Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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(288 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) | Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] [1] Roman fort in Germania Inferior Roman fort in Germania Inferior (Germani [1] II.) on the road from Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) to Confluentes [1] (Koblenz), modern Remagen. At least from the Claudian era a wood and earth fort existed; from the Flavian era, a stone fort stood in the same place. Numerous stone inscriptions are extant. R. was a beneficiarii station from the 2nd half of the 2nd to the middle of the 3rd cents. AD. A hoard of coins from AD 270/280 (274/5?) has been connected with the occupation of …


(802 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (δακτύλιος/ daktýlios, ἀκαρές/ akarés; Latin anulus). In the following, ring refers exclusively to finger rings (for earrings, see Ear ornaments). The rings in the Aegina and Thyreatis treasures from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC already display outstanding technical command and high artistic quality. From the early Mycenaean period, gold wire and silver rings deserve note, along with the so-called shield rings, which developed into a leading form of Mycenaean jewellery. They …

Riparienses milites

(195 words)

Author(s): Campbell, J. Brian (Belfast)
[German version] RM are first mentioned (in the form ripenses) in a decision of Constantine I in AD 325 (Cod. Theod. 7,20,4), where they are distinguished from the comitatenses , the field army. Ripenses ranked just below the comitatenses, but above the soldiers of the alae and cohorts, who made up the auxiliary troops (Auxilia). They obtained exemption from the poll tax for themselves and their wives after twenty-four years' service, but were less privileged than the comitatenses in the case of a medical discharge. It is possible that the ripenses or RM (Cod. Theod. 7,1,18; 7,4,14) …

Risinum (Rhizon)

(362 words)

Author(s): Cabanes, Pierre (Clermont-Ferrand)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia | Punic Wars City and river on the Dalmatian coast in the territory of the Ardiaei (Ps.-Scyl. 24 f.: Ῥιζοῦς/ Rhizoûs; Pol. 2,11,16: Ῥίζων/ Rhízōn, city and river; Str.  7,5,7: ὁ Ῥιζονικὸς κόλπος/ ho Rhizonikòs kólpos and Ῥίζων πόλις/ Rhízōn pólis; Plin.  HN 3,144: Rhizinium, mentioned among the oppida civium Romanorum; Ptol. 2,17,5: Ῥίσινον/ Rhísinon on the Ῥιζόνικος κόλπος/ Rhizónikos kólpos; Ptol. 2,17,12: Ῥιζάνα/ Rhizána; Tab. Peut. 7,1: Resinum; Geogr. Rav. 5,379: Rucinium; Steph. Byz. s.v. Βουθόη,…

Ritterakademie (Academy for Knights)

(1,182 words)

Author(s): Keck, Rudolf W.
Keck, Rudolf W. [German version] A. Concept and Genesis (CT) In the spirit of the social-historical clash of Renaissance and Reformation, the decline of knighthood and the rise of the cities, new models were developed for the estates and the new professional and trade classes that in turn necessitated a corresponding special education. Until this point the scholar had been not only teacher and mediator between the generations but also a figure consulted by legations and involved in political dealings. Cor…


(8,221 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | von Lieven, Alexandra (Berlin) | Böck, Barbara (Madrid) | Haas, Volkert (Berlin) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Et al.
[German version] I. Term Ritual refers to an elaborate sequence of individual rites which, following an established ritual syntax, are logically connected within a certain functional context. Rituals are not limited to religious contexts but exist in other cultural contexts, political as well as social. The significance of rituals for those who participate in them can be reduced neither to an integrative function (legitimation ritual) nor to a temporary disabling of the regular structure - the two e…


(230 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Terrestrial relief and climate determine the size and direction of river courses; and for their part, the major river valleys of the inhabited world determined the trade and commerce of those societies through whose regions they passed, offering them both infrastructural and economic advantages. They seldom represented insurmountable obstacles to traffic. Rather, in varying degree they directed traffic flow over particular routes (fords, bridges). The economic usefulness of river …

River gods

(1,397 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] I. Egypt see Nile. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) II. Greece and Rome [German version] A. General The personification of conditions from the physical environment is part of many myths and religions in antiquity. Apart from the sun and the moon, the mountains and rivers are of special significance: they firmly belong to a particular local environment, and thus define identity and home. Whereas the mountain gods in the Greco-Roman world have only mythological and hardly any cultic reality, the worship …

Rivers, names of

(9 words)

see Ancient European; Geographical names

R (linguistics)

(387 words)

Author(s): Meiser, Gerhard (Halle/Saale)
[German version] In Greek and Latin, the letter R denotes a voiced alveolar trill ('R rolled with the tip of the tongue'); however, the aspirated r in ῥ θρ φρ χρ (cf. Latin rhetor, Armen. xṙetor for Greek ῥήτωρ, Latin Trhaso for Greek Θράσων) was voiceless [1. 39 f.; 2. 32; 3. 65, 204]. In inherited Greek and Latin words, r is derived from Proto-Indo-European r (Greek τρεῖς, Latin trēs < Proto-Indoeuropean* tréi̯es 'three'). In initial position, Greek ῥ- can be traced back to sr- or u̯r- , which in Latin appears as fr- or r- (Greek ῥῖγος, Latin frīgus 'coldness'< * srīg- became Polish śryż 'drift…


(44 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] ( r­, literally 'cup') is an Egyptian measure of capacity for fluids and dry goods at 1/32 Hin ( c. 0,48 l) and corresponds to c. 0,015 l. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 W. Helck, S. Vleming, s. v. Maße u. Gewichte, LÄ 3, 1201 f.
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