Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Tullianum

(217 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Part of the Roman state prison ( carcer ) for prisoners sentenced to death by strangulation, including the fellow conspirators of Catilina and the leaders of subjugated people paraded in triumphs (Triumph/Triumphal procession, with map). The name Tullianum led ancient authors to suppose that it was built by Tull(i)us Hostilius[4] or Servius Tullius [I 4] (Varro, Ling. 5,151; Fest. 490), but modern scholars think that it may have originally been a spring house (cp. Fest. 492: tullios = 'wellsprings'). Liv. 1,33,8 ascribed the construction of the carcer itself to An…

Tullianus

(55 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Roman landowner in Bruttium and Lucania; in AD 546 he supported the Byzantines in the reclamation of this region (Procop. Goth. 3,18,20-23). His force of armed farmers, which was supposed to prevent Totila from advancing southwards, broke up under the latter's influence, however (Procop. Goth. 3,22,1-5). PLRE 3,1344. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)

Tullius

(3,490 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name derived from the praenomen Tullus; oldest traditional bearer of the name is the sixth king of Rome, Servius T. [I 4]; until the time of Cicero and his family, other bearers are only rarely recorded. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] T., Attius As 'by far the first man of the Volsci at the time' (Liv. 2,35,7), tradition connected him with the story of Coriolanus, in which T. supported the latter in his plans out of an old hate for the Romans (Liv. 2,37,1-8; 2,38,1-5; 2,39,1; 2,40,12). Hi…

Tullum

(184 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τούλλιον/ Toúllion). Civitas capital of the Leuci in Gallia Belgica on the left bank of the Moselle River (Mosella) on an elevation surrounded by branches of the Ingressin brook, before its confluence with the Moselle; modern Toul ( département of Meurthe et Moselle). An important hub for water and land routes (It. Ant. 365,4; 385,10; AE 1975, 634). Despite good geographical conditions for transport, T. was overshadowed by other cities and civitas capitals. Only in the 5th cent. was it of particular significance (Notitia Galliarum 5,4; Geogr. Rav 4,26). Apart from the c…

Tullus

(75 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] Rare Latin praenomen , which became unusual even before the introduction of sigla. There is no assured etymology. The best-known bearer was the third king of Rome, Tullus Hostilius [4] in the 7th cent. BC. Tullius, the nomen gentile derived from it, is first encountered with the sixth king Servius Tullius [I 4]. Of later bearers the best known is M. Tullius Cicero. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) Bibliography Salomies, 58 f.; 186  Walde/Hofmann 2, 714.

Tumultus

(144 words)

Author(s): de Libero, Loretana (Hamburg)
[German version] Military state of emergency determined by the Senate, primarily a threatened attack by an external enemy (' tumultus Gallicus', ' tumultus Italicus'; Cic. Phil. 8,3). A tumultus could also be decreed in the event of insurgency or an impending civil war [1]. The chief magistrates were authorized, without formal instructions ( dilectus), to carry out ad hoc conscription ( Evocatio ). No account was taken of oath-swearing ( Sacramentum ) or release from service ( Vacatio ). The tumultus decree was as a rule followed by a iustitium and the donning of battle dress ( Sagum

Tumulus

(4,351 words)

Author(s): Steimle, Christopher (Erfurt) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg) | Jung, Reinhard (Berlin) | Hülden, Oliver (Tübingen) | Naso, Alessandro (Udine) | Et al.
(Latin 'hill', 'funerary mound', pl. tumuli; Greek τύμβος/ týmbos, σῆμα/ sêma; χῶμα/ chôma). I. Definition, distribution, function [German version] A. Definition Tumulusis a general term for a mound, as a rule artificial and usually round or oval in plan, associated with a burial ('burial mounds', as opposed, e.g., to prehistoric settlement mounds). Tumulus burial (‘mound burial’) describes all burials that have been covered by a mound. Tumulus is also used in archaeology as a technical term for burial mounds outsid…

