marc. 22,8,29). [German version] [1] R. Megas (ὁ μέγας Ῥ./ ho mégas R., 'the Great R.'). Further north, modern Jeja; according to Str. ibid., 800 stadia from the mouth of the Tanais (Don). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] R. Elatton (ὁ ἐλάττων Ῥ./ ho eláttōn R., 'the Lesser R.'). Further south; according to Str. ibid., 800 stadia from R. [1…

Rhombos

(129 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle)
[German version] (ῥόμβος/ rhómbos, Lat. rhombus, ‘bull-roarer’), a wooden object which, when attached to a string (Schol. Clem. Al. Protrepticus 2,17,2) and twirled in the air (Eur. Hel. 1362), produced a loud (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,1139), hissing (Schol. Clem. Al. ibid.) sound, the volume of which depended on the force of the motion (Archyt. fr. 1). It was used in the mysteries of Dionysus (Anth. Pal. 6,165), Cybele (Ath. 14,636a) and Demeter (OF 110). The rhombos as a tool of magic - often connected with the wryneck ( iynx ) - is barely distinguishable in the sources ( e.g., Theoc. Id. 2,3…

Rhombus

(103 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
(ῥόμβος/ rhómbos). [German version] [1] Geometric shape In the plane, a rectangle with four sides of equal length but with unequal angles ( i.e., with two acute and two obtuse angles; Euc. 1, Def. 22; Censorinus, DN 83,14 Jahn). In three dimensions, a rhombus is the solid of revolution consisting of two cones with the same base (Archim. De sphaera et cylindro 1, def. 6). Folkerts, Menso (Munich) Bibliography 1 T. L. Heath, The Thirteen Books of Euclid's Elements, vol. 1, 21925, 189 2 A. Hug, s.v. Ῥόμβος ( rhombus), RE 1 A, 1069. [German version] [2] See Top see Top [German version] [3] See Rho…

Rhomphaia

(99 words)

Author(s): Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle)
[German version] (ῥομφαία/ rhomphaía). A big, double-edged iron sword similar to a halberd. It had a long wooden handle and was worn over the right shoulder. In the Hellenistic Period, it was the characteristic weapon of the Thracians (Plut. Aemilius 18,3; Liv. 31,39,11: rumpia); Phylarchus FGrH 81 F 57; Arr. FGrH 156 F 103; Gell. NA 10,25,4; Val. Fl. 6,98). In Jewish-Christian literature, however, rhomphaia refers to any big double-edged sword (LXX Gn 3,24; 1 Sam 17,51 (Goliath's sword); Lc 2,35; Ios. Ant. Iud. 6,190). Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) Bibliography H. O. Fiebiger, s. v. ῥ…
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