Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Toad

(4 words)

see Frog

Tobiads

(397 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (from the Hebrew personal name ṭōviyyȧh, Neh 2,10; Τωβιας/ Tōbias, LXX, cf. ὑιοὶ Τωβια/ hyioì Tōbia 'sons of Tobias', 2 Esr 17:62). The family of the T. played a leading economic and political role at the time of the second Temple (III) in Iudaea (Judah and Israel). Archeologically attested is Hyrcanus's fortress of Tyrus which was probably built on the ruins of the ancestral seat of the T. in present-day Irāq al-Amīr (Transjordan) [1]. The first historically traceable representative is known f…

Tochari

(161 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] (Τόχαροι/ Tócharoi  Str. 11,8,2; Latin Tochari:  Just. Epit. 42,2,2; Thocari: Plin.  HN 6,55; Τάχοροι/ Táchoroi: Ptol. 6,16,4; Athagurae: Amm.  Marc. 23,6,66; Θαγούροι/ Thagoúroi: Ptol. 6,16,2). Group of Inner Asian tribes, after which an Indo-European language is named Tocharian. It is mentioned in the context of the westward migration of the Yuezhi after their defeat in 176 or 174 BC by the Xiongnu (presumed Central-Asiatic antecedents of the Hunni). According to the Geography of Ptolemaeus [65], and in Strabo and Justin (see above) located in Gans…

Tocharian

(173 words)

Author(s): Oettinger, Norbert (Augsburg)
[German version] Independent branch of the Indo-European languages, a centum language, recorded in translations of Buddhist texts stemming from the 6th-8th cents. AD. These are written in a vocalized Indic script and were found in buried monasteries in Xinjiang province in northwestern China. Dialect A was written only in Turfan, Dialect B also to the west in Kučā. The name Tocharian was given to the language by modern scholars, perhaps in error, after the ancient Tochari people in Bactria. From the vocabulary cf. Tocharian B pācer = Latin pater, and, with only a Greek cognate, To…

Toga

(520 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] The toga, adopted from the Etruscans, was the official garment of Roman citizens which was worn in public and which non-Romans were not allowed to wear (Suet. Claud. 15,3; gens togata: Verg. Aen. 1,282). Originally, the woolen toga was worn over the bare upper body and over the subligaculum that covered the lower body, later over the tunica . The common toga of the simple Roman citizen was white ( toga pura, toga virilis). Furthermore, there was the toga praetexta with a crimson stripe along the edges ( clavi; status symbols) which was worn by curule officials, by the Flamines …

Togata

(348 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] Type of Roman comedy; unlike the variation later called palliata , it was not associated with Athens but with a Roman setting. By the term togata (= play with Roman private individuals in everyday dress; toga ), it is distinguished from praetexta (= action by persons in political/military official dress), cf. Hor. Ars P 288; Varro suggested to replace togata with tabernaria and to use it as a collective term for all plays in a Roman setting [2], but this usage did not gain general acceptance (but cf.  Juv. 1,3). While Roman and Greek elements were used alike in the c…

Toga virilis

(5 words)

see Age(s)

Togisonus

(71 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Venetia (Plin. HN 3,121), probably arising from the confluence of the Retron (modern Retrone) and the Astagus (modern Astico) in the area of Vicetia (modern Vicenza) with other rivers to the north of thr Atesis; modern Bacchiglione. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. B. Castiglioni, Abbozzo di una carta dell'antica idrografia nella pianura tra Vicenza e Padova, in: P. Innocenti (ed.), Scritti geografici. FS A. Sestini, vol. 1, 1982, 183-197.

Toilets

(4 words)

see Latrines

Tokens

(469 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (σύμβολον/ sýmbolon, tessera). From 450 BC onwards in Athens, the State gave poor citizens free tickets for performances in the Theatre of Dionysus to the value of two oboloi (θεωρικòν διόβολον/ theōrikòn dióbolon); these tokens, called σύμβολα ( sýmbola), were given to the lessee of the theatre, who then collected the corresponding money for them from the State treasury. This institution was later extended to all citizens, followed by payments for participation in people's assemblies and in court. Numerous bronze symbola survive from the period between the s…

Tolastochora

(57 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Τολαστοχόρα; Tolastochóra). Town in Galatia (Ptol. 5,4,7; Tab. Peut. 9,5) at a crossing over the former southern main tributary of the Sangarius from Lake Ak (River Gökpınar) at modern Gökpınar in the southwestern border region of the Tolistobogii. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 236.

Tolbiacum

(140 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (modern Zülpich, district of Euskirchen in North Rhine-Westphalia). Town ( vicus: CIL XIII 7920;  It. Ant. 373,4: vicus Sopenorum - possibly a Celtic tribal name), originally in the settlement area of the Eburones, then of the Ubii (Tac. Hist. 4,79,2). Presumably the location of a station of beneficiarii . Remains survive of thermae and burial monuments. After being destroyed in Germanic attacks in 275/6 AD, T. was fortified at the beginning of the 4th cent. AD . There is evidence of Romanic settlement until the middle of the 5th cent. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliogr…

Toledot Yeshu

(239 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Hebrew for ‘Life of Jesus’), a Jewish popular pseudo-history of the life of Jesus (A.1.), describing his birth, life and death in a satirical and polemic manner. The mediaeval compilation, which was in circulation in numerous different versions in several languages (including Hebrew, Yiddish, Judaeo-Arabic and Judaeo-Persian) and whose roots can be traced back as far as Talmudic tradition (cf. e.g. bSot 47a; bSan 43a; 67a; 107b), tells e.g. of Jesus's ignominious origin, since hi…

Tolenus

(82 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Central-Italian river (Ov. Fast. 6,565), modern Turano. It rises in the Montes Simbruini (modern Monti Simbruini), flows through the territory of the Aequi of Carsioli (to the northeast of modern Cársoli), of the Sabini of Trebula Mutuesca (near Monteleone Sabino) and Reate, where it joins with the Avens to form the Rosea Rura wetlands. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. R. Staffa, La viabilità romana della valle del Turano, in: Xenia 6, 1983, 37-44  Id., L'assetto territoriale, in: ArchCl 36, 1984, 231-265.