Tuna

(670 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] The fairly large Common Tuna ( Thynnus thynnus L., Greek ὁ θύννος/ thýnnos, Attic also ἡ θυννίς/ thynnís - primarily the female: Aristot. Hist. an. 5,9,543a 9; Ath. 7,303c-304b - or ἡ θύννη/ thýnnē: e.g. Opp. Hal. 1,756; Latin thynnus or thynnis) and the smaller Albacore ( Albacora thynnus L., perhaps αὐλωπίας/ aulōpías, Ael. NA 13,17) were the economically most important edible fish of the Mediterranean and Black Seas and were therefore given many names. The young (under 1 year) were called πηλαμύς/ pēlamýs or πηλαμίς/ pēlamís (Aristot. Hist. an. 6,17,571a 11, from pēlós…

Tunes

(381 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
(Τύνης/ Týnēs). [German version] I. Location, Punic to Roman period Libyan city in Africa proconsularis (Africa 3.; Str. 17,3,16; Tab. Peut. 5,5), 15 km south-west of Carthage, the modern Tunis. First mentioned in conjunction with the uprising of allied troops against Carthage in 396 BC (Diod. Sic. 14,77,3). In 310 BC, the city served Agathocles[2] as a base for his attack on Carthage [1. 190-193], and similarly in 256 BC during the First Punic War the Roman consul Atilius [I 21] Regulus [1. 235-237]. In …

Tungri

(471 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τοῦγγροι/ Toûngroi). A tribe in Gallia Belgica (It. Ant. 358,15; Ptol. 2,9,9) that had not yet appeared at the time of Caesar's capture of Gallia. At the time, the Germani [2] Cisrhenani were settling between the Scaldis (Schelde) and the Rhenus [2] (Rhine) under the hegemony of the Eburones. After the defeat inflicted upon the latter by Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 6,5; 6,29-34; 8,24 f.), the entire political structure of the Germani Cisrhenani was dissolved in accordance with Roman policy. In the Augustan Period, the civitas of the T. was founded in the western area …

Tunica

(300 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] The tunica, cut and sewn from two pieces of generally white woollen or linen material, was worn by both men and women of the Roman upper classes as an undergarment (Suet. Aug. 94,10) underneath the toga , and as the sole garment by the lower classes. Women often seem to have worn two tunicae, one above the other, with the inner one then referred to as tunica subucula (Varro Ling. 5,131) and the outer one as supparus. In very cold or inclement weather, men, too, would wear layers of tunics (Suet. Aug. 82,1). Originally, tunics were close-fitting and sleeve…

Tunnels, Tunnel construction

(635 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] Tunnel-building is encountered in Classical Antiquity in two fundamental contexts: water supply or irrigation/drainage and - less often - road-building (Roads and bridges, construction of). Tunnels built in the context of siegecraft or military defences in fortifications (undermining city defences, such as in the Persians' attack on Barce: Hdt. 4,200; underground countermines as a defensive measure against siege ramps: Caes. B Gall. 6,24; escape or rescue tunnel) should - for a de…

Turan

(322 words)

Author(s): Amann, Petra | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] [1] Important Etruscan female deity Important Etruscan female deity, whose name, inscriptionally recorded from the 7th cent. BC (ET vol. 1, 179), was originally Etruscan and implies great age. T. appears in numerous depictions from the late Etruscan period, primarily as a goddess of love, fertility, and beauty. She is identified with the Greek Aphrodite and the Roman Venus [1]; her original sphere of influence, however, may have been wider (cf. Uni). T. was one of the cult goddesses in…

Turbo

(42 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] see Top See Top Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen ('whirlwind'), perhaps originally a one-off description, recorded only in the Imperial period: Marcius [II 14]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 339  Degrassi, FCIR, 271.

Turdetani

(163 words)

Author(s): Stepper, Ruth
[German version] Iberian people on the lower Baetis (modern Guadalquivir). The first archaeological evidence of their existence is from the end of the 6th cent. BC, contemporaneous with the decline of the Tartessus culture which they inherited. It was already being discussed in Antiquity whether T. and the Turduli were the same Iberian people on the Baetis; whereas Str. 3,1,6 makes no difference between them, Polybius and Plin. HN 3,13 regard the Turduli as northern, Ptol. 2,4,5 as southern, neigh…

