Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Toad

(4 words)

see Frog

Tobiads

(397 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (from the Hebrew personal name ṭōviyyȧh, Neh 2,10; Τωβιας/ Tōbias, LXX, cf. ὑιοὶ Τωβια/ hyioì Tōbia 'sons of Tobias', 2 Esr 17:62). The family of the T. played a leading economic and political role at the time of the second Temple (III) in Iudaea (Judah and Israel). Archeologically attested is Hyrcanus's fortress of Tyrus which was probably built on the ruins of the ancestral seat of the T. in present-day Irāq al-Amīr (Transjordan) [1]. The first historically traceable representative is known f…

Tochari

(161 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] (Τόχαροι/ Tócharoi  Str. 11,8,2; Latin Tochari:  Just. Epit. 42,2,2; Thocari: Plin.  HN 6,55; Τάχοροι/ Táchoroi: Ptol. 6,16,4; Athagurae: Amm.  Marc. 23,6,66; Θαγούροι/ Thagoúroi: Ptol. 6,16,2). Group of Inner Asian tribes, after which an Indo-European language is named Tocharian. It is mentioned in the context of the westward migration of the Yuezhi after their defeat in 176 or 174 BC by the Xiongnu (presumed Central-Asiatic antecedents of the Hunni). According to the Geography of Ptolemaeus [65], and in Strabo and Justin (see above) located in Gans…

Tocharian

(173 words)

Author(s): Oettinger, Norbert (Augsburg)
[German version] Independent branch of the Indo-European languages, a centum language, recorded in translations of Buddhist texts stemming from the 6th-8th cents. AD. These are written in a vocalized Indic script and were found in buried monasteries in Xinjiang province in northwestern China. Dialect A was written only in Turfan, Dialect B also to the west in Kučā. The name Tocharian was given to the language by modern scholars, perhaps in error, after the ancient Tochari people in Bactria. From the vocabulary cf. Tocharian B pācer = Latin pater, and, with only a Greek cognate, To…

Toga

(520 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] The toga, adopted from the Etruscans, was the official garment of Roman citizens which was worn in public and which non-Romans were not allowed to wear (Suet. Claud. 15,3; gens togata: Verg. Aen. 1,282). Originally, the woolen toga was worn over the bare upper body and over the subligaculum that covered the lower body, later over the tunica . The common toga of the simple Roman citizen was white ( toga pura, toga virilis). Furthermore, there was the toga praetexta with a crimson stripe along the edges ( clavi; status symbols) which was worn by curule officials, by the Flamines …

Togata

(348 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] Type of Roman comedy; unlike the variation later called palliata , it was not associated with Athens but with a Roman setting. By the term togata (= play with Roman private individuals in everyday dress; toga ), it is distinguished from praetexta (= action by persons in political/military official dress), cf. Hor. Ars P 288; Varro suggested to replace togata with tabernaria and to use it as a collective term for all plays in a Roman setting [2], but this usage did not gain general acceptance (but cf.  Juv. 1,3). While Roman and Greek elements were used alike in the c…

Toga virilis

(5 words)

see Age(s)

Togisonus

(71 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Venetia (Plin. HN 3,121), probably arising from the confluence of the Retron (modern Retrone) and the Astagus (modern Astico) in the area of Vicetia (modern Vicenza) with other rivers to the north of thr Atesis; modern Bacchiglione. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. B. Castiglioni, Abbozzo di una carta dell'antica idrografia nella pianura tra Vicenza e Padova, in: P. Innocenti (ed.), Scritti geografici. FS A. Sestini, vol. 1, 1982, 183-197.

Toilets

(4 words)

see Latrines

Tokens

(469 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (σύμβολον/ sýmbolon, tessera). From 450 BC onwards in Athens, the State gave poor citizens free tickets for performances in the Theatre of Dionysus to the value of two oboloi (θεωρικòν διόβολον/ theōrikòn dióbolon); these tokens, called σύμβολα ( sýmbola), were given to the lessee of the theatre, who then collected the corresponding money for them from the State treasury. This institution was later extended to all citizens, followed by payments for participation in people's assemblies and in court. Numerous bronze symbola survive from the period between the s…

Tolastochora

(57 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Τολαστοχόρα; Tolastochóra). Town in Galatia (Ptol. 5,4,7; Tab. Peut. 9,5) at a crossing over the former southern main tributary of the Sangarius from Lake Ak (River Gökpınar) at modern Gökpınar in the southwestern border region of the Tolistobogii. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 236.

