Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

Subscriptions: see brill.com

Trihemiobolion

(106 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] (τριημιωβόλιον; trihēmiōbólion). Greek coins with the value of 11/2 oboloi ( Obolós ) = 1/4 drachme [1] (cf. Aristoph. fr. 48) in Athens in the 5th cent. BC. Coins of 1.08 g with two owls and an olive branch between them, or a frontal view of an owl with open wings. Trihēmiōbólia with value indicators ΤΡΙΗ in Corinth and Leucas, ΤΡΙ in Cranii, Τ in Sicyon (all 5th cent. BC), and three Εs (for 3 (h)emibolia) in Heraea and Tegea (late 5th-4th cents. BC). Gold trihemiobolia of 0.45-0.60 g were minted in Corinth around406 BC. Klose, Dietrich (Munich) Bibliography W. Schwabacher, …

Trilingual inscriptions

(757 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Günter (Würzburg) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] I. General Inscriptions in three languages on a single object that refer to the same facts exist in Antiquity, albeit rather rarely on the whole, ordered by official as well as private sponsors. The different versions were usually tailored to the cultural requirements and interests of the respective audiences so that their messages (and length) are not always completely congruous (cf. [4]). Most of the trilingual inscriptions (TI) originated in the east. They reflect the multi-lingu…

Trilogy

(41 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (ἡ τριλογία/ hē trilogía). From Hellenistic philology onwards a term for three tragedies, without the concluding satyr play, performed during the Great Dionysia at Athens (cf. Schol. Aristoph. Ran. 1124) [1. 80]. Tetralogy; Tragedy I. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) Bibliography 1 Pickard-Cambridge/Gould/Lewis.

Trimalchio

(5 words)

see Petronius [5]

Trinac(r)ia

(4 words)

see Thrinacie

Trinemeia

(94 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Attica (Τρινέμεια; Trinémeia). Attic mesogeia deme, of the Cecropis phyle, two bouleutaí, at the source of the Cephissus [2] (Str. 9,1,24) to the northeast of modern Kifissia in the valley of the modern Kokkinaras. An ephebe ( Ephēbeía ) from T. (IG II2 1028 col. III Z. 143) is an addendum to the list of the Cecropis phyle, but this does not attest to a second T. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography Traill, Attica 51, 69, 85, 112 No. 140, 122, Tab. 7.

Trinity

(1,641 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns (Erlangen/Nürnberg)
[German version] I. Definition Trinitas ('trinity'), translated from τριάς/ triás, is a new word formation of Christian Latin (earliest occurrence: Tert. Adversus Praxean 2,4). It defines the monotheist belief in one God in three persons as the foundation of Christian identity and doctrine. As the basis of Christian identity, the Trinity was not only a subject of intellectual debate; above all it belonged to piety and liturgical practice where the need to formulate a doctrine originated. There was no doc…

Trinovantes

(79 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Celtic people, settled in the region of modern Essex in the late Iron Age. In the middle of the 1st cent. BC they were under pressure from the neighbouring Catuvellauni (Caes. Gall. 5,20) and for some time were dependent on them. Under their king Cunobellinus ( c. 10-40 AD) they were again independent and dominant in southern Britain. Their largest oppidum was Camulodunum. Britannia (with map) Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography R. Dunnett, The T., 1975  S. S. Frere, Britannia, 31987.

Trio

(38 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, describing the constellations of Ursa Major and Ursa Minor. The sole known bearer is the triumvir [4] monetalis in 136 BC, Q. Lucretius T. (RRC 239). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 338.

Triobolon

(135 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] (τριώβολον/ triṓbolon; Poll. 9,62). Coin with the value of 3 oboloi ( Obolós ) = 1/2 drachmḗ [1] = 1/4 statḗr , common in almost all Greek coinage systems. In Athens approximately 2.18 g of silver, the daily allowance for attendance at the People's Assembly and the pay for judges (Aristoph. Eccl. 293; 308; Aristoph. Equ. 51; 800), in the Peloponnesian War the daily pay for sailors (Thuc. 8,45,2; Xen. Hell. 1,5,7). Triṓbola with value marks: 3 acorns in Mantinea, Τ in Sicyon. Gold triobola are mentioned in the Eleusis temple inventories (329/8 BC; IG II2 1672 Z. 300) and we…

Triocala

(265 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Werner (Graz)
[German version] (τὰ Τριόκαλα/ tà Triókala, Latin Triocala). Sicanian (Sicani) inland city (Philistus FGrH 556 F 66: Τρίκαλον/ Tríkalon or Τρίκαλα/ Tríkala; Ptol. 3,4,14: Τρίοκλα/ Tríokla) and strategically favourably situated fortress (Diod. Sic. 36,7,3 with etymological derivation of the place name) in the west of Sicilia (Cic. Verr. 2,5,10), presumably near modern Caltabellotta (949 m elevation; archaeological finds from a great variety of periods, hardly studied). In the second of the Punic Wars the city was allied …

Triopas

(125 words)

Author(s): Rausch, Sven
[German version] (Τριόπας/ Triópas, also Τρίοψ/ Tríops). Mythical figure with no clear characteristic personality, appearing in several genealogies and several regions, which can no longer be brought into consistency even as early as Diod. Sic. 5,61,3. In e.g. Apollod. 1,53 his parents are Poseidon and Canace (Thessalian cycle  of  legends). Phorbas and Euboea are also named as parents, and T. is therefore located at Argos (schol. Eur. Or. 932;  cf. Aug. Civ. 18,8). He also appears as a son of Helios …

Triopium

(263 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τριόπιον; Triópion). Promontory at the southwest extremity of Asia Minor (Hdt. 4,38; 7,153;  Scyl. 99; Plin.  HN 5,104), the Western Cape (modern Deveboynu) and in a wider sense the Cnidus (modern Reşadiye) peninsula. The place name, derived from the eponymous founder Triopas (Diod. 5,57,6; 5,61,2), can rather be explained by its geographical shape and location ('three faces'). The cape of T. was frequently of significance to naval strategy in the Aegean (Plut. Cimon 12,2; Thuc. 8…

