Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Transitorial Style

(8 words)

see Corinthian vases; Proto-Corinthian vases

Translatio

(166 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] see Status [1] A. see Status [1] A. Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Legal expression Translatio iuris ('transfer of rights') finds expression in the famous phrase: "A person cannot transfer to another person rights greater than those he has himself" (' nemo plus iuris transferre potest quam ipse habet', Ulp. Dig. 50,17,54). This formula from the early 3rd cent. AD reflects the concept in classical Roman law that subjective rights do not emerge anew in the person receiving them -- as was assumed in the ear…

Translatio Imperii

(7 words)

see Sacrum Imperium

Translation

(7,304 words)

Author(s): Balzert, Monika | Landfester, Manfred (Gießen RWG)
Balzert, Monika [German version] A. Concept and Function (CT) Today, translation is understood as both the process and result of reproducing words, sentences and texts of an original language into a target language. Translating serves communication and interaction and is 'culturally' determined. In translation theory, translating is even a partial aspect of communicative action: the translator must not only master the target and the original language and be in possession of specialist knowledge, but must…

Translations

(4,791 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Görgemanns, Herwig (Heidelberg) | L.FL. | Binder, Vera (Gießen)
I. Ancient Orient and Egypt [German version] A. General Points Translation by means of an interpreter (Akkadian targumannu; Ugaritic targumiānu; Hittite tarkummija- ('to translate'); Aramaic ta/urgmānā; Arabic tu/arǧumān; Italian turcimanno; cf. dragoman) played an important role in the cultures of the Ancient Orient in their contacts with other ethnic groups. Mesopotamian rulers prided themselves on their command of foreign languages. Especially during the second half of the second millennium BC, Akkadian served as a kind …

Transmarisca

(157 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Τρασμαρίσκα/ Trasmaríska). Roman fort in Moesia Inferior (Moesi with map) on the right bank of the lower Danube (Ister [2]; Ptol. 3,10,11: Τρομαρίσκα/ Tromaríska; Procop. Aed. 4,7,7; Geogr. Rav. 4,7,1: Stamarisca) between Sexaginta Prista (modern Ruse) and Durostorum, modern Tutrakan (county of Silistra, Bulgaria). T. gained significance from the 2nd cent. AD onwards, when the Cohors I Thracum was temporarily stationed in the fort. At the end of the 3rd cent. increased defence measures were taken on the lower Danube (Limes V), the fo…

Transmission

(13,779 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Clemens, Lukas | Faveri, Lorena De | Gastgeber, Christian | Klopsch, Paul
Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) I. Material Remains (CT) A. General (CT) [German version] 1. Introduction (CT) The present article offers a survey of the ways in which material remains from the ancient world have been transmitted to the modern age. Not included are the active acquisition of antiquities for display or their representation in art museums, or the systematic post-Classical acquisition of remains for research purposes (cf. Antiquarianism; Antiquities, collections of; Classical Archaeology;  Art works, acquisition of/ Art theft; Museum). Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) …

Transmission of disease

(307 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Latin contagio, ‘infection’, refers to the transmission of disease (TD) from person to person, directly or through an intermediary. TD is associated with the idea of pollution: Judaism, for instance, holds that people suffering from certain diseases (such as leprosy) or menstruating women must be avoided (Purification). The stated reasons were either hygienic or religious. Similar precepts are known from ancient Babylon and Greece as well. The observation that those in close contac…

Transpadana

(154 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] General term for the area to the north of the Padus (modern Po; cf. Cic. Off. 3,22,88; Catull. 39,13: Transpadanus; [1. 274; 2. 149; 3. 28 f.; 4. 7 f.]), as an adjective connected only with Italia (Tac. Hist. 2,32; CIL X 3870), never with Gallia. Augustus' regional reform recognises a regio XI T. bounded in the east by the Ollius ( Regio with map; Plin. HN 3,123; Tac. Hist. 1,70; Plin. Ep. 6,6). Towards the end of the 3rd cent. AD, T. was understood to be the whole of the Padus plain to the south of the Alpes; divided in the 4th cent. into Aemilia and Liguria [5. 236 f.; 6. …

Transport

(9 words)

see Camel; Land transport; Navigation; Wagon, Chariot

Transport amphorae

(1,875 words)

Author(s): Docter, Roald Fritjof (Amsterdam)
[German version] I. Definition and ancient terminology Transport amphorae (TA) are two-handled ceramic vessels manufactured for the transportation and storage of foodstuffs. The Latin term amphora derives from the Greek ἀμφορεύς/ amphoreús, from the older ἀμφιφορεύς/ amphiphoreús (Hom. Il. 23,92; 23,170); the term is also used for the vessels nowadays called stamnos and pelike (cf. Pottery A.; Amphora [1]; with ill.). Unpainted TA were more frequently referred to as κέραμος/ kéramos or κεράμιον/ kerámion (Hom. Il. 9,46; Hdt. 3,6) and ἀγγεῖον/ angeîon (Ps.-Aristot. Mir. 136).…

Transvectio equitum

(365 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] Parade of the iuventus of Roman equites on 15 July. Its route led from the Temple of Mars to the Porta Capena, the Temple of Castor and Pollux, and up to the Temple of Iuppiter Optimus Maximus on the  Capitolium (sources: Liv. 9,46,15; Vir. ill. 32,2). There are mythical/cultic and constitutional versions of the origins of this institution, whose beginnings can be traced to the 4th cent. BC. The first is connected with the help given by the Dioscuri in the battle between the Romans and …