Tolerance

(4,834 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Lindemaier, Hildegard (Tübingen) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Fitschen, Klaus (Kiel) | Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
I. Terminology and philosophy [German version] A. Modern concept The general modern meaning of the word 'tolerance' is the readiness of individuals, groups or states to permit the opinions, ways of life and philosophical and religious convictions of others to 'have validity' alongside their own. Today, the meaning of the word ranges from 'sufferance' (e.g. in the sense of constitutional law: the sufferance of immigrants, diverse confessions, religions) to the emphatic affirmation of the 'different' pheno…

Toletum

(201 words)

Author(s): Stepper, Ruth
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia (modern Toledo). Chief town of the Carpetani (Plin. HN. 3,25; Ptol. 2,6,57: Τώλητον/ Tṓlēton) on a steep-sided granite plateau on the northern bank of the Tagus, which flows round the city on three sides. During the Romans' conquest of the Iberian Peninsula in 193 BC, there was fierce fighting with the Vaccaei, the Vettones and the Celtiberi in the area of the city (Liv. 35,7,6-8), which was conquered in 192 (Li…

Tolfa

(213 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] The T. mountain zone lies between the modern towns of Civitavecchia and Bracciano, about 70 km to the north of Rome. On the evidence of the rich hoard finds of Coste del Marano and Monte Rovello and the settlements of Luni sul Mignone, Monte Rovello and several necropoleis it first flourished at the end of the Bronze Age (12th-10th cents. BC). By contrast, it is not until the Etruscan period (from the 7th cent. BC) that there seems to have been a further intensive phase of settlem…

Tolistobogii

(362 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Τολιστοβόγιοι/ Tolistobógioi). Celtic tribe (Syll.3 591: Tolistoágioi) which, together with the Trocmi and led by Leonnorius, passed through Thracia in 279/8 BC and into Byzantium where Nicomedes [2] recruited them as allies [1.236-252]). After 275/4 BC the T. took possession of northwest Phrygia. Until 189 BC Gordium was their municipal centre and their territory extended from the Axylos in the south to the Bolu basin, and eastwards over the Ankara-Haymana region (Galatia; [2]). At th…

Toll

(1,742 words)

Author(s): Onken, Björn (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] I. Terminology A toll is a duty on goods imported into or exported from an area of rule. The ancient terms τὰ τέλη/ télē (pl.) and portorium can also denote internal tolls and tolls for harbours, roads, bridges and gates, and tele also included other taxes. Nor is the Latin term vectigal restricted to tolls, but also refers to many taxes and even income in general terms. The ἐλλιμένια/ elliménia was on the one hand a fee for the use of a harbour or, on the other hand, the harbour's total income including tolls, or perhaps only a particular ad valor…

Tolma

(137 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τόλμα/ Tólma, 'boldness, daring'). Notes on the ancient concept of T. as a deity, although scanty and late, are unquestionable [1. 1681]: Schol. Aesch. PV 12c Harington mentions an (unidentified) sanctuary to T. and Anaideia in Athens; in App. Lib. 21 Scipio (Cornelius [I 71]) prays to T. and Phobos; Anth. Pal. 9,29,1-4 (Antiphilus [3] of Byzantium) addresses T. as the fateful inventor of sea travel (ambivalent: Anth. Pal. 7,529,1). Claudianus [2] presents the corresponding Latin …

Tolmides

(118 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] (Τολμίδης/ Tolmídēs). Son of Tolmaeus, Athenian stratēgós in the years 457-455, 452, 451, 448 and 447 BC [1. 75 ff.]. After the murder of Ephialtes [2], in the 450s T. became the most important democratic politician and exponent of an aggressive naval league policy (Delian League). T.' often assumed political independence from Pericles [1] is an anachronism (cf. Plut. Pericles 16,3). In 456/5, T. commanded a successful naval operation against the Peloponnese (Thuc. 1,108), in 447 he settled Attic klēroûchoi on Euboea, Naxos and probably …

Tolophon

(88 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τολοφών; Tolophṓn). Port in western Locris (Locri [1]; Thuc. 3,101,3; Dionysios Kalliphontos 66 f.) near modern Vidavi, where remains of city walls are visible near Galaxidi. Frequent mentions of the inhabitants of T. in inscriptions from Delphi. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography L. Lérat, Les Locriens de l'ouest, vol. 1, 1952, 50 f.; 138-145; vol. 2, 1952, passim  Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 1, 372, n. 2  K. Braun, s. v. T., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 688  G. J. Szemler, T., in: E. W. Kase et al. (eds.), The Great Isthmus Corridor Route, vo…

Tolosa

(395 words)

Author(s): Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Christianity | | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Punic Wars (Τολῶσσα/ Tolôssa). Main city of the Volcae Tectosages (Str. 4,1,13; Plin. HN 3,37; Ptol. 2,10,9; Cass. Dio 27,90) on a terrace on the right shore of the upper Garumna, present-day Toulouse. Allied with Rome probably from 121 BC on, T. revolted against the Romans in 106 BC, only to be captured and plundered by the consul Servilius [I 12] Caepio (on the story about the stolen sacred treasure, the aurum Tolosanum, 'gold of T.', cf. Cic. Nat. D. 3,74; Gell. NA 3,9,7; Str. loc. …

Tolumnius

(136 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] Etruscan nomen gentile; most famous bearer: Lars T., king of the Veii, who in 437 BC brought about the killing of Roman ambassadors by the Fidenati (Fidenae), who had defected to him. In the subsequent war, he was killed in single combat by Cornelius [I 20] Cossus (Liv. 4,17,1-5; 4,19,1-5); the year of this single combat was already disputed in ancient tradition (Liv. 4,20,5-11; cf. [1. 563 f.]. Cossus dedicated T.' armour as spolia opima (War booty III.) to Iuppiter Feretrius (for the political role of this under Augustus cf. Licinius [I 13]). The h…

Tomarus

(74 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Τόμαρος/ Tómaros, also Τμάρος/ Tmáros). A sacred mountain (1972 m elevation) to the west of Dodona (Str. 7,7,11; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 319; Plin.  HN 4,2), now again Tómaros (formerly Olytsika). Derived from T. are Τμάριος/ Tmários, Τομαριάς/ Tomariás and Latin Tomarius as epithets of Zeus and the sacred oak in Dodona, and probably the term τομοῦροι/ tomoûroi for oracle priests [1. 368 f.] Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967. Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 2, 1, 86 f.