Triparadisus

(94 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τριπαράδεισος τῆς ἄνω Συρίας/ Triparádeisos tês ánō Syrías, literally 'in Upper Syria', Diod. Sic. 18,39,1; 19,12,2). Ancient city in northern Syria; to date there has been no success in identifying it unambiguously. It is presumed that it can be identified with Paradisus on the upper Orontes [7] (Jusiye? cf. [1. 112]). It was in T. that the Diadochi agreed on a redistribution of Alexander's empire after the death of Perdiccas [4] in 321 BC. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 R. Dussaud, Topographie historique de la Syrie antique et médiévale (B…

Triphiodorus

(563 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Τριφιόδωρος/ Triphiódōros, from the theonym Triphys, Graecized as T.; MSS and Byzantine sources: Tryphiódōros). Greek epic poet, 2nd half of 3rd cent. AD (only biographical testimony: Suda s. v. T.), Egyptian by name, probably from Panopolis [1. 4-7]. Author of works including (cf. [1. 15]) the epic Μαραθωνιακά ( Marathoniaka, 'Marathonic Histories' [1. 11 f.]), the mythical epic Hippodámeia and a lipogrammatic (i.e. written with the constraint of the regular omission of selected letters) Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια λειπογράμματος/ Odýsseia leipográmmatos, cf. …

Triphylia

(559 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Τριφυλία /Triphylía). Territory in the western Peloponnesus, north of the Alpheius [1]; south of the Neda, bounded on the east by the highlands of Arcadia (Arcadians, Arcadia). The fertile hill country, crossed by rivers, with its flat, bayless coast, is divided by the mountain range, today again known as Lapithus, stretching from west to east. The southern part with the Minthe [1] is characterized by extensive sand dunes (cf. 'sandy Pylos' in Hom. Il. 2,77), while there are numer…

Tripod

(962 words)

Author(s): Maaß, Michael (Karlsruhe)
[German version] (τρίπους/ trípous, 'tripod'). Over the course of two millennia, the ancient term for 'tripod' embraced various functions and meanings: household implements, grave goods, modest or lavish votive objects, magnificent memorials to victories in war, sport or lyric competition, and the sacred symbol for the expression of divine knowledge and the divine will (the tripod at Delphi). The predominant ancient use of the term is to denote what is now called the tripod cauldron, fixed to its l…

Tripodiscus

(111 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Τριποδίσκος; Tripodískos). One of five villages which developed into Megara [2]; the founder of T. was considered to be Coroebus [1] (Paus. 1,43,8 with an explanation of the  place name;  cf. Callim. Fr. 31; Plut. Mor.  295b; Steph. Byz. s. v. T.). T. is to be found in the foothills of the Gerania and on a strategically important route to  Delphi (Thuc. 4,70,1 f.), about 7 km to the northwest of Megara. In T., Apollo was worshipped, and in his honour a festival was probably instituted in Megara. The comedy writer Susarion (Susarion, fr. 2) was from T. Freitag, Klaus (Münst…

Tripolis

(627 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Tausend, Sabine | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
(Τρίπολις/ Trípolis; literally, 'triple city'). [German version] [1] Perrhaebic T. The three cities of Azorus, Doliche and Pythium [2] in the small valley south of the Titarus and west of the Olympus [1] were referred to as the 'Perrhaebic T.' The locations of the cities are attested archaeologically, some in inscriptions as well. Up to the 3rd cent. BC, the T. belonged to the Macedonian Elimiotis, then to the alliance of the Perrhaebi and therefore to Thessalia. Literary documentation of T. exists only for the 3rd Macedonian War in 171 BC (Liv. 42,53,6; 42,67,7). Kramolisch, Herwig (Epp…

Tripolitana

(5 words)

see Africa 3

Tripontium

(64 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Station on the Via Appia , where a road branches off to Setia, about 58 km from Rome in the Pomptinae Paludes (Ager Pomptinus) outside Forum Appii (modern Faiti), modern Torre Tre Ponti. A three-arch Roman bridge still crosses the Nymphaeus (modern Ninfa) today; the Decennovium to Tarracina began there. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography V. Galliazzo, I ponti romani, 1994, 86, No. 131.

Triptolemus

(463 words)

Author(s): Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen)
[German version] (Τριπτόλεμος; Triptólemos). The paradigmatic mythological representative of Eleusis [1]. The etymology of the name is dubious [1]. T.'s genealogy is transmitted in various versions, which may indicate that he is not a long-established figure. His connection to the royal Eleusinian family (Apollod. 1,29f.) may be old. In any case, he was claimed by Argos [II 1] after the mid 5th cent. BC (Paus. 1,14,2; [2.158f.]). Around 530 BC, Athenian vases depict him as a bearded figure in a rus…

Triptolemus Painter

(177 words)

Author(s): Lezzi-Hafter, Adrienne (Kilchberg)
[German version] Attic Red Figure vase painter, active c. 490-470 BC. He painted extremely varied shapes of pot. He began, beside Duris [2], in the workshop of Euphronius [2]. Later he worked with Brygus (Brygus Painter) and Hieron, as well as with Python (Potters), Duris' bowl-potter. On a rhyton he worked with the potter Charinus (Richmond, Virginia Mus.) [1]. His stylistic development underwent an archaizing phase and ended in second-rate bowl pictures. His pictorial language is rich: in his Apatouria…

Tripudium

(75 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] In the auspicia ex tripudiis interpretations were made of the feeding behaviour of  hens (Cic. Div. 1,27; 1,77; 2,71-73). If feed fell to the ground when they were eating it was interpreted as a positive sign, if the birds hung back, cried out or turned away from the food as a negative one. Augures; Divination Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover) Bibliography J. Linderski, The Augural Law, in: ANRW II 16.3, 1986, 2146-2312, esp. 2174.