Trapetum

(4 words)

see Presses

Trapeza

(10 words)

see Delphica; Furniture III B ; Monopodium; Table

Trapezites

(136 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (τραπεζίτης/ trapezítēs). Leader in Egypt of the state bank (Ptolemaic: basilikḕ trápeza, 'royal bank'; Roman period: dēmosía trápeza, 'public bank') in the mētropóleis (Metropolis) of the nomes ( Nomos [2]) but also in smaller towns. The trapezites changed money, collected taxes and other monies intended for the state exchequer and passed them on to the Basilikón (Royal Exchequer). His role is comparable with those of the sitólogos ('grain commissioner') and the kollybistḗs ('money changer'). Under the Ptolemies trapezitai usually leased their posts; from…

Trapezophoron

(5 words)

see Table utensils

Trapezopolis

(140 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τραπεζόπολις/ Trapezópolis). City in Caria (Ptol. 5,2,18; Cares) on the northern slopes of Mount Cadmus (modern Baba) in the Salbacus mountains (modern Akdağ); scant remains of the city are at Bolu to the west of Denizli. As well as in inscriptions and on coins (1st-3rd cents. AD) T. is particularly well attested in late Antiquity literary sources. T. was part of the Conventus of Alabanda (Plin. HN 5,109). T. enjoyed close relations with the neighbouring city of Attuda (modern Hasköy; cf. Homónoia coins under Antoninus [1] Pius). In the 4th cent. AD T. was …

Trapezus

(981 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Pontos Euxeinos | Syria | Byzantium | Urarṭu | Christianity | Xenophon | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Limes | Pompeius | Patricius (Τραπεζοῦς/ Trapezoûs; Lat. Trapezus; the modern Trabzon, Turkey). [German version] I. Geographical Situation A Greek city in the region of Colchis (Xen. An. 4,8,22; 5,3,2) on the southeast coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), situated in a favourable setting with a secure acropolis. T. may have been first founded as early as 756 BC (…

Trapheia

(64 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] (Τράφεια; Trápheia). Polis in Boeotia (Nic. Ther. 887-889), known for cattle breeding (Steph. Byz. s. v. T.), either where the combined Rivers Ismenus and Thespius flow into the southeastern bay of Hylice, where there was an extensive settlement [1. 244-246], or on the other bank at the kastron of modern Hylike [2. 2222]. Fell, Martin (Münster) Bibliography 1 Fossey 2 E. Kirsten, s. v. T., RE 6 A, 2221-2223.

Traulus Montanus

(36 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Sex. T. M. Young Roman equestrian, whom Messalina [2] made her lover for one night. After her death (AD 48), he was executed (Tac. Ann. 11,36,3; Sen. Apocol. 13,4). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Trausi

(83 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Τραυσοί/ Trausoí, Latin Trausi). Thracian tribe, which can be located in the southwestern part of the Rhodope mountains; their customs are supposed to have been distinct from those of the other Thraci  (Hdt. 5,3 f.). According to Liv. 38,41,5 the T. lived on robbery; he mentions them in connection with the defeat of  Manlius [I 24] Vulso at Tempyra. According to Steph. Byz. s. v. T., the Greeks called the T. Agathyrsi. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography A. Fol, Političeska istorija na trakite, 1972, 58.

Travel literature

(500 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] The term travel literature (TL) refers to a heterogeneous group of literary products that belong to categories such as travel report, travel description (travel guide, travel handbooks) or travel novel, categories that in themselves are not clearly defined. Precursors of modern travel guides and handbooks are, for instance, the Greek peri(h)ēgḗseis (Periegetes, cf. e.g. Pausanias [8], Heraclides [18]) as well as sea maps with descriptions of coasts (Periplous). Strictly speaking, a travel report - without judging its aesthetic quality - is the rep…

Travels

(4,571 words)

Author(s): Weeber, Karl-Wilhelm (Wuppertal)
I. Prerequisites and logistics [German version] A. Travel destinations and means of payment Travels were manifestations of a mobility required for the economic, political and cultural exchange and an essential element for civilisatory development (cf. the absence of travel in the static notion of the Golden Age, aurea aetas, Ov. Met. 1,94-96; Verg. Ecl. 4,31-39). The main travel area in the Graeco-Roman Antiquity was the Mediterranean area with its adjacent regions; it was extended in the course of major expansion movements (Greek colonizatio…

Travesty

(5 words)

see Adaptation

Trayamar

(234 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Modern country estate ( finca) to the west of the mouth of the River Algarrobo, about 4 km to the east of Torre del Mar (province of Málaga in Spain), site of several Phoenician chamber graves ( tombeaux batîs). The necropolis belongs to the settlement on the Morro de Mezquitilla (on the opposite side of the river). Characteristics of the graves are their construction from hewn blocks, carefully smoothed on the inside, their eastward orientation (towards the settlement) and their access over a ramp-shaped dromos. The chambers of graves 1 ( c. 1.9 m × 2.6 m) and 4 (2.9 …

Trdat

(5 words)

see Tiridates [6-8]

Treasure house

(5 words)

see Thesauros

Treasure of the Oxus

(227 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] or Amu Darya treasure; hoard taken from the area of this river (Araxes [2]) to India, and since 1897 exhibited in London. It comprises some 1,500 coins, worked gold and silver, a number of roll seals and gems. Coins: Achaemenid period  Greek imports and recoinings, and about 100 tetradrachmai and 100 drachmai of  Alexander III, Seleucus I, Antiochius I and II and Diodotus I. The gold works form several groups: statuettes, sumptuous bracelets in various styles, brooches, pot handles in the shape of a Bezoar ibex, a model quadriga, fragments of the sheath of an akinákēs (Pers…

Treaties, upholding of

(219 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] To the Greeks, the upholding of treaties on an international level was one of the agraphoi nomoi , and for the Romans one of the foundations of the ius gentium (here understood in the sense of 'ius comune' as applicable to all peoples; ius [A 2]). As the international treaty itself was under the sacred protection of the deity invoked for the oath, Zeus and Jupiter respectively in Greece and Rome generally watched over the observance of treaties in their capacities as protectors of (contractual) oaths and of the pistis [D]/ fides [II] [1; 3; 4. 39, 53]. This guarantee of…

Treba

(69 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] City of the Aequi in the Colles Simbruini (modern Simbruini Mountains) in the valley of the upper Anio; modern Trevini nel Lazio, 821 m elevation; municipium of Regio I (Plin. HN 3,64), tribus Aniensis; ethnicon Trebani (ILS 6264;  cf.  Ptol. 3,1,62; Frontin.  Aq. 93,3: T. Augusta). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography S. Quilici Gigli, Appunti di topografia per la storia di Trevi nel Lazio, in: MEFRA 99, 1987, 129-69.