Tombs

(5 words)

see Funerary architecture

Tomi

(573 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Thraci, Thracia | Christianity | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Moesi, Moesia | Pertinax | Rome | Rome | Balkans, languages (Τόμοι/ Tómoi, Τόμις/ Tómis, Τῶμις/ Tômis; Lat. Tomi). Colony of Miletus [2] (Ps.-Scymn. 765) on the west coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), modern Constanţa (Romania). T. was probably founded in the 6th cent. BC -- although Jer. Chron. 95b,4, lists the founding date as 657 BC. In Plinius [1] the Older (HD 4,44), T. is referred to as Eumenia (originally perhaps an…

Tomos synkollesimos

(179 words)

Author(s): Schade, Gerson (Berlin)
[German version] (τόμος συγκολλήσιμος/ tómos synkollḗsimos, literally 'piece glued together'). In Antiquity reports, documents, contracts and other papers belonging together were glued together and kept in archives or in the offices of 'officials' ( logistaí); examples of papyri from such glued collections are POxy. 53 (AD 316) and 87 (AD 342). It is such a document that is being discussed in POxy. 34 I 12f. (AD 127: τὸν τόμον τῶν ... συγκολλησίμων/ tòn tómon tôn ... synkollēsímōn, 'the volume of pieces of writing glued together') and probably also in the earlier PGrenf…

Tomyris

(193 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τόμυρις/ Tómyris), 'the heroic' (?). Queen of the Massagetes, to the southeast of the Aral Sea, c. 530 BC. The exclusively Greek and Latin accounts are presumably legendary, with the earliest surviving being from Herodotus [1], also the most believable (Hdt. 1,205-214). In order to gain power over the Massagetae Cyrus [2] wooed T. but she spurned him. Cyrus decided on a military campaign and at the river Araxes [2] at the border received a message from T.: he may either continue three days' marc…

Tonitrualia

(113 words)

Author(s): Sehlmeyer, Markus (Jena)
[German version] (Greek βροντολόγια/ brontológia). Thunder-books, usually organised according to signs of the zodiac, used for interpreting thunder in divination [3. 1162], e.g. for harvests and war. The surviving tonitrualia are contained either in Lydus [3], De ostentis [1. 105-113; 4] or in astrological MSS, and in the Middle Ages exercised great influence, primarily in Anglo-Saxon areas [5]. Clodius [III 4] Tuscus; Cornelius [II 19] Labeo; Fonteius [I 9]; Vicellius Sehlmeyer, Markus (Jena) Bibliography 1 M. Maas, John Lydus and the Roman Past, 1992 2 E. Rawson, Intel…

Tools

(1,441 words)

Author(s): Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Onken, Björn (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East and Egypt The tools of the Near Eastern cultures and Egypt comprised the most important types still used in similar designs and functions today. The use of natural objects as tools and their adaptation in order to improve their properties dates back to the Palaeolithic period (e.g. stone tools with various basic functions; increasing differentiation in relation to the qualities for particular usages). Improvements were made in handling (grip, mounting, shafts), the systematic exploitation of mechanical principles, e.g. axial mounting ( tournet…

Top

(119 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (στρόβιλος/ stróbilos, also βέμβηξ/ bémbēx, κῶνος/ kônos, στρόμβος/ strómbos, στρόφαλος/ stróphalos, Latin rhombus, turbo). The top was a popular toy in Antiquity (Children's games); made of box wood (hence also called buxum in Latin) with cross grooves, it was set rotating with the fingers and then propelled with a whip (Verg. Aen. 7,373-383 in an epic simile;  Callim. Epigr. 1,9; Tib. 1,5,3; Anth. Pal. 7,89). Original tops of clay, bronze, lead and other materials have been preserved as grave goods and votive gifts in sanctuaries (cf. Anth. Pal. 6,309) [1]. Hurschman…

Toparches

(29 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (τοπάρχης; topárchēs). 'Leader (ἄρχειν/ árchein = rule) of a district ( tópos)'; in the Hellenistic period the highest civil administrative official in a tópos (q.v.). Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Topazos

(80 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] (Τόπαζος; Tópazos). Island, of which Pliny gives a detailed account, allegedly the place of origin of the name of the precious stone topaz. According to Plin.  HN 37,24;108 it was 300 stadia from the Arabian coast in the Red Sea, and  in the language of the Trogodytae T. means 'seek', since the fog-enshrouded island often had to be looked for by seafarers. It appears as an Indian island in Steph. Byz. s.v. Τοπάζιος. Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)

Topics

(1,223 words)

Author(s): Calboli Montefusco, Lucia (Bologna)
[German version] I. Terminology Today, some aspects of the dialectical and rhetorical theory of argument, as systematized by Aristotle [6] in the Topiká and the Rhētorikḕ téchnē, are subsumed under the general term of topics. Τόπος/ Tópos (literally 'place', then 'commonplace') does, of course, already appear earlier as a technical rhetorical term (Isocr. 12,111; 5,109; 10,4; 10,38; 1,25,76; Aristot. Rh. Al. 1443b 31; Lat. locus), but not until Aristotle was an essential role assigned to the tópoi (pl.; Lat. loci) - not only for achieving rational persuasion, but also for …