Trireme

(850 words)

Author(s): Tilley, Alec F. | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
(τριήρης/ triḗrēs; Lat. trieris, triremis;from tri- 'three' and Gr. eretmón, Lat. remus 'oar'). [German version] I. History of the Trireme From the battle off Salamis [1] (480 BC) to the Hellenistic age, the trireme of the Classical period was the most battle-worthy warship of the eastern Mediterranean region. It was developed from the elongated boats of the archaic period, which possessed one or two banks of oars on both sides and were used in Naval warfare. The tactical goal in naval battles was to sink enemy shi…

Trismegistus

(5 words)

see Hermes; Thot

Tritaea

(170 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Τριταία/ Tritaía,  in literature also Τρίτεια/ Tríteia). City in western Achaea (Achaei, with map; Paus. 6,12,8 f.; 7,22,6-9; Plin. HN 4,22; Cic. Att. 6,2,3) opposite the northwestern slopes of the Erymanthus [1] mountains on the Vunduchla plain,  which is bounded in the east and west by two tributaries of the Peirus [1. 9 f.], near modern Agia Marina, with numerous  ancient remains (Str. 8,3,10; 8,7,4). T. was one of the twelve ancie…

Tritagonistes

(160 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] (τριταγωνιστής; tritagōnistḗs). The third actor in a tragedic tetralogy, introduced by Sophocles [1]. In the competition for  best performer (at the Dionysia from 449 BC onwards) only the prōtagōnistḗs would take part. He would take the main role and possibly also powerful single-actor scenes, the two lesser actors (particularly the tritagonistes) would master a large number of different male and female roles; this would require linguistic and performing expression of great variety. In Soph.  OC two performers (Oedipus and Antigo…

Tritea

(106 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τριτέα/ Tritéa; Τρίτεια/ Tríteia). Town in the east of western Locris (Locri [1]; Thuc. 3,101,2; Steph. Byz. s.v. Τρίτεια; SEG 25, 590), probably at modern Pendeoria near Galaxidi, with remains of a ring wall. A breed of hunting dog was named after T. (Hesych. s.v. Τριτῆς γενήεν). There are frequent mentions of inhabitants of T. in inscriptions at Delphi. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography L. Lérat, Les Locriens de l'ouest, vol. 1, 1952, 51 f., 145-149, 211; vol. 2, 1952, passim  J. Bousquet, C. Vatin, La Convention Chaleion-T., in: BCH 92, 1968, 29-36  G. …

Tritetartemorion

(43 words)

Author(s): Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] (τριτεταρτημόριον/ tritetart ēmórion, also tritartēmórion, tritēmórion). Silver coin with the value of 3 tetartēmória, 3/4 obolós (Poll. 9,65), with 3 crescent moons in 4th-cent.-BC Athens and 3 Ts in Thurii, Delphi, Argos, Elis, Mantinea, Cranium, and Pale. Klose, Dietrich (Munich)

Triton

(545 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Τρίτων/ Trítōn, Latin Triton). [German version] [1] Sea deity Sea deity with the upper body of a human and the tail of a fish, sometimes also as an ichthyocentaur with the forelegs of a horse (Tzetz. Lycophr. 34; 886), son of Poseidon and Amphitrite (Hes. Theog. 930-933), who stirs up the waters with his conch shell and calms them again (Verg. Aen. 10,209-212; Ov. Met. 1,330-342). Like the related sea gods  Glaucus [1], Halios geron, Nereus, Phorcys [1] and Proteus, T. in particular is a figure of liter…

Tritopatores

(155 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] (Τριτοπάτορες/ Tritopátores, also Τριτοπατρεῖς/ Tritopatreîs). The cultically worshipped ancestors - usually as a collective, but also individually (Τριτοπάτωρ/ Tritopátōr: IDélos 1,66) - of a particular social group. Cults of the T. of a pólis , of demes ( dêmos [2]), phratríai or génē (Family, IV. A. 3.) are recorded in Attica and on Attic-influenced Delos, in Selinus [4], Troezen and Cyrene. Several local inscriptional texts, primarily including a lex sacra from Selinus, give information about their cultic status. Philochorus (FGrH 328 F 182) in…

Trittyes

(655 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (τριττύες/ trittýes, sing. τριττύς/ trittýs, 'a third'). At Athens, name for the subdivisions both of the four ancient phylaí (Phyle [1]) and of the ten new phylaí of Cleisthenes [2]. Little is known of the twelve old trittyes. An ancient identification with the phatríai (Phratria; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. Fr. 3 Kenyon = Fr. 2 Chambers) seems to be incorrect. The trittýes may have comprised four naukraríai (Naukraria, naukraros) each, but this is not attested. One of the trittýes was called Leukotaínioi ('white-ribboned'). In the territorial organization of Attic…

Triturrita

(26 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Late Roman villa (Rut. Nam. 1,531; Portus [7] Pisanus) on the coast of the Mare Tyrrhenum at modern Livorno. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Triumphal Arch

(5,633 words)

Author(s): Borggrefe, Heiner
Borggrefe, Heiner [German version] A. General (CT) The ancient Roman triumphal arch (TA) served for the honour and apotheotic exaltation of commanders, governors, senators and emperors. In addition to the erection of structures, in stone or more ephemeral materials, its reception in post-ancient times concerns the adoption of the façade-scheme in its various elaborations, as well as its depiction in the fine arts. Following the ancient model, TAs were predominantly erected for the exalted representatio…

Triumphal arches

(1,191 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] I. Nomenclature and definition Roman triumphal arches (TA) as a free-standing monument were originally called fornix . Around the beginning of the Common Era the word ianus came into use, followed with increasing regularity by arcus. The term arcus triumphalis came into use in the 3rd cent. AD, leading in the early 19th cent. to the problematic modern concept of 'triumphal arches'. This refers to an imposing arch structure, generally free-standing, but sometimes also to an arch that spans a roadway and connects two bui…

Triumphal paintings

(513 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] A typically Roman genre, common from the middle of the 3rd cent. BC until the Imperial period, today entirely lost and recorded only in written sources. During the triumphal procession (Triumph) of a victorious general, panel paintings or canvas banners were carried past the crowds and were afterwards publicly exhibited (e.g. Plin. HN 35,22-28; Pol. 6,15,8; Jos. BI 7,3-7; other sources in [4]). Rudiments of the content, appearance and intended effect of such pictures can be recons…