Turfan

(280 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] Town and oasis region (T. basin) in eastern Uyghurstan (Xinjian) in China, to the south of the Tianshan mountains, on the northeastern edge of the Taklamakan desert, an important station on the Silk Road. There are numerous historically and archaeologically significant places there: 10 km to the west of modern T. is the Chinese fortress of Jiaohe, which from the 2nd cent. BC until the 5th cent. AD was the capital of the kingdom of Cheshi. Around 100 BC Gaochang came into being 30 …

Turia

(217 words)

Author(s): Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Ferrer Maestro, Juan José (Castellón)
[German version] [1] Wife of Q. Lucretius [II 5] Vespillo, 1st cent. BC Wife of the senator Q. Lucretius [II 5] Vespillo, saved her husband by concealing him from the proscriptions of 43 BC (Val. Max. 6,7,2; App. B Civ. 4,189-192). Her long-standing traditional identification with the deceased addressed in an epigraphically preserved funerary oration from Rome (known as the Laudatio Turiae ) is uncertain but not ruled out (cf. [1. 10 f.], sceptical: [2. 1-8]). T. would then have died no later than 9 BC after 41 years of marriage. Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) Bibliography 1 A. E. Gor…

Turibulum

(72 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] (from tus, 'incense', also thymiaterium). Roman portable metal apparatus on which grains of incense were burned in a Roman sacrifice. For pure incense or smoke sacrifices there was a small portable altar, called an acerra or an ara turicrema. Acerra also seems (Val. Max. 3,3,3) to have been used as a synonym for a turibulum. Sacrifice; Thymiaterion Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover) Bibliography A. V. Siebert, Instrumenta sacra, 1999, 93-98; 256 f. (Lit.).

Turicum

(113 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] The earliest traces of settlement on the Lindenhof moraine hill in Zurich are ascribed not to a Celtic population but rather to Roman occupation in Augustus [1 G]' Alpine war (in 15 BC). The Roman military post was expanded into a fort, around which a vicus developed. Information about the further growth of the settlement is given by inscriptions, the most important of which also reveals the name of the vicus: a burial inscription for the child of a Roman toll collector, praepositus stationis Turicensis (CIL XIII 5244). Walser, Gerold (Basle) Bibliography W. Drack, R. …

Turkey

(12,145 words)

Author(s): Kranz, Margarita | Baumeister, Peter
Kranz, Margarita I. Introduction (CT) [German version] A. The Ottoman Period (CT) The turn to Classical Antiquity (an un-Islamic, heathen past and a foreign, predominantly Greek history) had necessarily to come up against the rejection of the Turkish Muslims of the Ottoman period, and likewise of the nationalist Turkish Republic for religious and nationalistic reasons. An increased consideration of Antiquity may be observed in Ottoman Turkey (T.) around the middle of the 19th cent., as a result of the efforts at reform by Mahmud II (1808-1839), in the context of a Tanzımat ('reorganis…

Turks

(726 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Claus (Mainz)
[German version] In modern scholarship the term T. includes all members of the Turkic language family. The term (Byzantine Greek Τοῦρκοι/ Toûrkoi, Latin Turci in Fredegard) is not attested before the 6th cent. AD; the oldest texts in the Turkish language date to the first half of the 8th cent. AD. Not least due to the terminological uncertainties, it still remains unclear for the period prior to the 6th cent. which of the peoples mentioned in Chinese, Tibetan, Iranian, Greek and Latin sources are to be associated with…

Turma

(297 words)

Author(s): Schumacher, Leonhard
[German version] According to Varro, a tactical unit of Roman legionary cavalry, consisting of 30 equites (Cavalry) and three decuriones [4], one of whom was in command of the turma (Varro Ling. 5,91; Pol. 6,20,9; 6,25,1 f.; Veg. Mil. 2,14,1 f.). By the 3rd cent. BC, the mounted contingents of the socii predominated (225 BC: Pol. 2,24,3-16; FGrH 809 F 16), whose turmae occasionally bore the name of their geographic origin ( t. Lucana: Liv. 22,42,4; t. Fregellana: Liv. 37,34,6); they used to fight on the wings ( alae) in conjunction with the legions (Pol. 6,26,7-9; Liv. 31,21…

Turms

(148 words)