Trebatius

(265 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Roman family name, probably derived from a place name (Treba, Trebula), very common in the Imperial Period. [German version] [1] Samnite leader in the Social Wars, c. 100 BC Leader ( praetor) of the Samnites in the Social Wars [3], he was defeated in 89 BC by C. Cosconius [I 1] on the Aufidus and escaped to Canusium (App. Civ. 1,228). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] T. Testa, C. Roman lawyer, 1st cent. BC Roman jurist ( c. 84 BC until after AD 4), pupil of Q. Cornelius Maximus (Dig. 1,2,2,45) and teacher of  Antistius [II 3] Labeo (Dig. 1,2,2,47). He wa…

Trebellenus

(114 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] T. T. Rufus. Senator from Concordia in Upper Italy, where among other things an equestrian statue was raised to him (ILS 931; cf. 931a). After serving as quaestor and people's tribune, he became legatus Augusti with a legion. A praetorian in 18 AD, he was given the task of looking after the children of the Thracian king Kotys [I 9] as their tutor; this task, during which he also became involved in armed conflicts, lasted at least until 21 (Tac. Ann. 2,67,2; 3,38,3 f.). When he was accused of maiestas in 35 AD, he killed himself (Tac. Ann. 6,39,1). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliog…

Trebellius

(605 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] T., L. In 67 BC, he was people’s tribune and, like L. Roscius [I 5] Otho, interceded against the lex Gabinia in the interest of the Senate (and of M. Licinius [I 11] Crassus?). A. Gabinius [I 2] initiated T.’ removal from office in the concilium plebis; T. gave way, when Gabinius needed only one more tribus ’ vote for a majority. Possibly from Latium, father of T. [I 2] ([1.267]). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] T. (Fides), L. People’s tribune in 47 BC, who gave himself a purposely devised cognomen (Cic. Phil. 6,11 et passim - or Cicero’s m…

Trebendae

(78 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τρεβένδαι; Trebéndai). City in Lycia (Lycii; IGR 3,704); the long political independence of T. suggests a location at modern Muskar, where there was an  ancient settlement (remains from the Classical period to the Roman Imperial period). T. minted, probably in the Hellenistic period, coins for the  Lycian League. In the Roman Imperial period T., as did Tyberissus, entered into a  sympoliteía with Myra  (Syll.3 1234). Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. T., RE 6 A, 2267 f.

Trebenna

(126 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Τρεβέννα/ Trebénna). City in eastern Lycia (Lycii), to the southwest of modern Antalya at Çağlarca. The age of the settlement presumably extends back to the Classical period. A member of the Lycian League, possibly since the Hellenistic period. Archaeological studies of the Imperial period buildings (e.g. stoa, thermae, ekklesiasterion) are in progress. T. minted coins under Gordianus [3] III. The town of Onobara was part of the territory of T., probably incorporated by sympoliteía , (S…

Trebia

(93 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Right-bank tributary of the Padus (modern Po), into which it flows at Placentia  (Plin. HN 3,118), modern Trebbia; it rises in the Ligurian Appenninus. It was on the T. that in 218 BC the first fighting between the Romans and Hannibal [4] took place (Pol. 3,66-74; Liv. 21,52-56). In its valley are the sacrarium Minervae Medicae Cabardiacensis and the Bobbio monastery founded in 612 by Saint Columbanus. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Marchetti, P. Dall'Aglio, La battaglia del Trebbia, in: Atti dell' istituto de geologia dell' università di…

Trebiae

(51 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Umbrian settlement (412 m high) on the upper reaches of the Clitumnus, later a municipium above the Via Flaminia , Regio VI, ethnic Trebiates (Plin. HN 3,114), modern Trevi with remains of the city wall. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography L. Sensi, T., in: Quaderni Istituto Topografia Antica 6, 1974, 183-190.

Trebius

(110 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Oscan/Italian praenomen (usual abbreviation in Lat. inscriptions Tr.), later also a Roman gens name, recorded from the 1st cent. BC onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] T., Statius Supposed to have handed his home city of Compsa over to Hannibal [4] in 216 BC (Liv. 23,1,1-3; Zon. 9,2,7). Punic Wars (II) Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. von Ungern-Sternberg, Capua im Zweiten Punischen Krieg, 1975, 69. [German version] [2] T. Gallus, M. Roman equestrian, Caesar's prefect or tribune in Gaul, who demanded grain from the Coriosolites (…

Trebonianus Gallus

(248 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imp. Caes. C. Vibius T. Gallus Augustus (CIL XI 1927), Roman emperor from June AD 251 to August (?) AD 253. Born about 206 in Perusia, from a noble family (Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 31,1), Senator, cos. suff. c. AD 245 (Dexippus FGrH 100 F 22), governor of the province of Moesia inferior AD 250/1 [1. 103 f.]. At Novae[1], he successfully opposed the Goths (Goti) under their king Kniva (Iord. Get. 101 f.). Emperor Decius [II 1] escaped to him after being defeated by the Goths at Beroea[2]. Together they intended to cut off the Germans'…