Triumph, Triumphal procession

(1,123 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
Ritual marking the end of a campaign of warfare. At the same time it constituted the army's rite of entry into the city and the highest attainable honour for the general. [German version] I. Name and origins The Latin triumphus is derived from the interjection io triump(h)e, which had formed from the Greek cry θριάμβε/ thriámbe in the cult of Dionysus (Varro, Ling. 6,68; Serv. Aen. 10,775) and was originally a plea for the manifestation of the god, comparable to the fivefold triumpe in the cult song of the Arvales fratres [8. 38-55; 7. 223]. The supposed origin …

Triumvirate

(232 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (Latin triumviratus, literally 'alliance of three men'). Non-titular appellation (e.g. in Suet. Aug. 27,1; Vell. Pat. 2,86,2) for the special power which Aemilius [I 12] Lepidus, Antonius [I 9] and Octavianus agreed to at Bononia for themselves and which was granted to them, initially for five years, in November 43 BC by plebiscite ( lex Titia; see tresviri [3]). Echoing this, modern scholarship also calls the informal 'group of three' of Caesar, Pompeius [I 3] and Licinius [I 11] Crassus (end of 60 BC) a triumvirate, though it lacked a…

Trivia

(5 words)

see Biviae; Hecate

Trivicum

(92 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Township, developed out of three vici (cf. place name), of the Hirpini in Apulia (Apuli), possibly modern Trevico (formerly Vico) or modern La Civita 7 km to the east. A villa near T. (possibly at modern Scampitella) was used as a mansio by Horatius [7] on his journey to Brundisium in 37 BC (Hor. Sat. 1,5,79 f.). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Colucci Pescatori, Evidenze archeologiche in Irpinia, in: G. d'Henry et al., La Romanisation du Samnium (Colloque Neapel 1988), 1991, 85-122, here 105 f.  A. Russi, s. v. Apulia, Enciclopedia Oraziana 1, 199…

Troad

(719 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Τρῳάς/ Trō(i)ás, gen. -ádos, fem. adj. 'Trojan', sc. 'land'), territory in the northwest of Asia Minor. It covered the region of the present-day Biga Peninsula (Biga Yarımadası). Its boundaries and nomenclature fluctuated in antiquity. The confused ancient testimonies on its frontiers are well summarized in [1. 526-531]. In general, reliance is mostly placed on Strabo (12,4,6; 13,1,1-4), who essentially refers to Homer (Homerus [1]): the T. was bounded to the north, west and south by …

Trochilos

(108 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] (τροχίλος; trochílos). Cavetto moulding, a concavely curved element in a Classical Attic/Ionic column base separating the upper and lower convex shaped tori (Torus); also current in Archaic/Ionic architecture as a formative element of representational column bases (Column II. B.3. with ill.). The contours of the trochiloi of the column bases in the archaic Temple of Hera on Samos [3], turned on a lathe and of remarkably varied shape, are famous. Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) Bibliography Ebert, 26 (terminology and etymology)  Ch. Höcker, Sekos, Dipteros, Hyp…

Trocmi

(345 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Τρόκμοι/ Trókmoi, Latin Trocmi). Celtic tribe, which, together with the Tolistobogii and led by Lutarius, passed through Thracia (Thracians) in 279/8 BC into the territory of Byzantium; they were recruited by Nicomedes [2] I as allies [1.236-264]. The east Galatian region around central and lower Cappadocia which was won over to support the Pontic kings (probably 274/3 BC) became the home of the T. It was divided into four tribal principalities (tetrarchies with centres of power in …

Troesmis

(255 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia (Τροσμής/ Trosmḗs). Roman legionary camp and civilian city (Ov. Pont. 4,9,79; Tab. Peut. 8,3; Not. Dign. Or. 39,23; 39,31; Geogr. Rav. 4,5,19;  Procop. Aed. 4,11) in Moesia Inferior (Scythia Minor; Moesi), modern Igliţa (in the municipality of Turcoaia in the Romanian county of Tulcea). The Getae were the original settlers; the Romans advanced into the region in 29/27 BC and fortified their position c. AD 15. Before AD 112 the legio V Macedonica was deployed by Oescus [2] to take over military protecti…

Troezen

(689 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Achaeans, Achaea | Apollo | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Education / Culture (Τροιζήν/ Troizḗn only since the 2nd cent. BC and literary; originally Τροζάν/ Trozán, Ionic Τροζήν/ Trozḗn; Lat. Troezen, Troezene, Troezena). [German version] I. Location and history Town on the north coast of the Argolid near present-day T. (formerly Damala) on the northern slope of the Anderes mountain range (present-day Phorbantion). The region of T. encompassed the entire eas…

Troezen inscription

(242 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] An inscription discovered in Troezen in 1959 ([1; 2]; translation in [3. 20 f.]) with the text of a decree of the Athenian People's Assembly proposed by Themistocles (the 'Decree of Themistocles'), which decreed the evacuation of the inhabitants of Attica to Salamis and the repatriation of exiles before the naval battle of Cape Artemisium (Persian Wars) in 480 BC; in its present form, it can be dated to the 3rd cent. BC [4. 2; 2. 48]. Its authenticity was soon doubted and the TI w…

Trogilium

(62 words)

Author(s): Blümel
[German version] (Τρωγίλιον; Trōgílion). A craggy coastal promontory, some 5 km long, a western foothill of the Mycale mountains facing Samos [3], modern Dip Burun (Ptol. 5,2,8: Τρωγγύλιον ἄκρον;  Str. 14,1,12: Τρωγίλιος ἄκρα; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τρώγιλος: Τρωγίλιον; Plin.  HN 5,113: ora Trogilia) with the offshore Trogiliae islands (ibid. 5,135): Psilium, Argennum, and Sandalium (modern Sandal adası). Blümel Bibliography Th. Wiegand, Priene, 1904, 20.