Toponyms

(5 words)

see Geographical Names

Topos

(215 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
(τόπος/ tópos). [German version] [1] Administrative unit Territorial subdivision of a nome ( nomós [2]), attested from the Hellenistic period onwards in Egypt and in its external possessions (Syria, Palestine, southern Asia Minor); also as an administrative unit under the Seleucids and Attalids (Attalus, with stemma), probably with a similar structure but not understood in detail [1. 440]. In Egypt a topos comprised several villages or kômai (Kome B), and therefore formed a unit of intermediate size, which had no pharaonic antecedent, unlike the nome and kome, but was newly form…

Toprakkale

(4 words)

see Urarṭu

Torah

(6 words)

see Judaic law; Pentateuch

Toranius

(139 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Italian gens name, primarily in Latium (cf. [2. 98]; AE 1980,588). [German version] [1] T., C. In 73 BC quaestor of P. Varinius, defeated by Spartacus (Sall. Hist. 3,96 M.; Flor. Epit. 2,8,5); c. 64 aed. pl. with C. Octavius [I 2] and in 62 (or 60-58: [1]) praetor (otherwise: MRR 3,63). After the death of Octavius in 59 BC he became the guardian of the later Augustus. A moderate Pompeian in the Civil War, T. waited until c. 45 (on Corcyra?: Cic. Fam. 6,20 f.) for a pardon from Caesar. His own ward had him proscribed in 43 BC (Suet. Aug. 27,1; hushed up in Nicolaus of…

Torch

(4 words)

see Lighting

Torcularium

(4 words)

see Presses

Toreutics

(1,585 words)

Author(s): Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(τορευτικὴ τέχνη/ toreutikḕ téchnē; Lat. caelatura; literally 'chiseling', from τορεύς/ toreús, Lat. caelum, 'chisel') denotes the chasing and repoussé work of thin plates of metal, or else works in which chasing is combined with repoussé work to design relief work; repoussé work may be replaced by casts. [German version] I. The Ancient Orient and Egypt Toreutics designates primarily the productive technique by which metals (gold/electrum, silver, copper/bronze, lead, iron) were shaped in a cold state. The objects (plaques), usually thin, were forme…

Tormenta

(8 words)

see Catapult; Quaestio; Quaestio per tormentum

Tornadotus

(156 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] Tributary of the Tigris rising in the Iranian uplands, mentioned in Plin. HN 6,132, modern Diyālā. Its name is recorded from the 2nd millennium BC, Akkadian Turan/ Turnat, and as late as in mediaeval Arabic sources as Tāmarrā. The main route to Babylonia from the eastern Tigris region and the Iranian uplands ran along the lower reaches of the T. From the lower T. numerous canals branched off towards the southeast to the Tigris; these may have been identical with rivers mentioned in Graeco-Roman sources, such as Phy…

Torone

(368 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (Τορώνη/ Torṓnē). A city, located at the modern village of Toroni (Hdt. 7,122; Scyl. 66), dominating the whole southern part of Sithonia, the middle finger-like promontory of the Chalcidian peninsula. Its significance in Antiquity was primarily due to an excellent harbour, still in use today, in a bay on the southwestern …

Torquatus

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (decorated with a Torque (I.)), prominent in the Manlii family (cf. Manlius [I 12; 14-21]). Legend on its origin in Liv. 7,10,11. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 346.

Torques

(475 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
('torque'; Lat. also torquis; Gr. στρεπτόν/ streptón, 'twisted'). [German version] I. Classical Antiquity Helically twisted collar of bronze, gold or silver with open but almost touching ends, which were thickened or figure-shaped and could sometimes be turned outwards. Torques are known from the Bronze Age onwards and numerous examples survive. The Greeks learned of torques from the Medes and Persians, where they were worn by people of high status (Hdt. 8,113,1; 9,80,4; Xen. Cyr. 1,3,2-3; cf. Curt. 3,3,13),…

Torso (Belvedere)

(1,796 words)

Author(s): Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG)
Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Since the Renaissance the word 'torso' (Italian for 'trunk', also tronco; from Greek thýrsos) refers to an ancient statue in fragmentary condition due to damages it sustained, usually lacking its head and limbs. More recently the term has also been used for sculptures of bodies intentionally left incomplete by the artist. The name comes from the fragment of a larger-than-life sculpture of a nude male, widely known as the 'Belvedere Torso' (BT) because of its location in the Cortile del Bel…

Tort

(1,662 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette | Schröder, Jan (Tübingen RWG)
Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Roman (private) tort law survived into the Early Modern Period, as Roman private law in general, as ius commune, and was only replaced by the Central European codifications of the 18th and 19th cents. It has strongly influenced modern liability law, especially in the field of culpable damnification Schröder, Jan (Tübingen RWG) [German version] B. Tortious Liability (CT) Actions for culpable injury or the damnification of persons or things in Roman law, especially the actio legis Aquiliae and the actio iniuriarum, form…

Torthyneum

(93 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Τορθύνειον; Torthýneion). Town in central Arcadia (Plin. HN 4,22; inscr.: [2]), to the southeast or south bordering Orchomenus [3] and Methydrium [1], recently identified with the remains of Hagia Sotira to the north of Kamenitsa; a prehistoric settlement is nearby on Mount Sakovouni (finds from the Neolithic to the Mycenaean period). Tausend, Sabine Bibliography 1 A. Plassart, Inscriptions d'Orchomène d'Arcadie, in: BCH 39, 1915, 58-60 2 S. Dusanic, Notes épigraphiques sur l'histoire arcadienne, in: BCH 102, 1978, 346-358. R. Hope Simpson, Mycenaean Gr…

