Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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(44 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] ( r­, literally 'cup') is an Egyptian measure of capacity for fluids and dry goods at 1/32 Hin ( c. 0,48 l) and corresponds to c. 0,015 l. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 W. Helck, S. Vleming, s. v. Maße u. Gewichte, LÄ 3, 1201 f.


(6,877 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Rathmann, Michael (Bonn)
[German version] I. General The construction of a network of roads and ways and the creation of long-distance roads always correlates with settlement construction and structure. A mixed settlement structure comprises compact settlements and dispersed homesteads in large number and is in evidence across wide areas of the ancient world for the most varied epochs. Such a settlement structure produces an especially dense network of traffic routes. Ancient roads were staked out on the principle of creati…

Roads and bridges, construction of

(2,146 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] I. Definition of terms, state of research In what follows, road is used to denote a way that is at least partly of artificial construction, i.e. of architectural fashioning in the broadest sense, but not those more or less established, traditional trade and caravan routes and intercontinental links such as the Silk Road. The term covers long-distance roads as well as smaller trails and mule trails connecting towns and regions, but not intra-urban streets (on which see town planning). The…

Roads, deities associated with

(222 words)

Author(s): Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)
[German version] In Greco-Roman polytheism, but few deities were associated exclusively with roads, travels and travel routes on land or at sea; in such situations, depending on the requirements of the traveller, various gods from the local or inter-regional pantheon [1 III] could be called upon for support ([1]; Hor. Carm. 1,5,13 f.). Already in Homer, Poseidon, Calypso and Leucothea (Sea gods) appear in connection with Odysseus' sea voyage, just as Athena with his overland travels (Hom. Od. 13,190 f.). Likewise already in Hom. Il. 24,334 f. Her…


(1,088 words)

Author(s): Hengstl, Joachim (Marburg/Lahn) | Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] I. General Robbery is the appropriation of a moveable object belonging to another with violence against that person or by the use of threats with present danger to life and limb and with intent to appropriate the object in contravention of the law (§ 249 German Criminal Code). In law, robbery is a combination of theft and duress. In the popular mind of today, robbery is regarded as a more serious offence than simple theft. However, in ancient legal systems and until the Middle Ages, theft (by stealth) was seen as worse than (public and violent) dispossession. Hengstl, Joachi…


(341 words)

Author(s): Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)
[German version] Roman festival to avert mildew (Lat. robigo) on 25 April, at the 5th milestone on the via Claudia (Verrius Flaccus, InscrIt 13,2 p. 131; with differing topographies. Details: Ov. Fast. 4,901-942), with the sacrifice of a sheep and a dog by the flamen Quirinalis (Ov. Fast. 4,905-910; F lamines ) and (at least in the later period) ludi with equestrian competitions (Tert. De spectaculis 5). Apart from a goddess Robigo (InscrIt 13,2 p. 131; Ov. Fast. 4,907; 911), a god Robigus (the latter is better attested) has been passed down to us (Fest…


(53 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Statio of the Via Latina in Latium, 13 Roman miles away from Rome (Itin. Anton. 305,7), possibly today's Osteria della Molara. The name is derived from the oaks (Latin robur) in this area (compare Gell. NA 2,20,5). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Tomassetti, La Campagna Romana, 1910, 519 (reprint 1976).

Rock hyrax

(114 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] ( Procavia capensis) is the only family representative from the mammal order Hyracoidea which is still found today in Palestine and the Middle East. These hare-sized herbivores are probably identical to the rabbits ( Hare) of the Luther Bible, χοιρόγρυλλος/ choirógryllos, Latin choerogryllus, chyrogryllius or middle-Latin cirogrillus, which are unclean according to the Mosaic food laws (Lv 11:5; Dt 14:7). At Thomas of Cantimpré 4,24 [1. 124] it is maintained by implied use of Hesychius (commentary in Lv 3:11, PG 93,906) that …

Rock partridge

(252 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (ὁ, ἡ πέρδιξ/ ho, hē pérdix, its young περδίκιον/ perdíkion, also περδικεύς/ perdikeús and κακκαβίς/ kakkabís after its mating call: κακκαβίζειν/ kakkabízein or τρίζειν/ trízein in Aristot. Hist. an. 4,9,536b 13 f.; Lat. perdix). The scientific name Alectoris graeca Meisner indicates that the bird is still common today, primarily in Greece (but also in Italy) [1. 195 f.], whereas it has been supplanted in other countries by the smaller, browner and synanthropic partridge. Aristotle describes their breeding behaviour, …

Rodericus (Roderic)

(326 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (German Roderich, Spanish Rodrigo, Arabic Luḏrīq). Last king of the Visigoths. The so-called Crónica Mozárabe (in Spanish) of AD 754, which provides information about the end of the West Gothic empire, reveals that R. was initially provincial governor (of Hispania Baetica ?) and in 710, after the death of Witiza, was elected king, an election which did not go unopposed. At the very time the Muslims invaded Spain in April/May 711, R. was fighting the Basques; yet he managed to deploy an approxim…


(43 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Rodoulfus). King of the Heruli who fell in AD 508 in the battle against the Langobardi (Procop. Goth. 2,14,11-22). Probably the son in arms of Theodericus. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 946 2 J. Moorhead, Theoderic in Italy, 1992, 193.