Trogilus

(92 words)

Author(s): Falco
[German version] (Τρώγιλος;  Trṓgilos). Coastal strip near Syracusae (Thuc. 6,99,1; 7,2,4; Liv. 25,23,10: portus Trogilorum; Sil. Pun. 14,259), identical with either (1) the 1 km long Cape Mazzarona with its many caves on the eastern edge of Epipolae (between the coast of Cappuccini and the Scoglio Due Fratelli [1. 827]) or (2) the coast on the northeastern edge of Epipolae (near Cape Santa Panagia [2. 28 f.; 3. 61 f.]). Falco Bibliography 1 H. P. Drögemüller, s. v. Syrakusai, RE Suppl. 13, 815-836 2 L. Polacco, R. Mirisola, Tucidide: la spedizione ateniese contro Sir…

Trogodytae

(127 words)

Author(s): Rausch, Sven
[German version] (Τρωγοδύται/ Trōgodýtai). Hdt. 4,183 introduces a people in the south of Libya as T. Aithíopes. The incorrect form Trōglodýtai developed out of trṓglē ('cave') and dýnai ('dive/plunge into'); already Aristotle (Hist. an. 597a 9) describes the Pygmies as 'cave-dwellers' using the expression trōglodýtai. The correct but etymologically still unclear form T. is found again in Plin. HN 37,107. Nevertheless, T. continues to refer mostly to cave-dwellers, whether in Moesia, in the Caucasus (Str. 7,5,12 and 11,5,7) or elsewhere. …

Troiae lusus

(366 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] (the so-called 'Game of Troy'; also referred to as lusus puerorum equestris, Troicus lusus, Troiae decursio or simply Troia). An Ancient Italian battle game on horseback for boys and adolescents. Etymologically derived from Lat. amptruare or truare ('hopping while dancing', cf. [1] s. v. amtruo). The origin and development of the Troiae lusus (TL) is contested by scholars. The main source for the mythological origin is Verg. Aen. 5,548-603 in connection with the story of the founding of Rome, a version which is not tenable in view…

Troilus

(434 words)

Author(s): Eiben, Susanne (Kiel) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Τρωίλος/ Trōílos, Lat. Troilus). [German version] [1] Son of Priamus Son of Priamus (or Apollo) and Hecabe (Hom. Il. 24,257; Apollod. 3,151). The sparse early textual records yield only that T. - referred to by the epithet hippochármēs ('horse fighter' or 'chariot fighter', Hom. Il. 24,257, on this [1. 292]) - was killed by Achilles [1], an event which according to Proclus (45 Kullmann, [1. 291-293]) had been presented earlier in the Kýpria . The many visual representations from the Archaic Period indicate that the story of T. was well known …

Trojan War

(6 words)

see Troy III

Tropa

(136 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (τρόπα; trópa). Greek children's games with astragaloi (Astragalos [2]), nuts, etc. (Poll. 9,103; schol.  Pl. Ly. 206e); in consisted in throwing one's own astragalos (or nut, etc.) in such a way that it moved one's opponent's astragalos from its position. In a variant of the game one had to try to drop an astragalos into a small pit in the ground. Tropa was probably also played by young Romans (Mart. 4,14,9). Connected with the game of tropa is Polyclitus' [1] group, known only from literature, known as the 'Boys Playing at Knucklebones' (Plin. HN 34,55)…

Tropaea Augusti

(269 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] ( Tropaeum Alpium). Large monument to Augustus' subjugation of the whole Alpine region, in modern La Turbie on a 486 metre-high outcrop dominating Monte Carlo on the Roman coastal road to Gaul on the Italian border (CIL V 2,7817; Ptol. 3,1,2). Rising on a  high rectangular plinth with sides about 32.5 m long a circular building, encircled by columns with a triglyph frieze, is topped by a staircase-like stepped conical roof with a statue of Augustus on a special plinth as a crowning …

Tropaion

(462 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Originally, the tropaion (τρόπαιον/ trópaion; Lat. tropaeum) was a sign erected by the victorious army at the place on the battlefield where the adversary turned to flee (from Greek τρέπειν/ trépein, 'to turn around'). In the language use of later Antiquity, it referred to victory monuments in general, such as the Tropaea Augusti (cf. e.g. Tac. Ann. 15,18). The term tropaion has been common since the 5th cent. BC (Batr. 159; Aesch. Sept. 277). The tropaion consisted of a tree stump or post, sometimes with crosspieces (cf. Diod. Sic. 13,24,5) on which the…

Troparion

(139 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (τροπάριον/ tropárion, from τρόπος/ trópos in the sense of 'mode, note'). Originally a short strophe in free-rhythm Byzantine prose with the character of a prayer and a melody resembling psalmody. The troparion was present at the beginning of  Byzantine hymnography (Hymnos IV.) and was initially sung in antiphony to every verse of a psalm. From the 5th cent. it was expanded and integrated into the ending of psalms (between the 3-6 last verses). It also found entry into the kontákion and the kanṓn [2]. For the most part transmitted anonymously, the troparion experienced…

Tropes

(488 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] (τρόποι/ trópoi; singular τρόπος/ trópos, rhetorical term, literally 'turn', from τρέπεσθαι/ trépesthai, 'to turn'; the original technical term was metaphorá, which later acquired its more preicse meaning: Aristot. Poet. 21,7,1457b; Latin verbum translatum: Quint. Inst. 8,3,24, translatio or tropus [1. 205-208]). In rhetoric, tropes have their place in the category of elocutio / ornatus in verbis singulis: in contrast to figures, which have  their effect on the surface of the text, e.g. in the word order, tropes are phrases used in a …

Trophonius

(575 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Τροφώνιος/ Trophṓnios, or Τρεφώνιος/ Trephṓnios). Hero of the Boeotian Lebadia, stepson or brother of Agamedes (Paus. 9,37,5; schol. Aristoph. Nub. 508). The following are mentioned as parents: Apollo and Epicaste (Paus. loc. cit.; schol. Aristoph. loc .cit.), Zeus and Iocaste (schol. Aristoph. loc. cit.), Valens/Ischys and Coronis [1] (Cic. Nat. D. 3,56), Erigonus (Hom. h. 3,296 f.; Paus. 9,37,4 f., etc.). Children: Alcander [1] and Hercyra. In the myth, T. and Agamedes are the famous builders of Delphi's first temple of Apollo  (Hom. h. 3,2…

Tropos, Tropus

(13 words)

see Figures; Style, stylistic figures ; Tropes; Figures, theory of

Tros

(90 words)