Trebonius

(601 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, documented with certainty only from the 1st cent. BC on (T. [I 2] might be unhistorical). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] T., C. Son of an ill-reputed (Cic. Phil. 13,23; the same as in Hor. Sat. 1,4,114?) Roman equestrian. In 58 BC [1], T. worked as quaestor urbanus against P. Clodius' [I 4] switch to the plebs . As tribune of the people in 55, he introduced laws that gave M. Licinius [I 11] Crassus and Cn. Pompeius [I 3] provincial terms of five years and exte…

Trebula

(357 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Gargini, Michela (Pisa)
(Τρήβουλα; Trḗboula). [German version] [1] Sabine town This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus Town of the Sabini tribe (Str. 5,3,1; Plin. HN 3,107; ILS 442: Mutuesca; Obseq. 41-43: Mutusca), c. 65 km northeast of Rome on a side street of the via Salaria , c. 1 km to the east of Monteleone Sabino (Rieti). In 290 BC, they were probably subjugated by the Romans like the other Sabini (cf. Flor. Epit. 1,10; Oros. 3,22,11); still a vicus (ILS 21a) in 149 BC. After the abolition of the prefectures it became a municipium , tribus Sergia, with octoviri (cf. ILS 6554)…

Tree cult

(395 words)

Author(s): Baudy, Gerhard (Constance)
[German version] In Greece and  Italy, a particular tree was often closely connected with a deity or a hero: examples are the oracular oak of Zeus at Dodona (Hom. Il. 16,233-235), and Athena's sacred olive tree on the Acropolis, on which the fate of the city was supposed to depend (Hdt. 8,55). Others are the monk's pepper tree of Hera on Samos (Paus. 7,4,4), the ficus Ruminalis, which stood on the Forum as a monument to the wolf that fostered Romulus and Remus (Plin. HN. 15,77), and Apollo's bay tree, which was supposed to have been the result of the metamorph…

Tree of life

(326 words)

Author(s): Briese, Christoph (Randers)
[German version] Representations of the Phoenician TL (also 'Sacred Tree'), whose significance and iconographic origin must be sought in Assyrian religion (magic reliefs, Nimrud), are an important symbol, a picture of fertility in need of protection and therefore an almost ubiquitous element of the religious and profane world view of the Phoenicians. Considerably stylized in various ways, it is usually represented, in ceaselessly novel combinations, series and abridgments of particular elements, a…

Tremelius

(425 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Roman nomen gentile (in the MSS very frequently Tremellius), attested from the 2nd. cent. BC onwards. The six generations of praetorian ancestors on whom T. [3] prided himself (Varro, Rust. 2,4,2) are quite believable. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] T., Cn. As tribune of the people, he successfully interceded in 168 BC against an extension of the term served by the censors (Liv. 45,15,9) who had passed him over in the lectio senatus . As praetor in 159 BC, he insulted the pontifex maximus who gave him a penalty ( multa ). A people's court confir…

Tremissis

(190 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] (from tres and as). Late Antiquity gold coin, from AD 313 (RIC VII Trier no. 38) under Constantinus [1] the Great 3/8 (9 siliquae ; standard weight 1.71 g), from 383 1/3 (8 siliquae, standard weight 1.51 g), of a solidus . Initially rarely minted, from the end of the 4th cent. until the 7th cent. tremisses were very frequently minted, the last in the 9th cent. The reverse image was Victoria, from c. 610 a cross. The tremissis became the model for the majority of gold coins of the Germanic peoples in the migration period (Franks, Vandals, Ostrogoths and Vi…

Tremulus

(16 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('trembling, tremulous'); Q. Marcius [I 28] T. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Treres

(126 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Τρῆρες/ Trêres, Τρᾶρες/ Trâres). Thracian tribe, located in the Plain of Serdica (modern Sofia) to the north of the Scombros (modern Vitoša) Mountains and to the west of the River Oescus [1] (modern Iskăr). In the kingdom of the Odrysae they were among the northwestern border tribes. They were neighbours of the Triballi and the Tilataei (Thuc. 2,96,6; Str. 1,3,18; Plin. HN 4,35). According to Str. (1,3,21; 13,1,8; 14,1,40) they were supposed to have been among the Cimmerii who migrated to Asia Minor. Ancient oriental sources do not mention them, however. von Bredow, I…

Tresantes

(133 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τρέσαντες, 'those having fled in fear'). Spartiates, who had failed in battle and lost their aretḗ (Virtue) (Tyrtaeus fr. 8,14 Gentili/Prato), with the result that they were held in contempt socially (Plut. Lycurgus 21,2). They were allowed to shave only half their beards, could not hold office, were excluded from gymnastics, games, contubernia and from merchant business (Xen. Lac. 9,4-6), could allegedly also be beaten and had to wear dirty clothing. It was considered shameful to give one a da…

Tres militiae

(276 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] A schedule of promotion for equestrians ( equites Romani ) as commanders of auxiliary units and legions developed in the Roman army from the early Imperial period. In many cases, it comprised three steps. Although Claudius [III 1] had set the sequence: praefectus cohortis - praefaectus alae - tribunus militum (Suet. Claud. 25,1), from the end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty the normal order became: praefectus cohortis (commander of a cohort of 500 men; praefectus ), - tribunus [4] militum with a legion (or a cohors civium Romanorum), and finally praefectus alae (commande…

Tressis

(134 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] Roman coin of value 3 asses (As) (from tres and as: Varro Ling. 5,169); as a cast coin with value indication III in the libral Roma-wheel series of aes grave (mid-3rd cent. BC [2. no. 24/1]) and in the post-semilibral Janus-prora series ( c. 215-212 BC [2. no. 41/3a]); 36-35 BC as minted coins with value indication Γ in the issues of Marcus Antonius [I 9]'s naval prefect from Sicily ( Sestertius ) and, usually without value indication, as a locally minted triassarion in the eastern parts of the Empire in the Imperial period (As). Coins from Vienna, Lugdu…