(368 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] ( Capreolus capreolus). A small genus of deer, spread as far as southern Europe, whose way of life was hardly known in Antiquity. Capreolus in Columella describes not only the roe deer (9,1,1) but also a two-tined gardening tool (11,3,46) and the shoots of a vine (e.g. 4,14,1 and 5,6,26). Its short and slightly branching antlers, which are allegedly not shed, are mentioned in Plin. HN 11,124. In Roman authors the usual Latin name was probably caprea (e.g. in Varro Rust. 3,3,3; Ov. Met. 1,442; Columella 9 pr.; Hor. Carm. 3,15,12: lasciva caprea; Plin. HN 8,228: absent in …


(175 words)

Author(s): de Libero, Loretana (Hamburg)
[German version] (from Lat. rogare, to ask). Rogatio refers to the questioning of the people by the consul , praetor or tribunus plebis about proposed bills, elections or accusals. The following question introduced the vote ( comitia ): 'Do you wish, do you command...I ask you, Quirites' ( velitis, iubeatis...vos, Quirites, rogo: Gell. NA 5,19,9). The positive response was 'as you asked' ( uti rogas), the negative one 'I contradict' ( antiquo), later in elections dicit/facit, and in the comitia procedure 'I aquit' ( absolvo) or 'I condemn' ( damno) (RRC 413,1; 428,1; 437,1ab). The c…


(104 words)

Author(s): de Libero, Loretana (Hamburg)
[German version] The Roman magistrate who proposed bills ( rogatio ) to the people (Lucil. 853 M.; cf. Cic. Phil. 1,26). At the same time, rogatores were also the 'questioners' appointed by the magistrate who recorded the individual oral votes and who supervised the counting of the voting tablets during the later written suffragium , and who recorded the results of their centuria or tribus (Cic. Nat. D. 2,10). de Libero, Loretana (Hamburg) Bibliography E. S. Staveley, Greek and Roman Voting and Elections, 1972  J. Vaahtera, Pebbles, Points, or Ballots: the Mergence of the Indivi…


(215 words)

Author(s): Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne)
[German version] (Latin rogus, also, esp. poetic, the Greek loan-word pyra, e.g. Verg. Aen. 6,215; Ov. Fast. 2,534). At Rome, term for the funeral pyre for the burning of corpses. It was made of pieces of wood and small items piled up at a specially determined site ( ustrina) close to the place of interment. In shape it resembled a square altar (Serv. Aen. 6,177; therefore poetically referred to as ara: Ov. Tr. 3,13,21 et passim). Originally unadorned (the Tabulae duodecim forbade smoothing the logs with an axe, Cic. Leg. 2,59), the rogus was later made more elaborate according to the …


(730 words)

Author(s): Price, Simon R. F. (Oxford)
[German version] [1] Personification Dea Roma; θεὰ Ῥώμη/ theà Rhṓmē as a goddess: the cult worship of Roman power began in the Greek world in the early 2nd cent. BC with the establishment of festivals (Rhomaia), priestly offices (Miletus: LSAM 49), temples and other monuments in honour of Rome. Many of these cults are concentrated on the personified deity of R. (Personification). Their representations of R. vary between a standing figure and an enthroned one ([1]; for a monument (?) representing Romulus …

Roman Archaeology

(7 words)

see Classical Archaeology

Romance Languages

(1,728 words)

Author(s): Stefenelli, Arnulf
Stefenelli, Arnulf [German version] A. Definition and History of Research (CT) The term Romance languages (RL) indicates a group of languages which have directly descended from Latin. Historically, they constitute the speech forms taken by spoken Latin (Vulgar Latin) after the Classical period in the permanently Latinised areas of what used to be the Roman Empire (the widespread image of Latin as the 'mother tongue' and Romance languages as 'daughter languages' does not fit historical reality, cf. [1. 97 f…

Roman cursive

(6 words)

see Writing styles

Roman Dutch Law

(626 words)

Author(s): Dolezalek, Gero (Aberdeen RWG)
[English version] Roman Dutch Law (RDL) is the English term for Roman canonical Common Law (Roman law) as followed in Holland ( Romeins-Hollands Reg). It survived until recent times in former Dutch colonies that came under British rule and, as a result, were subjected to only slight attempts at codification. In the former British Guiana, RDL was rescinded in 1917. It lives on, however, in Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and in the Republic of South Africa, from which it spread to five neighbouring countries: Botswana, Lesotho, Nam…
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