Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Themistogenes

(202 words)

Author(s): Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO)
[German version] (Θεμιστογένης/ Themistogénēs) of Syracuse. According to Xen. Hell. 3,1,2 the author of a work on the campaign of Cyrus [3], his death in battle at Cunaxa in 401 BC and the successful return of the Greek troops. The existence of the work, which has sometimes been ascribed to a T. (cf. [1. vol. 2, 199911]), is nevertheless doubtful, since Xenophon described this very event (Xen. An. 1-4) and would have been able to cite himself. It is therefore more likely to see, as does [2. 1644-1646], T. (= 'descendant of Themis') as a pseudonym, chosen by Xenophon to make his Anábasis more …

Themistus

(98 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Θέμιστος; Thémistos). Syracusan, married to Harmonia, the daughter of Gelon [2] II and granddaughter of Hieron [2] II (Liv. 24,24,2 and 6; 25,7 and 10). He was presumably a member of the regency council established by Hieron for his underage grandson Hieronymus [3] and after Hieronymus was killed took part in a coup planned by Adranodorus  (Liv. 24,24,2; 24,25). At the command of the strategoi, who had been informed of the plot, however, he was executed - as was Adranodorus - in 214 BC (Liv. 24,24,4). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography H. Berve, Hieron II., 1959, 86…

Thena

(109 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Punic Tynt?; Θένα/ Théna, Latin Thena, Thenae). Originally probably a Punic city (cf. CIS I 3, 4911 and archaeological finds) in Byzacena (Africa [3];  Str. 17,3,12; 17,3,16; Plin.  HN 5,25), 12 km to the south of Taparura (modern Sfax); end of the Fossa [7] Regia built in 146 BC by Cornelius [I 70] Scipio on the Gulf of Gabes (Syrtis;  cf. [1. 435 note 80]); modern Thyna. The port, probably a colonia from the time of Hadrianus, acquired a certain amount of significance from the 2nd cent. AD onwards. From 255 recorded as a bishopric. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Hus…

Thenephmus

(32 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Θένεφμος; Thénephmos). Egyptian, recorded as early as 247/6 BC as owner of a dōreá ('estate awarded by the king') of 10,000 árourai. PP IV 10083. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Theocles

(88 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Θεοκλῆς; Theoklês). Son of Hegylus, sculptor from Sparta. T. was a pupil of Dipoenus and Scyllis and thus was active in the mid-6th cent. BC. A representation in cedar wood of 'Heracles with the Hesperids' in the treasury of Epidamnus in Olympia were by him and his son; at the time of Pausanias the Hesperids were in the Temple of Hera (Paus. 6,19,8). Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, No. 328 f.  P. Moreno, s. v. T., EAA 7, 1966, 816  H. Marwitz, Hegylos?, in: AA 1969, 106 f.  Fuchs/Floren, 215.

Theoclymenus

(89 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
[German version] (Θεοκλύμενος; Theoklýmenos). Mythical seer from Argos, son of Polypheides and hence descendant of Melampus [1] (Hom. Od. 15,223-256). In Pylus [1] T., a fugitive for manslaughter, encounters Telemachus. The latter takes the supplicant with him to Ithaca, where initially he leaves him in the care of Piraeus (ibid. 15,256-286; 15,508-546). Later brought to the palace, T. tells Penelope that Odysseus is in the country again (ibid. 17,71-165), and foretells an imminent death for her suitors but is mocked as mad (ibid. 20,350-383). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)

Theocosmus

(90 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Θεόκοσμος; Theókosmos). Sculptor from Megara in the late 5th cent. BC, father of Callicles [2]. With the help of Pheidias he created a gold-ivory cult image of Zeus (Gold-ivory technique) in Megara, which remained unfinished after 431 BC because of the Peloponnesian War. On the victory monument of Lysander [1] in Delphi (in 405 BC) T. made the statue of Hermon [3]. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, Nr. 855; 979; 1035  Lippold, 203 f.  P. Moreno, s. v. T., EAA 7, 1966, 816  A. Jacquemin, Offrandes monumentales à Delphes, 1999, Nr. 322.