Tres Tabernae

(398 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] Town between Aricia and Forum Appii Town between Aricia and Forum Appii (modern Faiti) on the via Appia (Cic. Att. 1,13; 2,10; 2,12; It. Ant. 107,3; Tab. Peut. 6,1) where it crosses the road Antium - Satricum - Norba [1], located south-east of modern Cisterna. In TT, members of the Roman Christian community encountered Paulus [2] on his trip to Rome (Acts 28,15). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [2] City of the Mediomatrici City of the Mediomatrici with the rank of a vicus (CIL XIII 11648), modern Saverne (Dép. Bas Rhin) on …

Tresviri

(1,068 words)

Author(s): de Libero, Loretana (Hamburg) | Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
A board of three Roman magistrates with a defined area of competence. Distinction is made between ordinary annual officials, who had ordering functions within the group of viginti(sex)viri , and the extraordinary tresviri, who are known, on occasion, to have amassed a great deal of power. [German version] [1] Tresviri capitales Created c.290 BC, their office belonged to the lowest grade on the Republican career path (Cursus honorum; Liv. Per. 11). At first they were appointed by the praetor , and after 242 BC elected in the comitia tributa (Fest. 468 L). They were responsible for t…

Treveri

(1,654 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] I. Geography A tribe living in Gallia Belgica between the Meuse in the west and the Middle Rhine in the east, their territory bordered in the north by the Ardennes, the Luxembourg Eisling and the Middle Eifel; the southern boundary ran along the southern edge of Belgian Lorraine and Luxembourg, through the north of the Saarland and along the Nahe. Between the mountainous, densely wooded and rather settlement-hostile border areas in both north and south (Hunsrück) lay fertile hilly terrain, river valleys and bays with ideal conditions for settlement. Schön, Franz (Rege…

Triakonta

(358 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (οἱ τριάκοντα/ hoi triákonta, 'the Thirty'). In Athens, the oligarchic body of thirty men who ruled in 404/3 BC after the Peloponnesian War (Oligarchia). They were appointed at the urging of the Spartan Lysander [1], with a double commission, to make proposals for constitutional reform, and to rule the state until the reform was accomplished. They began a process of legal revision, aiming to purge the excesses of the demokratia ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 35,2-3), but before long they obtained the support of a garrison from Sparta and…

Triakosioi

(298 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
(οἱ τριακόσιοι/ hoi triakósioi, 'the Three Hundred'). Collective name in ancient Athens for a group of 300 men, with various functions: [German version] [1] Group of the wealthiest Athenian citizens, 4th cent. BC A group of the 300 wealthiest citizens in 4th cent. BC Athens, made up of the three richest members of each of the 100 tax groups (Symmoria), created in order to raise the eisphora , a property tax. They were liable for the liturgy (I) of the proeisphora , by which they had to advance the whole sum due from their tax group, and then recover fo…

Trial formula

(7 words)

see Formula; Legis actio

Trial minting

(115 words)

Author(s): Mlasowsky, Alexander (Hannover)
[German version] Trial mintings of coins and medals, as a rule made from inferior metal. Esp. TMs of Roman gold and silver coins exist in bronze and lead [2.64]. They often represent the only record of lost originals or of an issue that was never minted [1.1 ff.]. Coins with a very wide edge, probably special occasional mintings for particular events, can also be described as TM [3.32]. Coin production Mlasowsky, Alexander (Hannover) Bibliography 1 A. Alföldi, Zur Kenntnis der Zeit der römischen Soldatenkaiser III, in: ZfN 40, 1930, 1-15 2 M. R. Alföldi, Zum Lyoner Bleimedaillon, in: S…

Trial oath

(5 words)

see Sacramentum

Triarius

(336 words)

Author(s): Schumacher, Leonhard | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Military term Soldier of the Roman manipular army in the third line of the legion in battle formation (Pol. 6,21,7-10). The triarii were armed with gladius (Sword), scutum (Shield) and hasta [1] (Pol. 6,23,16). The integration of the triarii from the phalanx into manipular tactics had the purpose of stabilizing combat effectiveness. After that, the qualification was no longer based on the census but on age and battle experience instead (Liv. 8,8,3-13). The battalions were referred to as 'pillars' ( pili), the triarii as a whole as pilani (Varro Ling. 5,89). Their…

Trias

(95 words)

Author(s): Stumpf, Gerd (Munich)
[German version] (Greek/Siculan τριᾶς/ trìâs, 'third'). Corresponds to 4 unciae and hence a triens . As a bronze coin the trias was minted with a value mark of four spheres in Acragas (5th cent. BC: SNG Copenhagen 61), Himera (before c. 413 BC: HN, 146) and Segesta (before c. 409 BC: BMC, Gr, 49), with a value mark IIII in Regium (5th/4th cent. BC: BMC, Gr, 102-112). Items formerly described as triantes are tetrantes ( Tetrás ) [1]. Stumpf, Gerd (Munich) Bibliography 1 H. Chantraine, Bemerkungen zum ältesten sizilianischen und römischen Münzwesen, in: JNG 12, 1962, 51-58.