Author(s): Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle)
(Τρώς; Trṓs). [German version] [1] Eponymous king of the Trojans Eponymous king of the Trojans; grandson of Dardanus [1], great-grandfather of Priamus and Anchises (family tree: Hom. Il. 20,215-240; Apollod. 3,138-153; Dardanidae). Owner of miraculous horses, given him by Zeus as recompense for his abducted son Ganymedes [1]  (Hom. Il. 5,265-267). Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) [German version] [2] Trojan, son of Alastor Trojan, son of Alastor, in vain asks Achilles to spare his life (Hom. Il. 20,463-472). Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnair…

Trotilum

(61 words)

Author(s): Meister
[German version] (Τρώτιλον; Trṓtilon). Greek colony on the eastern coast of Sicilia (Thuc. 6,4,1), probably to be located at modern Brúcoli, about 6 km to the north of modern Augusta. Founded by Lamis from Megara, but soon abandoned in favour of Leontini or Thapsus [1]. Meister Bibliography BTCGI 4, 200-204  U. Spigo, Ricerche e ritrovamenti a Brúcoli, in: Kokalos 30-31, 1984-85, 866-868.

Troucillus

(94 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] C. Valerius T. was a respected man from the province of Gaul, who had the confidence of Caesar, who sent him as his interpreter to Diviciacus [2] in 58 BC (Caes. Gall. 1,19,3). Identifying him with C. Valerius Procillus, son of C. Valerius Caburus, the chieftain of the Helvii, and brother of Donnotaurus, is debatable. The latter and M. Mettius [I 1] were sent as Caesar's negotiators to the camp of Ariovistus, but were taken prisoner and freed by Caesar personally (Caes. Gall. 1,47,4; 1,53,5). Helvii Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 380-382.

Trout

(184 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] These predatorily living fresh-water fish (Salmo trutta L.) were first mentioned by Ambr. Exam. 5,3,7 as ' quite large variegated fish, called trout' ( varii maiores, quos vocant troctas; v.l. tructas), that commit their eggs to the water to develop by themselves ( ova generant ... et aquis fovenda committunt). This view is adopted by Isidore (Orig. 12,6,6) when deriving their name from their variegation ( varii et varietate) and by Hrabanus Maurus (De universo 8,5, PL 111,237) from him. In accordance with a proverb, Alexander Neckam (De naturis r…

Troy

(10,863 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Pistorius, Kerstin
Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Cobet, Justus (Essen) I. General (CT) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Homer sets his tale of the wrath of Achilles and the battle for Troy (T.) in a memorial landscape whose reality was entirely due to the epic and the history of its reception. Troy was placed on the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1998, 130 years after Heinrich Schliemann first appeared on the site (fig. 1). Whoever "henceforth" sails the Hellespont by ship will gaze at the funeral mounds of the heroes, visible from afar, as we read in the Iliad (7,85-91 with reference to Ajax) and the Ody…

Troy

(5,308 words)

Author(s): D.MAN. | M.KO. | Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Theatre | Caesar | | Diadochi and Epigoni | Dark Ages | Ḫattusa | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources I. History [German version] A. Name In Homer (Homerus [1]), the forms ἡ Τροίη/ Troíē and ἡ Ἴλιος/ Ílios (for Ilion/Ilium see below I. C.) appear alongside one another. Therefore, there has been discussion of a 'double name' for the settlement, for which the two terms πόλις ( pólis ) and ἄστυ ( ásty

Troy, romance of

(1,021 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Concept and characteristics The term romance of Troy is here used to refer to a number of ancient prose texts predating the Trojan epics of the Middle Ages, particularly the tales of Dictys Cretensis and Dares [3] Phrygius, which were composed in Late Antiquity. To be sure, the ambition of these and similar works was certainly not to be a romance or novel (Novel); whether in a playful or serious manner, they claim to tell the truth about the Trojan War. In that effort, they sometim…

Trozella

(4 words)

see Nestoris

Truentum

(93 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Port of the Praetuttii in Picenum (Picentes) on the right bank of the Truentus at its mouth on the Adriatic (Ionios Kolpos; Plin.  HN 3,110; Cic. Att. 8,12b,1: Castrum Truentinum;  cf. Ptol. 3,1,21) to the south of modern San Benedetto del Tronto. At T. the Via Salaria and the Adriatic coast road joined [1]. Archaeological remains: 3rd cent. BC - 7th cent. AD. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 Miller, 215. V. Galiè, Castrum Truentum e Turris ad Truntum, 1984  A. R. Staffa, Città romane dell'Abruzzo adriatico, in: Journal of Ancient Topography 8, 1998, 33-42.

Truentus

(71 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Truentinus). River in Picenum (Picentes), modern Tronto. It rises in the Appenninus (on mons Fiscellus, modern Gran Sasso), flows parallel to the via Salaria past Badies (not located), ad Martis (not located), Surpicanum (not located), ad Centesimum (modern Centesimo), ad Aquas (modern Acquasanta Terme),  Asculum (modern Ascoli) and, navigable only in this area, into the sea near Truentum to the south of modern San Bendetto. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Truffles

(4 words)

see Mushrooms

Trump(i)lini

(74 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Alpine people in the modern Val Trompia (regional name Trumplia: CIL III 7452); subjugated in 16 BC by P. Silius [II 7]  (Plin. HN 3,136) and assigned to the municipium of Brixia. The T. are mentioned in an inscription at the Sebasteion in Aphrodisias [1] (AE 1982, 892 o). A princeps and a praefectus cohortis Trumplinorum (CIL V 4910) attest to recruiting from the tribe by the Roman army. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)

Truth

(1,317 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Werner (Graz) | Büchli, Jörg (Zürich)
(ἀλήθεια/ alḗtheia; Latin veritas). [German version] I. Philosophy It was in a didactic poem by Parmenides (about 500 BC) that alḗtheia was first elevated from an element of colloquial language to a central philosophical term. In that poem, the goddess teaches the poet to distinguish the truth (ἀληθείη/ alētheíē) from the mere illusion of human opinions (δόξαι/ dóxai) (28 B 1 and 8 DK). Only that which is (or 'being') is true, for what is not can be neither thought nor expressed (28 B 2, 3 and 8 DK); and that which is (being) is a single entity. Parme…

Trutina

(4 words)

see Scales

Truttedius Clemens

(57 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Sex. T. C., equestrian; tribune of the second cohort of the vigiles in Rome; later procurator of Asturia et Gallaecia, afterwards of Dalmatia et Histria; perhaps in first half of the 2nd cent. AD (CIL II 2643; VI 2968; AE 1985, 374);  cf.  [1. 64]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 G. Alföldy, Prov. Hispania superior (AHAW 19), 2000.