Author(s): Geppert, Karin (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan deity, largely corresponding to the Greek Hermes and the Roman Mercurius. Equipped with a pétasos and herald's staff ( kērýkeion, Latin caduceus), later also winged shoes and a winged cap, and sometimes depicted with a beard. Role as a herald, companion of heroes and in the realm of the dead as T. Aitas (Etrusci [III C]; cf. Gr. Hermes Psychopompos 'conductor of souls'); not recorded as a deity of craftwork in Etruscan context. Depictions primarily on vases and mirrors from the 6th cent. BC to the 3rd. Earliest representation on …

Turnacum

(393 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Modern Tournai/Doornik in the Belgian province of Hainault. Gallo-Roman vicus on both banks of the Scaldis (Scheldt) in the border region between the Menapii and Nervii, a node on the route from Gesoriacum (Boulogne-sur-mer) to Bagacum (modern Bavai: Tab. Peut. 2,3;  It. Ant. 367,7), from which roads lead to Castellum (modern Cassel; It. Ant. 377,5) and Tervanna (ibid. 378,11). There is evidence of traces of settlement as early as the Iron Age, the Gallo-Roman presence i…

Turnus

(290 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] [1] King of the Rutuli Mythical king of the Rutuli, son of Daunus [2] and Venilia, brother of Iuturna, from the city of Ardea; reigning when Aeneas [1] arrived in Italy. According to a (probably earlier ) tradition he and Latinus [1] fight against the invading Aeneas. When Latinus falls, T. flees to Mezentius, and the two take up the battle again; in the end T. himself and Aeneas fall (Cato HRR fr. 9-10). In another variant he fights against Latinus and Aeneas, because, having original…

Turoni

(280 words)

Author(s): Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy)
[German version] (Τούρωνοι/ Toúrōnoi). Celtic people on the middle reaches of the Liger (modern Loire; Ptol. 2,11,22), neighbouring the Cenomanni [2] in the north, the Andegavi and the Pictones in the west, the Bituriges and the Carnutes in the east. The T. were among the first to support Vercingetorix in 52 BC and Iulius [II 126] Sacrovir in 21 AD (Tac. Ann. 3,41; 3,46). The T. were a civitas in the province of Gallia Lugdunensis probably from the time of Augustus (CIL XIII 3076 f., middle of the 1st cent. AD: civitas libera et immunis), with a new capital established under August…

Turpilius

(289 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Comic poet, 2nd cent. BC Roman comic poet in the palliata genre, younger contemporary of Terentius [III 1], died according to Hier. Chron. p. 148 Helm 104 BC. Fragments survive of 13 plays with uniformly Greek titles; his main source was Menander [4]. With Caecilius [III 6] and Terence, who was dramaturgically close to him, T. represents the increasingly Hellenizing and Classicizing development of palliata, whereas multiplicity of metre and colour of language separate him from the stylistic purity of Terence and rather link him to Plaut…

Turpitudo

(240 words)

Author(s): Gamauf, Richard (Vienna)
[German version] Offence against Roman morality ( boni mores, Mos maiorum ) or an immoral way of life, e.g. prostitution. In the Republic, the punishment was part of the  cura morum ('morality police') of the censores ; the praetor could also impose restrictions for turpitudo (e.g. prohibition of representing others in court, postulatio ; Ulp. Dig. 3,1,1,5). Although immorality was not equated with illegality  (Paul. Dig. 50,17,144), immoral legal actions could be denied enforcement: in formal actions the praetor refused a complaint (Pomp. Dig. 45,1,27 pr.) or granted an exceptio dol…

Turranius

(198 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman gens name (Schulze, 429), sometimes confused with T(h)oranius. [German version] [1] T., C. Praetor in 44 BC (Cic. Phil. 3,25). He was presumably proscribed and killed at his son's instigation (Val. Max. 9,11,5; App. B Civ. 4,71). Not identical with the also outlawed (Suet. Aug. 27; App. B Civ. 4,47) guardian of Augustus, C. Toranius. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] C. T. Gracilis Eques from Gades (modern Cadiz) (Plin. HN 3,3). He had the confidence of Augustus, who made him praef. Aegypti, recorded between 7 and 4 BC [1. 475]. In AD 14, at the time of Aug…

Turrinus

(26 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (derived from an unknown place name Turris); cf. Horatius [3] and Mamilius [5]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 113; 184.