Triballi

(303 words)

Author(s): Cabanes, Pierre (Clermont-Ferrand)
[German version] (Τριβαλλοί; Triballoí). Illyrian (App. Ill. 2 f.; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.) or Thracian (Str. 7,3,13; 7,5,6) tribe between the lower Margus and present-day Iskar - right side-arms of the Istrus [2] (Danube). In the 5th cent. BC, the Athenian sources mention T. who mostly had been sold to Attica as slaves by the Odrysae (Hdt. 4,49; Thuc. 2,96); Aristoph. Av. 1529-1565 emphasizes their wildness (cf. later Isoc. Or. 8,50). Isocrates (Or. 12,227 f.), however, focused on their unity which h…

Tribes, names of

(7 words)

see Ethnic names

Tribes of Israel

(8 words)

see Judah and Israel

Triboci

(256 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] People in Lower Alsace, who arrived in Gaul with Ariovistus in 58 BC and settled among the Mediomatrici around Brocomagus (modern Brumath) and Haguenau [1]. Their neighbours to the north were the Nemetes, to the west the Mediomatrici, to the south or southwest the Rauraci and the Leuci. When the T. became settled is unclear. The depictions in Caes. B Gall. 4,10 and  Str. 4,3,4 (Τρίβοκχοι/ Tríbokchoi) probably correspond only to circumstances around the middle of the 1st cent. BC ([2. 27-30]; later: [3]). In AD 70 the T. took part in the Treveri …

Tribon

(99 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (τρίβων/ tríbōn, τριβώνιον/ tribṓnion). A coat ( himátion, cf. pallium ) of 'bristly' wollen material, worn by Cretans (Str. 10,4,20) and Spartans (Plut. Lycurgus 30; Plut. Agesilaus 30; Ael. VH 7,13); later also common in Athens (Thuc. 1,6,3). It was part of the clothing of simple people (Aristoph. Eccl. 850; Aristoph. Vesp. 1131), farmers (Aristoph. Ach. 184; 343) and lakōnizóntes ('imitators of Spartan customs', Dem. Or. 54,34). From the time of Socrates (Pl. Symp. 219b; Pl. Prt. 335d; Xen. Mem. 1,6,2) the tribon was also the typ…

Tribonianus

(219 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] From AD 529 until AD 532 'Minister of Justice' under Iustinianus [1] I ( qu. sacri palatii), from 533 until 535 superintendent of the Imperial chancery ( magister officiorum) and from then until his death (presumably in AD 542) again qu. [1. 40-69]. As a connoisseur and admirer of Roman law and the jurisprudence of the Principate, T. was a leading developer of all parts of the Justinianic compilation: the old Codex (II. C.; Const. Haec 1; Summa 2), the Digesta (Deo auctore 3; Tanta pr.), the Institutiones ( Imperatoriam 3; Tanta 11) and the new Codex ( Cordi 2). Whether he pe…

Tribuli

(192 words)

Author(s): Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon)
[German version] The term tribuli described metal spikes with four points so arranged that one of them always pointed upwards (Veg. Mil. 3,24,4); they represented a very dangerous obstacle for infantry and cavalry. They can be traced to the τριβόλοι/ tribóloi of the Greeks, who may have adopted them from the Persians (Polyaen. 4,17: Darius [3]); even the Celts were familiar with them. The Romans, who are supposed to have used  tribuli as early as  295 BC at Sentinum  (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 20,1), systematically deployed them in the wars with Antiochus [5] III and Mi…

Tribunus

(1,975 words)

Author(s): de Libero, Loretana (Hamburg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
(Formed from the word tribus with the suffix - unus, which indicates a person of superordinate authority); the administrative and/or military leader of a tribus ; pl.: tribuni. [German version] [1] Tribunus aerarius Presumably originally aides to the Roman magistrates, charged by the state treasury ( aerarium ) with paying the wages of the soldiers of their tribus  (Soldiers' pay). Tribuni aerarii were perhaps also headmen of their tribus. They may have been active in financial matters into the 1st cent. BC, and were subject to distraint ( pignus ), which indic…

Tribus

(1,545 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
Subunit of the Roman population ( populus ), arranged solely on a local basis according to residence from at least the Republican period. [German version] I. Meaning and oldest form Roman etymology already derived tribus from its recollection of tres ( 'three'), the number of the oldest tribus. According to Varro (Ling. 5,55), the Roman territory was at first divided into three parts, and the term tribus derived from the Titi(ens)es, Ramnes and Luceres ( ager Romanus primum divisus in partes tres a quo tribus appellata Titiensium, Ramnium, Lucerum 'the Roman land was first divided i…

tributa comitia

(5 words)

see Comitia

Tribute lists

(5 words)

see Phoros

Tributum

(4 words)

see Taxes

Tricaranum

(45 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Τρικάρανον; Trikáranon). Mountain ridge on the north-eastern Peloponnesus (Xen. Hell. 7,2,1; 7,2,5 f.; 7,2,11 ff.; 7,4,11; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.), modern Koutsi, east of Phlius (highest elevation is Hagios Elias: 730 m). Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. T., RE 6 A, 144 f.  Pritchett 2, 103-105.

Tricasses

(126 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] People in northeastern Gallia on the upper Sequana and the modern Aube in Lugdunensis, with the Senones [2], the Parisii, the Meldi, the Remi and the Lingones as neighbours (Plin. HN 4,107). Until the 1st cent. BC they were probably reckoned among the Senones. Augustus organised them as an autonomous civitas with Augustobona Tricassium (modern Troyes) as their seat of administration. In late Antiquity the T. were part of Lugdunensis II (Amm. 15,10,11 f.); in 588 the Notitia Galliarum has them as part of the later established Lugdunensis IV (Senonia). Polfer, Michel (…

Tricastini

(107 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] Celtic people in the Roman province of Narbonensis on the west bank of the Rhodanus (modern Rhône) in the mountainous country between the Cavari, the Vocontii and the Segovellauni (Liv. 5,34,5; 21,31,9; Sil. Pun. 3,466; Amm. Marc. 15,10,11). Ptol. 2,10,13 mentions Noviomagus [2] as main town of their civitas. Identification with modern Saint Paul Trois-Châteaux is likely; Augusta Tricastinorum at the time of Augustus, mentioned in Plin. HN 3,36 among the oppida Latina of the Narbonensis; Colonia Flavia Tricastinorum in the Flavian period (AE 1962, 143). Polfer, …