Trygon

(79 words)

Author(s): Goldhahn, Tobias
[German version] (Τρυγών/ Trygṓn, 'turtle-dove'). Nurse of Asclepius. According to Paus. 8,25,11 her grave was at his sanctuary in Thelphusa in Arcadia. According to Arcadian legends Antolaus, son of Arcas, handed the exposed Asclepius over to T. The name suggests that Asclepius was fed by a dove; according to other versions of the legend Asclepius is suckled by a goat and guarded by a dog. Goldhahn, Tobias Bibliography U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorf, Isyllos von Epidauros, in: PhU 9, 1886, 87.

Trypanon

(4 words)

see Tools

Tryphe

(133 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (τρυφή; tryph ). A specifically Ptolemaic ruler ideal (cf. the epithet Trýphōn, Trýphaina), arising out of the cult of the victorious Dionysus and his celebrations. Thryphe meant rule providing splendour and brilliance, wealth and fortune. Since it also included the fertility of the land, it could be linked to perceptions of the activities of the pharaoh. On the other hand, as a Greek term for luxus with negative connotations, thryphe was connected, e.g. under the influence of Stoicism, with (particularly 'oriental') softness and effeminacy (Latin luxuria, effemi…

Tryphiodorus

(4 words)

see Triphiodorus

Tryphon

(1,210 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Τρύφων/ Trýphōn). [German version] [1] The usurper Diodotus of Casiane, 2nd cent. BC Name assumed by the usurper Diodotus from Casiane near Apamea [3] (Str. 16,2,10). As strategos of Demetrius [7] I, D./T. went over to the pretender to the throne Alexander [II 13] Balas, betrayed Antioch [1] on the Orontes to Ptolemaeus [9] VI, occupied Apamea [3] and Chalcis, but then did not switch over to Demetrius [8] II, instead raising Alexander's [13] son to king as Antiochus [8] VI in 145 BC. He defeated Demetrius and allied with…

Tryphoninus

(88 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] The Roman jurist Claudius T. ( c. 200 AD), presumably of oriental origin [3], pupil of Cervidius Scaevola [1] (Dig. 49,17,19 pr.) and consiliarius of Septimius [II 7] Severus (Dig. 49,14,50). He wrote discussions of controversial legal cases ( Disputationes, 21 B.) and Notae ('notes') on the Digesta and Responsa of his teacher [1; 2]. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography 1 H. T. Klami, Entscheidung und Begründung in den Kommentaren Tryphonins zu Scaevolas Responsen, 1975 2 M. Sixto, Las anotaciones de Trifonino, vol. 1, 1989; vol. 2, 1991 3 D. Liebs, J…

Trysa

(98 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Τρῦσα; Trŷsa). City in central Lycia (Lycii) at modern Gölbaşı; a dynastic seat from the archaic period. The small settlement was extended c. 400 BC around representational buildings, e.g. a significant heroon (reliefs in Vienna, KM); inhabited until late Antiquity. T. had belonged to Cyaneae [2] as a dêmos [2] (B.) since the early Hellenistic period and had a certain amount of autonomy. Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) Bibliography W. Oberleitner, Das Heroon von T., 1994  M. Zimmermann, Untersuchungen zur …

Tsakonian

(294 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] Modern Greek dialect spoken in a small number of villages in the eastern Parnon mountain ridge on the east coast of the Peloponnese. It is unanimously considered the only modern Greek dialect to predominantly continue an Ancient Greek dialect, Dorian Laconic, without any effects of the Koine. In other respects, it is difficult to assign Tsakonian to any dialect groupings (splitting into East or West Greek dialects according to retention/loss of final - n, respectively; splitting into North or South Greek according to the treatment of vowels following u…

Tubantes

(173 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Germanic tribe to the west of the upper Amisia [1] (modern Ems). Germanicus [2] was attacked by the T. in AD 14 (Tac. Ann. 1,51,2); T. may then have also been paraded in Germanicus' triumphal procession (Str. 7,1,4: Σουβάττιοι/ Soubáttioi). Later than the Chamavi and earlier than the Usipetes, they settled predominantly between the Vecht and the Ijssel (Tac. Ann. 13,55,2). Then they migrated southwards together with the Usipetes, who besieged Mogontiacum in AD 69 (Tac. Hist. 4,37,3). According to Ptol. 2,11,23 (Τούβαντοι/ Toúbantoi), they were neighbours of the …

Tubero

(19 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (from tuber, 'swelling'), Aelius [I 12-18]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 119; 246.

Tubertus

(18 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (connected with tuber, 'swelling'), Postumius [I 17]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 246.

Tubicen

(158 words)

Author(s): Schumacher, Leonhard
[German version] (plural tubicines). Roman brass instrument player who would sound a fanfare ( tuba) in cults and in the military (Varro, Ling. 5,117; Liv. 1,43,7; Veg. Mil. 2,7,8; 3,5,6). In legions and auxilia , tubicines were considered, together with the cornicines and the bucinatores , as immunes (Dig. 50,6,7). Burial stelae for tubicines provide assured depictions of the tuba (CIL III 782 = ILS 2352; CIL X 7884). On the other hand, the tubicen Sibbaeus (CIL XIII 7042) is evidently wielding a double flute ( tibiae), whereas the instrument of the bucinator Aurelius Surus (AE 1976,…

Tubilustrium

(126 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] Roman civic festival of the 'cleaning of the trumpets' ( tubi or tubae), which was celebrated on 23 March and 23 May. The March date was considered as feriae (holiday) for Mars (InscrIt 13,2,104; 123), the May date as feriae for Volcanus (InscrIt 13,2, 57 and 187). The doubling of the tubilustrium in May is still unclear (but see [1. 219-221]). During these days, the trumpets were cleaned in the Atrium Sutorium and then used for cultic activities ( sacra: Varro, Ling. 6,14; cf. InscrIt 13,2, 123; Fest. 480 et passim) -- according to modern interpretation for summoning…

Tubusuctu (Thubuscum)

(190 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Mauretania Sitifensis (Plin. HN 5,21; Ptol. 4,2,31; 8,13,12; Amm.  Marc. 29,5,11), about 30 km to the southwest of Saldae in the Oued Soummam valley, modern Tiklat. Although founded as a colonia by the later Augustus for veterans of the legio VII, T. adopted the (neo-)Punic traditions of the surrounding area. In the late Roman period the centre of a military district (Not. Dign. Occ. 25,27; [1. 52]). In T.'s territory there was significant olive cultivation. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 8834-8921; Suppl. 3, 20648-20…

Tucca

(18 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen of Etruscan origin, Plotius [I 2]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 106.