Turrita

(36 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Station on the Via Aemilia Scauri in Etruria (Etrusci) between Vada Volaterrana (modern Vada) and Pisae; modern Torretta. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography E. Repetti, Dizionario geografico fisico storico della Toscana, vol. 5, 1843, 543.

Turtle

(6 words)

see Chelone; Testudo; Tortoise

Turullius

(134 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] (T., D. according to coin legends; T., P. according to Cass. Dio 51,8,2). Quaestor in 44 BC and one of Caesar's assassins. He then went with L. Tillius [2] Cimber to Bithynia and supported him in equipping a fleet. After the Battle of Philippi in 42 he remained with the still unbeaten fleet, then crossed to the side of M. Antonius [I 9]. To build the latter's fleet he (probably with the rank of praef.) had some of the trees of the Grove of Asclepius on Cos lumbered and in 31 he minted coins for him (RRC 545). After Antonius' defeat in 30 he was deliv…

Tuscana

(144 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria (Τυρρηνία/ Tyrrhēnía, Τυρρηνή/ Tyrrhēnḗ; modern Tuscania). Etruscan city on the right bank of the Marta (Plin. HN 3,52; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τυρρηνία), where the via Claudia crosses the river (Tab. Peut. 5,1; Geogr. Rav. 4,36; 6,2379a; 5,49). A municipium , tribus Stellatina after the Social War [3]; various magistrates are known from inscriptions: e.g. decurio Tuscaniensium, quattuorvir, decurialis haruspex (CIL XI 2955-2959; 2970). The acropolis was on San Pietro hill. The city was lai…

Tusci

(5 words)

see Etrusci, Etruria

Tuscia

(144 words)

Author(s): Sauer
[German version] (Τουσκία/ Touskía). Region and Late Antiquity organisational unit in central Italy. Varro (Ling. 5,32; 1st cent. BC) used Tusci to describe the inhabitants of Etruria (Etrusci); Both Scribonius [II 3] Largus (Compositiones 146,3; first half of the 1st cent. AD) and his contemporary Florus (Epit. 1,1) are familiar with T. as the name of a region. The regional term is distinguished by later authors (cf. Serv. Aen. 1,67; 2,146; 7,715) from the administrative term T., which is found after Diocletian's imperial reform (Diocletianus C.) in the name of the province of T. et U…

Tuscianus

(84 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] According to Dig. 1,2,2,53, T. and Fulvius [II 2] Aburnius Valens followed Iavolenus [2] and preceded Iulianus [1] as heads of the Sabine law school at the beginning of the 2nd cent. AD. Confusion with Iavolenus, who bore the cognomen Tossianus, is unlikely. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography D. Liebs, Nicht-literarische röm. Juristen der Kaiserzeit, in: K. Luig, D. Liebs (eds.), Das Profil des Juristen in der europäischen Tradition. Symp. F. Wieacker, 1980, 149-153  R. A. Bauman, Lawyers and Politics in the Early Roman Empire, 1989, 231-234.

Tusculum

(668 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Tribus | Latini, Latium (modern Tuscolo). Town on the mons Albanus in Latium (Latini with map; Cic. Leg. agr. 2,96; Liv. 2,15,7; Str. 5,3,9: Τούσκλον/ Toúsklon; Diod. Sic. 11,40,5; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 5,76; Cass. Dio 79,21; Ptol. 3,1,61: Τούσκουλον/ Toúskoulon; Steph. Byz. s.v. Τύσκλος). Foundation legends mention Telegonus (Liv. 1,49; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,45, but cf. ibid. 1,72) or Latinus [2] Silvius as the founder (Diod. Sic. 7, fr. 4). As a member of the Latin League, T. was among those…

Tuscus

(43 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (meaning 'Etruscan') describing origin. Used in the Republican period by Aquillius [I 2], Siccius, in the Imperial period by Dasumius [4], Nummius [5], and Tullius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCap., 149  Id., FCIR, 271  Kajanto, Cognomina, 51; 188.