Tricca

(162 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity (Τρίκκα/ Tríkka). Capital of Hestiaeotis in western Thessaly, on the Lethaeus (modern Trikkalinos), which flows from the Chasia Mountains. T. is mentioned in the Iliad as the place of origin of the Asclepius cult (Hom. Il. 2,729-733). In the Classical period T. was already minting its own coins (HN 310). T. became Macedonian after 352 BC (Diod. Sic. 18,56,5; Pelinna), was Aetolian for a time at the end of the 3rd cent. and was won back by Thessaly in 186/5…

Tricciana

(68 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman fort ( beneficiarii station?, approximately 296 m × 268 m) in Pannonia Inferior, station on the Sirmium - Carnuntum road (It. Ant. 267,7), modern Ságvár (megye of Somogy in Hungary). Finds of terra sigillata, cemetery (also with Christian burials). T. was still of significance in the 4th cent. AD. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 113  A. Moćsy, Pannonia and Upper Moesia, 1974, 305 f.

Trichalkon

(58 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] (τρίχαλκον; tríchalkon). Coin of 3 chalkoí (Chalkos), recorded from the time of Theophrastus (Char. 10,6; 371-287 BC) onwards. The 4th-cent. BC bronze coin of Phocis with value mark T is probably a trichalkon, and it appears as an indication of value on Imperial period bronze coins of Chios (= 1/2  as ?). Klose, Dietrich (Munich)

Trichonium

(206 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia (Τριχόνειον/ Trichóneion, literary Τριχώνιον/ Trichṓnion). Aetolian city (Aetoli) to the south of Lake Trichonis (modern Limni Trichonida) on the northern slopes of the Aracynthus mountains (modern Zygos) near modern Gavalu. T. was the most significant city of central Aetolia, supplied most of the strategoi (cf. Stratēgós ) of the Aetolian League, but is mentioned in historiographic literature only in the context of Philippus [7] V's campaign to Thermus …

Trichryson

(110 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] (τρίχρυσον; tríchryson). Triple chrysoûs (gold coin, particularly gold stater) is the name given in a papyrus (P CZ 59021,13; 59022,6-16, 3rd cent. BC) to the coin known today as a pentádrachmon , an early Ptolemaic gold coin of approximately 17.8 g with a value initially of 60 Phoenician-Ptolemaic silver drachmai; this corresponds to a gold-silver proportion of 12 : 1. According to the papyrus, however,  the trichryson was traded with a premium of 6 2/3 silver drachmai, the gold-silver ratio had therefore risen to 13 1/3 : 1  [1. 70-73]. It may be that the trichryso…

Tricipitinus

(31 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, derived from an unknown place name, occurring only in the Lucretii family in the Republican period (Lucretius [I 7; 9-12]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 210.

Triclinium

(508 words)

Author(s): Schmitt-Pantel, Pauline (Paris)
[German version] (τρικλίν[ι]ον; triklín[i]on). Roman dining room, or in the narrower sense, a group of three couches (Latin lectus; klínē ), on each of which three guests could take their places. Their arrangement around a central round or rectangular table was the typical Roman furnishing for the dining room (cf. ill.). The couches could be built of stone, so that their location is recognizable in the floor plan of the house; however, they were frequently movable. Mattresses, cushions and blankets provided the necessary comfort. Where there was no constructed substructure, a triclini…

Triclinius

(6 words)

see Demetrius V [43]

Tricorii

(69 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] (Τρικόριοι; Trikórioi). Celtic people of Gallia Narbonensis (Plin. HN 3,34) in the valley of the Drac in the Alps (Str. 4,1,11; 4,6,5). In 218 BC Hannibal [4] marched through their territory (Liv. 21,31,9; Amm.  Marc. 15,10,11). In 58 BC they joined the march of the Helvetii  (cf. App. Celt. 1,8: Τρίκουροι). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 325-330.

Tricorythus

(178 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Attica (Τρικόρυ(ν)θος; Trikóry(n)thos). Attic paralia deme, Aeantis phyle, from AD 126/7 Hadrianis, three (six) bouleutaí, on the marshy northern edge of the Plain of Marathon near modern Kato Souli; demoticon Τρικορύσιος/ Trikorýsios. With Marathon, Oenoe [5] and Probalinthus, T. formed the Tetrapolis cult association (Str. 8,7,1), whose cultic calendar (IG II2 1358 Z. 55) is evidence of a Hera cult in T. According to Sic. 4,57,4; 58,4, the Heraclidae settled in T., and the head of Eurystheu…

Tricostus

(5 words)

Roman Cognomen, Verginius

Tridentum

(180 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Raeti, Raetia | Regio, regiones (modern Trento). Raetic oppidum on the Atesis (Plin. HN 3,130; according to Just. Epit. 20,5,8, Celtic). The municipium Iulia Tridentina in the area of the Alpes Tridentinae (Plin. HN 3,121; Flor. Epit. 1,38,11; Cass. Dio 54,22,1 and 3) was founded under Caesar as the central town of the Tridentini (Str. 4,6,6) and under Augustus allotted to  Regio X  ( tribus Papiria). The city walls from the time of Augustus attest to urban expansion, which led to the greatest heig…

Tridrachmon

(105 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] (τρίδραχμον; trídrachmon). Coin of 3 drachmai (Drachme [1]), mentioned by Pollux (9,60). The trídrachma Maronitiká in Attic inscriptions are probably the tetradrachma (Tetradrachmon) of Maronea [1] in accordance with the 'Phoenician' coinage standard (Coinage, standards of), which because of their decrease in weight were later worth only 3 Attic drachmai. As minted coins tridrachma are very rare: early 'Aeginetan' tridrachma of Delphi; the coins of the Ionian symmachía of 394-387 were simultaneously Aeginetan didrachma (Didrachmon) and Rhodian tridrachma (…