Tortoise

(984 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] [1] Animal (χελώνη/ chelṓnē, ἐμύς/ emýs: Aristot. Hist. an. 5,33, 558a 7-11, cf. Arr. Ind. 21; Latin testudo, in Plin. HN 9,71 and 166 mus marinus, literally 'sea mouse'). The following are known: 1.) the Hermann's Tortoise, χελώνη (χελών, χελύς, χελύνη) χερσαία/ chelṓnē ( chelṓn, chelýs, chelýnē) chersaía; 2.) the very similar Spur-Thighed Tortoise, χ. ὄρειος ( ch. óreios) in Ael. Nat. 14,17 and Plin. HN 9,38: chersinae; 3.) the Pond Terrapin, ἐμύς ( emýs) or χ. λιμναία ( ch. limnaía); 4.) the Loggerhead Sea-Turtle, Thalassochelys caretta, χ. θαλαττία ( ch. thalattía) …

Torture

(809 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Historical foundations In a legal history sense, torture in Antiquity can be understood primarily as a means for eliciting evidence. Furthermore, torture occurs as a(n additional) punishment. The origins of the legally recognized use of torture is obscure. In the Babylonian law Code of Hammurabi (Cuneiform, legal texts in), for instance, there is no mention of torture at all [1]. By contrast, it was widespread in Greece. The Greek expression for the use of torture, βασανίζειν ( basanízein) is probably a loanword from the Orient, however, so that torture …

Torus

(137 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Latin term (Greek τύλη/ týlē; τυλεῖον/ tyleîon) for anything raised or bulge-like, such as the convex circular parts of an Ionic column base (Column [II B 3] with ill.; the term entered mediaeval and modern architectural terminology in the form ( torus) usual in Vitr. De arch. 3,5,2-3), the calloused skin of the neck and shoulders of a load carrier (Aristoph. Ach. 860; 954: týlē) or the bulging of animals' muscles (Plin. HN 18,78: torus ). Týlē was also the word for cushions on klinai and furniture for sitting on (Sappho fr. 46 Lobel/Page; Diod. Sic. 13,84,5…

Torybea

(75 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Τορύβεια/ Torýbeia, Τύρβειον/ Týrbeion). City in the interior of Acarnania (Acarnanes) above modern Komboti, mentioned only in a few lists of theorodokoi (cf. IG IV2 1, 95, 18; FdD III 3, 203). The city was systematically laid out in the 4th cent. BC (orthogonal streets, insulae; Insula ). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Pritchett 8, 104-108  D. Strauch, Römische Politik und griechische Tradition, 1996, 305 f.

Toscanos

(333 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization (Μαινάκη/ Mainákē?; Lat. M(a)enaca, Maenoba?). Modern name of a Phoenician settlement to the west of Torre del Mar (province of Málaga in Spain) at the mouth of the Río de Vélez, with a protected harbour; a pass leads into the highlands and the mining regions around Jaén. Excavations (1964-1986) discovered a trading post founded c. 730 BC by the Phoenicians. The settlement, which flourished in the 7th cent., extended to the Cerro del Peñón (94 m) to the west, where at a moderate elevat…

Totila

(405 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Τωτίλας/ Tōtílas; alternate name Baduila, e.g. Iord. De summa temporum vel origine actibusque gentis Romanorum 380; [1. 458]). King of the Goths AD 541-552, nephew of Hildebald (Ostrogothic king 540/541), great-nephew of the Visigothic king Theudis. He commanded the Gothic troops in Tarvisium when his uncle was murdered. When Erarich's rule caused discontent among the Ostrogoths, T. decided to succeed his uncle despite negotiations with Byzantium (Procop. Goth. 3,2). In 542, he re-engaged in the war against Byzantium during the absence of Belisarius ( ibid. 3…

Tougeni

(137 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Τωϋγενοί/ Tōÿgenoí). Sub-tribe of the Helvetii, affiliated with the Cimbri on the westward migration (Poseid. FGrH 87 F 31,2). According to Str. 4,1,8 Marius [I 1] fought against the T. and the Ambrones; but since, besides the Cimbri and the Ambrones, Plut. Marius 15,6 mentions the Teutoni as opponents of Marius at Aquae [III 5] Sextiae in 102 BC, Strabo may have confused the T. with the Teutoni [1. 145-157]. Identification of the T. with the Teutoni [1; 3. 356 f.; 4. 300-309, 455-459], however, is fundamentally unlikely [2; 5; 6. 20810]. Wiegels, Rainer (Osna…

Tourism

(4,392 words)

Author(s): Büttner, Nils
Büttner, Nils A. Introduction (CT) [German version] 1. Terminological History (CT) A typical theoretical definition calls tourism "those relationships and phenomena which accrue from a journey and a sojourn for the visitor to a locality, provided that no residence is founded by the sojourn and that no employment is connected with it" [33. 270]. The French word tour (m.), derived from the Greek tornos ('tool for drawing a circle'; 'that which is turned') by way of the mediaeval Latin tornum, established itself in the 17th cent. as denoting a circular or round trip [19]. At the same time, To…

Tourism

(6 words)

see Travels II. E.

Tower

(181 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] Apart from defensive and protective installations (Fortifications) and funerary architecture, towers are found in Graeco-Roman architecture primarily in domestic constructions, particularly in rural areas. They were used there partly as representational buildings, but also as safe places of refuge in period of crisis and also as well ventilated places for storing agricultural produce which were difficult for pests to reach. The significance of 'Greek tower farmsteads' as a type of…

Tower of Babel

(8 words)

see Tower of Babel

Town

(4,609 words)

Author(s): Clemens, Lukas
Clemens, Lukas [German version] A. Townscapes in Late Antiquity (CT) Beginning in the second half of the 3rd cent., the ancient town in the western Roman Empire underwent a change in structure, primarily as a reaction to military threats by external enemies, but also to internal political conflicts. Alongside public monumental structures - such as fora, baths, water supply facilities, theatres and cult buildings - military architecture characterized the new appearance of urban centres in many places. Fortifications - in part built on foundations ma…

Town, city

(4,219 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Kolb, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Definition 'Town' and 'city' in modern parlance have become general terms to describe settlements of a particular size, with a particular complement of buildings and administrative and legal structure. Owing, however, to the manifold forms assumed by towns and cities, we lack a specific, all-embracing definition: criteria such as a closed built environment, a highly evolved division of labour, and central administrative and economic functions for the surrounding territory, have p…