Tusidius Campester

(98 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] L. (?) T. Campester. Roman senator; suffect consul under Antoninus [1] Pius in the September/October of  AD 142 together with Q. Cornelius [II 54] Senecio Annianus (see also RMD 106, fr. 37 of the Fasti Ostienses = FO2, fr. S and a new fragment of a diploma in [1]). He is without doubt identical to L. Tusidius Campester (CIL XI 5632 = ILS 2735), the son of the procurator M. Maenius [II 1] Agrippa, whose career was in the time of Hadrian. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 W. Eck, P. Weiß, T. C., in: ZPE 134, 2001, 251-260.

Tutankhamun

(166 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] Egyptian king of the Eighteenth Dynasty, c. 1333-1323 BC, Egyptian Twt-nḫ-Jmn ('Living Image of Amun'), throne name Nb-ḫprw-R, who ascended the throne while still a child. T. was the son of a king (presumably Amenophis [4] IV = Amenhotep IV); T. married a daughter of Amenophis IV and Nefertiti). The restoration of the old cults (primarily that of Amun) begun by his predecessor Smenkhkare was continued under T., and the religious policies of Amenophis [4] IV were abandoned completely. During the …

Tutela

(1,627 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) | Sehlmeyer, Markus (Jena)
[German version] [1] Guardianship (Latin 'guardianship', from tueri, 'to protect'). Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) [German version] I. Basis and typology of guardianship Tutela occurred in Roman law as tutela over those not yet of age ( impuberes) and women ( tutela mulierum), and concerned those who were not subject to the personal power of the 'father of the family' ( pater familias ) or the husband ( manus ), and were thus persons 'in their own right' ( sui iuris). The Twelve Tables ( tabulae duodecim ; tab. 5,6, c. 450 BC) prescribed the nearest mal…

Tutelage

(67 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] Tutelage played an important part in both Athenian (cf. epitropos [2]) and Roman law (cf. tutela [1]). It applied not only in respect of infants and impubes ('those under the age of discretion') not under the patria postestas ('paternal power'), but also in a wider context as a gender-based tutelage in respect of women ( Kyrios [II], Tutela, [1 III]). Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)

Tuticanus

(58 words)

Author(s): Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA)
[German version] A boyhood friend of Ovidius, who was able to include T.'s name () in a letter to him only by playing with the actual syllable quantities (Ov. Pont. 4,12,10 f.,  cf. 4,14,1 f.). He appears to have translated the episode of the Phaeacians in the Odyssey into Latin (ibid. 4,16,27 with 4,12,27). Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA)

Tutilius

(120 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] L. T. Lupercus Pontianus Senator, cos. ord. in AD 135; procos. of Asia probably in 150/1 [1. 89-94; 2. 310 f.]. He may have been a descendant of the Lupercus mentioned in Plin. Ep. 2,5 and 9,26. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 H. Engelmann, Ephesische Inschriften, in: ZPE 84, 1990 2 K. Dietz, Die beiden Mummii Sisennae und der Wiederaufbau der Basilika Stoa von Thera, in: Chiron 23, 1993, 295-311. [German version] [2] L. T. Pontianus Gentianus Senator; descendant of T. [1]; according to HA Aur. 29,1 he had a liaison with the empress Faustin…

Tutola

(107 words)

Author(s): Eiben, Susanne (Kiel)
[German version] (Τουτόλα) or Tutula (Τουτούλα), also Philotis (Φιλῶτις, Φιλωτίς); Latin Tutela. Legendary maidservant at the time of the Latin wars, by whose plan the Romans appear to accede to the Latini's demands for Roman women but send T. and slave-girls into the Latin camp, dressed as married Roman women; after successful deception T. gives the Romans a sign to attack the distracted enemy (Plut. Romulus 29,7; Plut. Camillus 33,4 f.; Polyaenus, Strat. 8,30; Macrob. Sat.  1,11,38). The Caprati…

Tutulus

(129 words)

Author(s): Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover)
[German version] (originally 'cap'). Roman head adornment in the form of a rounded cone ( meta). Tutulus was known as the hairstyle of the mater familias and the flaminica, and had, therefore, a function similar to the one of the galerus or the pileus of the pontifices and the flamines [1]. The term t utulus refers also to a high hairstyle with red ribbons, obtained by piling up the gathered hair in a conical form on the top of the head (Fest. 484 L.). The tutulus was already known in Etruria in the 6th/5th cent. BC, as the common hairstyle of Etruscan women [2. 75]. Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover) Bib…
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