Triens

(155 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] Latin, 'third' of an as and hence of any twelve-part whole, 4 unciae ( triás ), used with this meaning in Roman currency from the earliest aes grave; in the Janus/ prora series with a head of Minerva on the obverse, four points as a value indicator. Trientes were first cast, then minted, most recently under Cornelius [I 90] Sulla. The triens also appears in other Italian aes grave; in the decimally divided eastern Italian series it is better to call it a quadrunx . It occurs minted in the Roman/Campanian coin series (obv. head of Juno, rev. He…

Trier

(9,982 words)

Author(s): Clemens, Lukas | Kuhnen, Hans-Peter (Trier) | Kreikenbom, Detlev (Mainz RWG)
Clemens, Lukas [German version] I. Post Antiquity (CT) Clemens, Lukas [German version] A. History (CT) After the loss of its function as a (Roman) Imperial residence and the removal of the praetorian prefecture to Arles, Trier (T.) was under permanent military threat. It has been established that the city was taken four times by Frankish (and Burgundian) forces, and retaken each time, all in the first half of the 5th cent. alone. The city also seems to have been affected by the Hunnish expedition into Gaul in …

Trier

(7 words)

see Augusta [6] Treverorum; Trier

Trierarchia

(170 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (τριηραρχία; triērarchía). Obligation to equip a trireme for one year and to command the crew ( c. 200 men). Introduced in 483/2 as a military leiturgia (Liturgy I.) in place of the naukrariai , which were no longer sufficient following the naval rearmament programme of Themistocles. Later also used as a technical term for the command of other warships. Because of the great financial burden it imposed, the system was modified from 410 BC by the syntrierarchy (two trierarchoi per ship), and the load was distributed still more in 357 BC or shortly before by t…

Trieteris

(83 words)

Author(s): Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen) | Ziegler
(τριετηρίς, trietērís, feminine adjective). Literally 'third-yearly', i.e. occurring every third year, according to the modern way of counting 'every two years'. [German version] [1] (t. periodos) see Chronography trietērìs períodos (τ. περίοδος, 'intercalation cycle') see Chronography. Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen) [German version] [2] Biennial festival trietērìs heortḗ, (τ. ἑορτή). A festival with games taking place every two years, e.g. the Isthmia, the Nemea [3], the Eleusinia and the Nicephoria for Athena in Pergamum. Ziegler Bibliography K. Hanell, s. v. T. (1), R…

Trifanum

(65 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in the territory of the Aurunci (Ausones) on the Tyrrhenian coast between Minturnae and Sinuessa, where in 340 BC the consul Manlius [I 12] defeated the Latini decisively (Liv. 8,11,11; Diod. Sic. 16,90,2), to be found on the Ager Vescinus (cf. Liv. 10,21,7; 10,31,2; Cic. Leg. agr. 2,66). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography F. Coarelli, Vescia, in: id. (ed.), Minturnae, 1989, 29-33, here 33.

Triga

(337 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (Latin from triiuga; Greek τρίπωλος/ trípōlos; 'team of three'). Its significance as a racing, hunting or war vehicle was far less than that of bigae and of the quadriga. In Homer only extra horses for a team of two are mentioned (cf. Hom. Il. 8,80-86; 16,152-154 and 467-476) and on one occasion a gift of three horses (Hom. Od. 4,590); otherwise the literary sources on trigae are rather rare (e.g. Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 7,73). The same is true for representations in art; first and foremost are 9th-cent. BC Assyrian reliefs with battle and  huntin…

Trigaboli

(38 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town near modern Ferrara, where the Padus (modern Po) separated into two branches, the Olana (Ὄλανα) and the Padoa (Παδόα) (Pol. 2,16,11: Τριγάβολοι/ Trigáboloi). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Uggeri, La romanizzazione dell'antico Delta Padano, 1975, 46 f.

Trigeminus

(15 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman Cognomen ('Triplet'), see Curiatius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 295.

Triginta tyranni

(249 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] The fictitious author Trebellius Pollio uses the term triginta tyranni (TT) in the Historia Augusta to refer to 32 usurpers from all parts of the empire supposedly in the period of the emperors Valerianus [2] and Gallienus (253-268) in order to expose their rule as particularly week and bad. He increased the number that was first planned to be 20 (SHA Gall. 21,1) to 30 as an allusion to the Athenian Thirty Tyrants ( triákonta ) (SHA Trig. tyr. 2-31), among them esp. derisively (31,7) two women, Zenobia from Palmyra (30) and Victoria in…

Triglyphos

(237 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] (τρίγλυφος/ tríglyphos, feminine). The triply grooved panels on the  frieze of the Doric order (cf. Angle triglyph problem, with ill.; Column II. B.). According to an assumption recorded by Vitruvius (4,2,2), that the basic forms of the Doric order derive from a transition from building in wood to building in stone, the tríglyphos marks the notched end of roof beams lying horizontally on the architrave. The indentations of the ends in wooden constructions were (primarily) due to technical rather than decorative reasons; they, together with the roof overhang and the mu…

Trigon

(122 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Roman ball game, recorded for the Imperial period; it was played on the Field of Mars  (Hor. Sat. 1,6,126) and in baths (Petron. 27,1-3). Three players (Mart. 7,72,9) were needed for trigon; they positioned themselves in a triangle and played one or more small balls between themselves, either catching them (Mart. 12,82,4) or hitting them with both hands so that they were passed back to the thrower or to the third player (Mart. 14,46,1), sometimes with such violence that the palms …
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