Tucci

(84 words)

Author(s): Ferrer Maestro, Juan José (Castellón)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae City of the Turdetani, tax-free colonia Augusta Gemella in the conventus of Astigis (Plin. HN 3,12; erroneously as a city of the Turduli in Ptol. 2,4,11: Τοῦκκι; modern Martos, in the province of Jaén). Mentioned in the context of battles between the Lusitani under Viriatus with Rome in 144 BC (Diod. 33,7,5; App. Ib. 290). Ferrer Maestro, Juan José (Castellón) Bibliography A. Schulten, s. v. T. (1), RE 7 A, 765 Tovar 1, 119 f.; 131; 167.

Tuccius

(91 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[German version] [1] T., M. As a curule aedile in 192 BC he conducted many cases against profiteers and used the fines to lavishly decorate public buildings (Liv. 35,41,9-10). As praetor in 190 he was allotted Apulia et Bruttii as his area of responsibility and this office was twice extended (Liv. 37,2,1; 37,50,13; 38,36,1). In 186 he was one of the tresviri at the renewal of the colonies of Sipontum and Buxentum (Liv. 39,23,3-4). Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] T. Cerialis See M. Tullius [II 1] Cerialis. Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)

Tuder

(299 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Italy, languages (Τοῦδερ/ Toûder; modern Todi). City in Umbria (Umbri) on a steep elevation (411 m) on the left bank of the Tiber between Umbria and Etruria (Str. 5,2,10; Ptol. 3,1,54; Plut. Crassus 6,6: Τουδερτία/ Toudertía). With its river port and its location on the v ia Amerina and near the vicus Martis Tudertium (modern Santa Maria in Pantano; ad Martis [3] on the silver cups of Vicarello 102 Miller; Tab. Peut. 5,1), which was on the v ia Flaminia and was part of T.'…

Tuditanus

(29 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (from tudites, 'hammers'), prominent in the Republican period in the Sempronii family (Sempronius [I 22-24]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 22; 91; 108 f.; 343.

Tufa

(82 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (possibly a Roman name) was a magister militum of Odoacer AD 489-493; by September 489 he had crossed over to Theoderic (Theodericus [3]) the Great, but returned to Odoacer's camp (Anon. Vales. 11,51-52). From 490 he stayed with the Rugian king Fredericus [2] in northern Italy; in 493 a battle broke out between them, in which T. was defeated and killed (Chron. Min. 1). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography P. Amory, People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 1997, 424 PLRE 2, 1131.

Tuficum

(92 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria City in Umbria (Umbri) on the upper Aesis, municipium of the tribus Oufentina [1] (Plin. HN 3,114; Ptol. 3,1,53; CIL XI 5711; 5718), modern Borgo Tufico (formerly Ficano) near Albacina (Macerata). T. was on a side road to the Via Flaminia , branching off at Helvillum (modern Fossato di Vico?) and leading to Aesis (modern Iesi) on the Adriatic (Ionios Kolpos). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 L. R. Taylor, The Voting Districts of the Roman Republic, 1960, 273. Nissen 2, 386.

Tugurium

(141 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] (Latin). A primitive hut of perishable building materials; as a rule, a wood and clay construction, roofed with reeds, tree bark or turf (house), in Roman literature, originally described as humble housing (Varro Rust. 3,1,3; Verg. Ecl. 1,68; Plin. HN 16,35) and predominantly classified as for primitive peoples (cf. the huts of the Dacians and Marcomanni in reliefs on the columns of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius in Rome). The principle of the 'natural house', which had been described…

Tukulti-Ninurta

(182 words)

Author(s): Frahm, Eckart (Heidelberg)
(literally 'Ninurta is my supporter'). Name of two Assyrian kings: [German version] [1] T.-N. I (1244-1207). Apart from his military conflicts with the Hittites (Ḫattusa II) it is primarily his campaign against Babylonia, conducted in 1228, that is of significance; it is recounted not only in royal inscriptions [1], but also, in high poetic language, in the T.-N. Epic [2]. T.-N. was the first Assyrian ruler to move his residence out of the ancient ancestral capital of Assur, as he settled in the nearby Kār-T.-…

Tulingi

(99 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] Tribe, neighbouring the Rauraci and the Latobrigi, induced by the Helvetii to take part in their campaign (Caes. B Gall. 1,5,4; 1,25,6: T. are the rearguard of the Helvetian army; 1,28,3: after the battle of Bibracte in 58 BC they were sent by Caesar back to their homeland; 1,29,2: number of marchers 36,000). The role of the T. in the battle of Bibracte implies an experienced mercenary corps (as indeed in [1. 788]). On the homeland of the T. and their ethnic origin (Celtic or Germanic) Caesar says nothing. Walser, Gerold (Basle) Bibliography 1 P. Goessler, s. v. T., RE…

Tullia

(610 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Daughter of the Roman king Servius Tullius [I 4] Daughter of the Roman king Servius Tullius [I 4], the son-in-law of Tarquinius [11] Priscus, she was married to her uncle Arruns. Having failed in her attempts to talk Arruns into assuming rulership, T. turned towards Arruns' brother Tarquinius (the later Tarquinius [12] Superbus), husband of her sister of the same name. After the death of Arruns and of her sister (by murder?; Liv. 1,46,9; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,30,1), T. married Tarquini…
▲   Back to top   ▲