Theocrines

(60 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Θεοκρίνης; Theokrínēs). Athenian from the Hybadae deme (IG II/III2 2,2, 2409, 44 f.), a notorious sykophántēs (cf. Dem. Or. 18,313), who made a living from threats of court action and extortion. A forensic speech by Epichares from 342 BC ([Dem.] Or. 58) is directed against him. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Traill, PAA, 508320  Schäfer, vol. 4 (appendices), 266-280.

Theocritus

(2,279 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hunter, Richard (Cambridge) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(Θεόκριτος/ Theókritos). [German version] [1] Greek sophist and politician, 4th cent. BC T. of Chios, Greek sophist and politician, born before 365 BC, a pupil of the Isocratean (Isocrates) Metrodorus (Str. 14,645; Ps.-Plut. Mor. 11ab; Ath. 12,540 A; Suda s. v. Th.). T. was a convinced opponent of the Macedonian kings and their followers. He directed fierce attacks against Aristoteles [6] (Plut. Mor. 603c; Diog. Laert. 5,11) and Anaximenes [2] of Lampsacus (Hermippus in Ath. 1,21c). Following the conquest o…

Theodahatus (Theodahat)

(221 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] ( Theodahadus; Θευδάτος/ Theudátos). AD 534-536 king of the Ostrogoths in Italy, from the Amali family, son of Amalafrida, nephew of Theoderic the Great (Theodericus (Theoderic) [3]); he owned large estates in Tuscia, often illegally acquired (Proc. BG 1,3,2; cf. e.g. Cassiod. Var. 4,39). After the death of Athalaric, T., who until then had pursued scholarly studies (Proc. BG 1,3,1), was appointed king by Amalasuntha, with power supposed in fact to remain with the latter (Proc. BG 1,…

Theodamas

(58 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Probably an Indo-Greek king or prince, recorded only in one Kharoṣṭī inscription (known as the Bajaur Seal) as Middle Indian Theudama. It is by no means certain that the reading of the short inscription as "of the king Theodamas" is correct, but the name is certain. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum 2.1, Nr. 3

Theodamas

(290 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Θειοδάμας/ Theiodámas; Lat. Theodamas, Thiodamas). King of the Dryopes, who were driven from their homeland by Heracles [1]; father of Hylas. A connexion is made in Hellenistic literature between T. and the resettlement of the brigand Dryopes in the Peloponnese (Bacchyl. Paean 4; Hdt. 8,43; 8,47; Diod. Sic. 4,37) - perhaps following Hesiod's Kḗykos gámos ('the wedding of Ceyx', Hes. fr. 263-269; [1]): in Apollonius Rhodius (1,1211-1219) as a pretext for war Heracles provokes a conflict over the ploughing bull of T., a poor farmer, w…

Theodas

(102 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Θεοδᾶς; Theodâs) from Laodicea. Greek physician c. 125 AD; he and Menodotus [2] were pupils of the sceptic Antiochus [20]; he was a leading representative of the School of the Empiricists. He wrote (1.) Chief points (Κεφάλαια), which Galenus and a later (otherwise unknown) Theodosius commented on; (2.) On the parts of medicine (Περὶ τῶν τῆς ἰατρικῆς μερῶν), in which he emphasised the significance of autopsy, historíē ('research') and analogy; (3.) an Introduction to medicine (Εἰσαγώγη). His works were  still being copied in the 3rd cent. in Egypt. Only…

Theodebaldus (Theodebald)