Town hall

(6 words)

see Assembly buildings

Town planning

(3,963 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] I. General Town planning is the designing of urban settlements (Town, city) on an organizational basis, with the central and particular functions of the town, e.g. as a port or a political centre, having an effect on its external and internal form. Most towns and cities in the Middle East and Egypt arose in the earliest times (in the Middle East from the 5th millennium onwards) at economically or strategically important points (trade routes, river crossings, anchorages). Towns and c…

Toxandria

(103 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Region (Amm. Marc. 17,8,3) in the modern provinces of Noord-Brabant, Antwerpen and Limburg, in the Middle Ages the earldom of Teisterbant. The population (Texuandri: Plin. HN 4,106; ILS 2556; CIL III, 6239; 14214) consisted of different groups, among them Germanic peoples which gathered in the former settlement area of the Eburones. The Salii [1], who settled in T. in Late Antiquity, were defeated in AD 358 by Iulianus [11], but may have remained in the country and made T. the starting point for their expansion in the 4th and 5th cents. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliograp…

Toxeus

(127 words)

Author(s): Goldhahn, Tobias
(Τοξεύς/ Toxeús). [German version] [1] Son of Eurytus A son of Eurytus [1], the king of Oechalia and a famous archer, and Antiope. According to Diod. Sic. 4,37, killed by Heracles [1], who conquers and destroys the city of Oechalia, together with his brothers Molion and Clytius [3] (according to Aristocrates in schol. Soph. Trach. 266: Clytius and Deinon). Goldhahn, Tobias [German version] [2] Son of the king Oeneus of Calydon and Althaea Son of king Oeneus of Calydon and of Althaea [1], a daughter of Thestius (Apollod. 1,64). Goldhahn, Tobias [German version] [3] Son of Thestius in Ovid Ac…

Toxon

(6 words)

see Bow and arrow

Toxotai

(277 words)

Author(s): Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
(τοξόται/ toxótai, 'archers'). [German version] [1] Archers in general The Bow and arrow were very ancient weapons. Widespread in Greece since Mycenaean times, they were not the normal weapons of an aristocratic hero, and were held in lower esteem than the sword or the spear. Homer mentions archers and their weapons several times (for instance, Hom. Il. 4,93-126; 11,385-395; Philoctetes on Lemnos: Soph. Phil. 287-292; 707-711; 1146-1162). Near the end of the Archaic Period, Polycrates [1] of Samos relied…

Toys

(5 words)

see Children's Games

Trabea

(230 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] [1] Festal form of the toga Roman garment, a festal form of the toga , differing from it only in colour. It was dyed purple-red, with scarlet or white stripes ( clavi) and was worn on official occasion by equestrians and Salii [2]. Originally it was the dress of Roman kings and was then taken over by consuls, but they wore it only on special occasions (e.g. opening of the Temple of Janus). Other wearers of the trabea in the early period were the augures and the Flamines Dialis and Martialis (priests of Jupiter and Mars), who then wore the toga praetexta from the 3rd cent. BC onw…

Trabeata

(7 words)

see Comedy II D..; Melissus

Trachis

(132 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Τραχίς/ Trachís). One of the oldest cities in the valley of the Spercheius, on the northern slopes of the Oete, at the end of the Asopus [1] gorge near the 'Trachinian Rocks' (Τραχίνιαι πέτραι/ Trachíniai pétrai, Hdt. 7,198). T. was the residence of Ceyx. In the Iliad T. is part of the territory of Peleus (Hom. Il. 2,682). In the 5th cent. BC, T. was the capital of the Malieis (Hdt. 7,199). In 426 BC, against the Oetaei who were advancing from the south, Sparta founded Heraclea [1] Trachinia only 6 stadia (about 1.2 km) away…

Tracing (in full size)

(140 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] Scratched or scored lines in architecture (Construction technique; Building trade). The architect's plan was successively transmitted to the emerging building at a scale of 1:1 by tracing. Tracings are recorded from the pre-Greek era in Mesopotamian and Egyptian architecture; in Graeco-Roman architecture, tracing long made scale construction drawings unnecessary. Well-preserved or documented tracings are found, among other places, on the Propylaea in Athens, the large tholos in Delphi and the more recent temple of Apollo in Didyma. Höcker, Christoph (Kissi…

Tractatores

(121 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Greek τρακτευταί/ trakteutaí). Accounting official, primarily in the financial administration, which came under the praefectus praetorio , first attested in a 468 AD law of the emperor Leo [4] I (Cod.  Just. Epit. 10,23,3,3). In the provinces they were responsible for the annual notification of the amount and use of taxes, supervised the collection and passing on of all tax demands and saw to the recovery of financial arrears; for this they also received armed assistance when needed. They were selected by the heads of the office. Negligence by tractatores attracted …

Trade

(4 words)

see Commerce

Trade/Trade Routes

(2,965 words)

Author(s): Denzel, Markus A. (Göttingen RWG)
Denzel, Markus A. (Göttingen RWG) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) A lively discussion, initiated by Dopsch in 1918-20 and taken up by Pirenne in 1922, has developed and continues to this day concerning the question of the continuity of trade, especially in the Mediterranean, from Antiquity into post-Antiquity. It must be said, however, that the gap between the supporters of unimpeded continuity and those who suggest a profound, long-lasting break in development has in the meantime greatly narrowed. …

Traditio

(588 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[German version] Transfer or procuration of possession ( possessio ) in Roman law. In the ius gentium (common law of the 'peoples', i.e. non-citizens) it was equivalent to the forms of reassignment of the mancipatio and in iure cessio in the ius [D.] civile (law for Roman citizens, Gai. Inst. 2,65; Dig. 41,1,9,3), which applied to res mancipi alone, while the traditio sufficed for res nec mancipi (e.g. clothing, gold, silver). It required a iusta causa (legal basis, e.g. sale, gift, Gai. Inst. 2,19 f.; Paul. Dig. 41,1,31 pr.). If a res mancipi, e.g. a piece of Italian land, was merely…

Traffic

(1,288 words)

Author(s): Nissen | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
The overcoming of distances by people and goods, using means of transport on transport routes. [German version] I. The Ancient Orient The oldest means of transport are people, beasts of burden and boats. They were used for short- and long-distance traffic alike, for individual items and for bulk transport. It was not only in the nomadic context (Nomads) that donkeys and later camels were employed unharnessed for their stamina as beasts of burden, and their ability to travel long distances with little food. In Egypt,…

Tragasae

(97 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Τραγασαί/ Tragasaí). Settlement in southeastern Troad at modern Tuzla, to the north of Gülpınar. T. is named after Tragasus, whose daughter Philonomia was married to Tennes [1], the ruler of Tenedus (EM 763,25). Known for its salt springs (Str. 13,1,48), T. lies in the middle of the Plain of Tuzla (in Antiquity Ἁλήσιον πεδίον/ Halḗsion pedíon, 'Salt Plain', Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 34; Plin. HN 31,85). The springs were so profitable that Lysimachus [2] levied a tax on them (Ath. 3,73d). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 247 f. J. …

Tragedy

(5,074 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Baier, Thomas
I. Greek [German version] A. Definition, origin, early forms The explanations for the term τραγῳδία ( tragōidía) are controversial; equally controversial is the reconstruction of the genesis of tragedy from cult rituals over pre-literary choral performances to the literary genre of the 5th cent. BC. The greatest problem is to reconcile Aristotle's [6] brief history of the genre in the Poetics (Aristot. Poet. 4,1449a 9-31) with anthropological and ethnological considerations. Aristotle thought the literary form evolved gradually from short myths (plots) a…

Tragedy/Theory of Tragedy

(5,123 words)

Author(s): Niefanger, Dirk
Niefanger, Dirk [German version] A. Introduction, Methodology (CT) Besides the narrative tradition of mythology together with architecture and sculpture, tragedies are among the central historical sources shaping the modern perception of ancient culture. For that reason, the history of the reception of ancient tragedy provides an insight into the changing perception of Antiquity and its aesthetic relevance to the Modern Age. The European genre of tragedy continued to develop through an ever-changing, cr…

Tragelaphos

(173 words)

Author(s): W.RI.
[German version] (τραγέλαφος/ tragélaphos). A chimaera, with its origin in the imagination of Oriental artists, of a goat ( trágos) and a deer ( élaphos; Pl. Resp. 6,488a; Aristoph. Ran. 937), which was evidently also used by the Greeks as an ornamental motif (e.g. on the hearse of Alexander [4]  the Great: Diod. Sic. 18,26; cf. Plut. Agesilaus 19). People believed in its reality only after Aristotle (Diod. Sic. 2,51,2, including other dímorpha zṓia, 'bi-formed beings'). Pliny's (HN 8,120) description of the tragelaphos is similar to that of Aristotle's ἱππέλαφος/ hippélaphos (litera…

Tragurium

(157 words)

Author(s): Cabanes, Pierre (Clermont-Ferrand)
[German version] (Τραγούριον/ Tragoúrion, Trogir, Trau; also modern Trogir). City on a small island off the coast of Illyria, to the northwest of Salona. Archaeological finds (primarily ceramics) provide evidence of an Illyrian settlement, before Greek colonists from Issa settled in T. and in Epetium neighbouring to the east around the turn of the 3rd and 2nd cents. BC (Str. 7,5,5); relations between Issa and its two daughter cities were very close (Pol. 32,9,2). C. 158 BC there were attacks by the Dalmatae. In 56 BC, Caesar awarded T. the status of a civitas libera et foederata ('free and…

Traianopolis

(254 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Τραιανόπολις; Traianópolis). [German version] [1] City in the Hebrus plain This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Thraci, Thracia | Rome Founded by Traianus [1] at the beginning of the 2nd cent. AD on the northern coast of the Aegean (Aegean Sea) in the plain of the lower Hebrus on the site of Doriscus on the via Egnatia (Ptol. 3,11,13; It. Ant. 175,1-9), modern Loutrós. Minting of its own coins is documented. After Diocletianus' administrative reform, T. was one of the most important cities in the province of Rho…

Traianus

(1,946 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Trajan, Roman Emperor, AD 98-117 Roman emperor, AD 98-117. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] I. Career up to accession T. was probably born in 53, the son of the consular (of the same name), M. Ulpius [12] Traianus, and probably a certain Marcia, perhaps a daughter of Marcius [II 3] Barea. The family came from Italica in Hispania Baetica. Little is known of T.' senatorial career. He served as a tribunus [4] militum under his father in Syria (but certainly not for ten stipendia ('campaigns'), as alleged in Plin. Pan. 15,3). After his praetorship (before 84…

Training (medical)

(600 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Although most healers in Antiquity learned their trade from their fathers or as autodidacts, some also went to study with a master (e.g. Pap. Lond. 43, 2nd cent. BC), or travelled to medical strongholds to receive training. Remains of these teaching centres are to be found in Babylonia [1] and in Egypt, where the ‘House of Life’ in Sais, rebuilt by Darius c. 510 BC, may have served as such a centre and scriptorium [2]. If, in the Greek world, the Hippocratic tradition (Hippocrates) emphasized the superiority of healers trained at Cos, Cnidus …

Trajan's Column

(2,914 words)

Author(s): Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG) | Bourdon, Nicola
Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG) Bourdon, Nicola [German version] A. Antiquity (CT) Trajan's Column (TC) was the first of the imperial columns in the city of Rome, which raised the statues of the emperors aloft while their deeds were celebrated in a relief frieze that spiraled up to the top [7; 11]. It was followed by columns for Antoninus Pius (161; destroyed, pedestal: Rome, Vatican Museum) and Marcus Aurelius (192), as well as columns in Constantinople for Theodosius (393) and Arcadius (421, both either destroyed or broken up). TC (originally executed in colour), located on the eno…