(117 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] ( Theodebaldus; Θευδίβαλδος/ Theudíbaldos). Frankish king 547-555 AD, son of Theodebert, still a child at the beginning of his reign. Courted by Iustinianus [1] in 551 for an alliance against Totila (Proc. BG 4,24,11-30), T. refused both this and a request for help from the Ostrogoths in 552 (Proc. BG 4,34,17 f.; for the relationship with Byzantium cf. MGH Epp. 3,131 f., 547 AD). Allegedly against T.'s will, however, Leuthari and Butilinus supported the Goths in Italy in 553/4, but w…

Theodebertus (Theodebert)

(133 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] ( Theodebertus; Θευδίβερτος/ Theudíbertos). Frankish king 533-547 AD (534-548?,  cf. [1. 7]), son of Theoderic (Theodericus (Theoderic)  [4]) (Greg. Tur. Franc. 3,20-36). Together with his uncles, in 534 he conquered Burgundy, from 539 exploited fighting between Byzantium and the Goths  for attacks in Italy (Procop. Goth. 2,25), occupied parts of northern Italy and conducted a self-confident (cf. MGH Epp. 3,132 f. to Iustinianus [1]) double-dealing between the Goths and Byzantium. He…

Theodectes

(976 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Θεοδέκτης/ Theodéktēs). Rhetor and tragedian of the 4th cent. BC, active in Athens, extant only in fragments, b. in Phaselis (Lycia), son of an Aristander. Only the Suda (s. v. Θ.) mentions a like-named son of T., who was also active in literature (historiographic and ethnographic works, text for rhetorical instruction in 7 books, encomium of Alexander [6]); no other source differentiates between the two T., so that in some cases it is difficult to assign a work. This information …

Theodericus (Theoderic)

(1,575 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
( Theodericus; Θευδέριχος; Theudérichos). [German version] [1] T. I King of the Visigoths, AD 418-451, successor to Vallia, probably the son-in-law of Alaricus [2] [1. 180]. Despite the settlement of the Visigoths in Gaul in 418, he besieged Arelate (Arles) in 425, then renewed the foedus with Rome ( foederati ), but again fought against Aetius [2] in 436. In 438, the Goths were defeated; in 439, there was another treaty with Rome after renewed Gothic successes. In 450, Attila attempted in vain to win over T.; T. was kill…

Theodicy

(498 words)

Author(s): Ebert, Theodor (Erlangen/Nürnberg)
[German version] A. Definition The term theodicy refers to the attempt at reconciling the evils of the world, in particular the suffering of innocent beings and the good fortune of evil-doers with the notion of an all-powerful God who is as good as He is just. The modern term 'theodicy' (Leibniz) has no equivalent in Greek although it was derived from Greek words. Ebert, Theodor (Erlangen/Nürnberg) [German version] B. Theodicy within the history of philosophy and theology The problem for which theodicy is trying to supply an answer is presented, for instance, in poetic f…

Theodora

(850 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Θεοδώρα; Theodṓra). [German version] [1] Roman empress, about AD 300 Roman empress; stepdaughter (Aur. Vict. Caes. 39,25; Eutr. 9,22,1) or daughter (Anon. Vales. 1,1; Philostorgius 2,16) of Maximianus [1]. Contrary to the assertions of later sources, she was already married to Constantius [1] even before he was elevated to the rank of Caesar in AD 293  ( tetrárchēs IV.), and probably when he was praefectus praetorio to Maximianus (unclear Paneg. 2,11,4). The six children of their marriage represent the younger branch of the Constantinian imperial fam…

Theodore Abū Qurra

(272 words)

Author(s): Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
[German version] (died c. 830), from Edessa [2]. T. lived as a monk in the monastery of Mār Sābā at Jerusalem, and after 780 and after 799 became the Melchite (Melchites) bishop of Ḥarrān (the reasons for his temporarily removal from office are unclear). His Syriac writings [1.212] do not survive. He is the first clearly apprehensible Christian theologian to also write in Arabic: in more than 20 (some still unpublished) treatises (for the editions see [5.238f.]; Germ. transl. [1; 2]) he deals, in d…
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