Trajan's Column

(14 words)

See Forum [III 9] Traiani; Monumental columns III; Traianus [1]; Trajan's Column

Tralleis

(628 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] Tribe in the south of Illyricum (Τράλλεις, Τράλλοι/ Trálleis, Trálloi). Tribe in the south of Illyricum, which, according to Hesych. s.v. Τραλλεῖς was of Thracian origin, but to Steph. Byz. (s.v. Βῆγις; Βόλουρος; Τραλλία) and Liv. (27,32,4; 31,35,1: Tralles; 38,21,2: Tralli) was of Illyrian extraction. The T. were known as mercenaries in Hellenistic armies (Diod. Sic. 17,65,1; Liv. 37,19; Hesych. loc. cit.). The towns of Begis and Bulorus were situated in their territory (according to Steph. Byz. loc. cit.). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) …

Trambelus

(131 words)

Author(s): Rausch, Sven
[German version] (Τράμβηλος; Trámbēlos). Son of Telamon [1] (Lycoph. 467; Parthenios 26), who is given Theaneira as booty after the capture of Troy (Istros FHG 1,421). Pregnant by Telamon, she escapes and is taken in by king Arion of Miletus, who raises T. as his own son (schol. on Lycoph. 467). Parthenius (loc. cit.) tells of T.' love for Apriate of Lesbos. She spurns him, however, and throws herself into the sea, when T. uses violence (or is thrown into the sea by T.). Parthenius and schol. Lycop…

Tranquillitas

(246 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Until the 1st cent. BC, the usual meaning of tranquillitas is 'peace, stillness' (as late as in Caes. B Gall. 3,15,3); after that, under the influence of Stoicism and the philosophy of Epicurus (analogous with the Greek γαλήνη/ galḗnē, 'calm' = 'peace of mind'), the word becomes the Latin philosophical term for 'calmness of mind' ( maris t.: Cic. Tusc. 5,6,16; t. animi: Cic. Fin. 5,8,23; cf. Sen. Dial. 9: De tranquillitate animi). In combination with 'security' and 'peace' (cf. Cic. Leg. agr. 1,24; Cic. Off. 1,20,69; Cic. De orat.1,1,2) t. gained political significance…

Transactio

(217 words)

Author(s): Meissel, Franz-Stefan (Vienna)
[German version] (from transigere, 'to come to an agreement, to transact, to settle'). Denotes an out-of-court agreement between two parties by means of which contentious or doubtful points in a Roman legal relationship were settled without formal procedure (cf. Dig. 2,15; Cod. Iust.. 2,4). In respect of a point of contention resolved by a compromise, the respondent could, in classical Roman law, raise an exceptio pacti ('exception of compact'; according to Papin. Dig. 2,15,17 an exceptio transacti negotii, 'exception of transacted business'). The obligations arising from the tran…

Transaquincum

(90 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Small fort, probably originating under Commodus (Not. Dign. Occ. 33,65: Transiacinco), on the left bank of the Danube (Ister [1]), linked by means of a wooden bridge with Aquincum in the province of Pannonia inferior, now near Budapest-Rákospatak. Remains of buildings, a statue of Victoria, inscriptions, tiles of the legio IV Flavia and legio II Adiutrix are preserved. In the 4th cent. AD the seat of a praef. legionis. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 32 Budapest, 1968, 112 f.  Z. Visy, Der pannonische Limes in Ungarn, 1988, 84 f.

Transcendence

(682 words)

Author(s): Szlezák, Thomas A. (Tübingen)
[German version] The philosophical concept of an ultimate origin that is separated by an ontological gap from what it 'causes', 'releases' from itself or brings into being. The antonym of transcendence is the concept of immanence: here the foundational origin is not something separate from the world, but is contained and present within it. The Latin transcendere, transcendens (as an equivalent to ὑπερβάλλειν/ hyperbállein, ὑπερέχειν/ hyperéchein, ὑπερβολή/ hyperbolḗ, ἀνάβασις/ anábasis, ἐπέκεινα/ epékeina etc.) has been documented since Augustinus (for more on the …

Transfuga

(192 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] Unlike a mere desertor , i.e. a citizen evading military service or a soldier not on leave, whose desertion was severely punished by Rome, a transfuga was a Roman citizen (or subject of the Empire), who as a soldier or civilian (Dig. 48,4,2,3) committed treason ( perduellio ), and thus a crime against the polity ( crimen publicum) by defecting to the enemy (Erl. Dig. 49,15,5), which Rome punished according to the law of war (War, law of) through the magistrates by coercitio or in criminal law as a crimen maiestatis ( Maiestas ). A transfuga was considered pro hoste ( Hostis

Transhumance

(6 words)

see addenda vol. 15

Transhumance

(2,937 words)

[No German version] I Greece Transhumance (i.e. pastoral economy involving seasonal migration) made use of the natural spaces available in the Mediterranean area for the keeping of livestock, especially of  sheep. In summer, the herds were driven into the mountain forests, while in winter they were pastured on lower-lying, warmer plains. The classical description can be found in Sophocles: In ‘Oedipus Tyrannus’ the messenger from Corinth recounts how he once tended a herd on Mount Cithaeron, where th…

Transitio ad plebem

(200 words)

Author(s): de Libero, Loretana (Hamburg)
[German version] Transfer of a patrician ( patricii ) to the plebs . If the individual concerned was a citizen free from the 'paternal power' ( patria potestas ), the TP took place by arrogatio, and if he was subject to the power of the father, it was by adoptio by a plebeian (Adoption; cf. Gell. NA 5,19,1-9), who could release him from his patria potestas ( emancipatio ). The best-known case of a TP (by arrogatio) is that of P. Clodius [I 4] Pulcher, who wanted to stand for the people's tribunate in 59 BC (Cic. Dom. 34-41; Cass. Dio 37,51,1 f.; 39,11,2) [1. 563 f.; 2].…
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