Tolbiacum

(140 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (modern Zülpich, district of Euskirchen in North Rhine-Westphalia). Town ( vicus: CIL XIII 7920;  It. Ant. 373,4: vicus Sopenorum - possibly a Celtic tribal name), originally in the settlement area of the Eburones, then of the Ubii (Tac. Hist. 4,79,2). Presumably the location of a station of beneficiarii . Remains survive of thermae and burial monuments. After being destroyed in Germanic attacks in 275/6 AD, T. was fortified at the beginning of the 4th cent. AD . There is evidence of Romanic settlement until the middle of the 5th cent. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliogr…

Toledot Yeshu

(239 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Hebrew for ‘Life of Jesus’), a Jewish popular pseudo-history of the life of Jesus (A.1.), describing his birth, life and death in a satirical and polemic manner. The mediaeval compilation, which was in circulation in numerous different versions in several languages (including Hebrew, Yiddish, Judaeo-Arabic and Judaeo-Persian) and whose roots can be traced back as far as Talmudic tradition (cf. e.g. bSot 47a; bSan 43a; 67a; 107b), tells e.g. of Jesus's ignominious origin, since hi…

Tolenus

(82 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Central-Italian river (Ov. Fast. 6,565), modern Turano. It rises in the Montes Simbruini (modern Monti Simbruini), flows through the territory of the Aequi of Carsioli (to the northeast of modern Cársoli), of the Sabini of Trebula Mutuesca (near Monteleone Sabino) and Reate, where it joins with the Avens to form the Rosea Rura wetlands. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. R. Staffa, La viabilità romana della valle del Turano, in: Xenia 6, 1983, 37-44  Id., L'assetto territoriale, in: ArchCl 36, 1984, 231-265.

Tolerance

(4,834 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Lindemaier, Hildegard (Tübingen) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Fitschen, Klaus (Kiel) | Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
I. Terminology and philosophy [German version] A. Modern concept The general modern meaning of the word 'tolerance' is the readiness of individuals, groups or states to permit the opinions, ways of life and philosophical and religious convictions of others to 'have validity' alongside their own. Today, the meaning of the word ranges from 'sufferance' (e.g. in the sense of constitutional law: the sufferance of immigrants, diverse confessions, religions) to the emphatic affirmation of the 'different' pheno…

Toletum

(201 words)

Author(s): Stepper, Ruth
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia (modern Toledo). Chief town of the Carpetani (Plin. HN. 3,25; Ptol. 2,6,57: Τώλητον/ Tṓlēton) on a steep-sided granite plateau on the northern bank of the Tagus, which flows round the city on three sides. During the Romans' conquest of the Iberian Peninsula in 193 BC, there was fierce fighting with the Vaccaei, the Vettones and the Celtiberi in the area of the city (Liv. 35,7,6-8), which was conquered in 192 (Li…

Tolfa

(213 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] The T. mountain zone lies between the modern towns of Civitavecchia and Bracciano, about 70 km to the north of Rome. On the evidence of the rich hoard finds of Coste del Marano and Monte Rovello and the settlements of Luni sul Mignone, Monte Rovello and several necropoleis it first flourished at the end of the Bronze Age (12th-10th cents. BC). By contrast, it is not until the Etruscan period (from the 7th cent. BC) that there seems to have been a further intensive phase of settlem…

Tolistobogii

(362 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Τολιστοβόγιοι/ Tolistobógioi). Celtic tribe (Syll.3 591: Tolistoágioi) which, together with the Trocmi and led by Leonnorius, passed through Thracia in 279/8 BC and into Byzantium where Nicomedes [2] recruited them as allies [1.236-252]). After 275/4 BC the T. took possession of northwest Phrygia. Until 189 BC Gordium was their municipal centre and their territory extended from the Axylos in the south to the Bolu basin, and eastwards over the Ankara-Haymana region (Galatia; [2]). At th…

Toll

(1,742 words)

Author(s): Onken, Björn (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] I. Terminology A toll is a duty on goods imported into or exported from an area of rule. The ancient terms τὰ τέλη/ télē (pl.) and portorium can also denote internal tolls and tolls for harbours, roads, bridges and gates, and tele also included other taxes. Nor is the Latin term vectigal restricted to tolls, but also refers to many taxes and even income in general terms. The ἐλλιμένια/ elliménia was on the one hand a fee for the use of a harbour or, on the other hand, the harbour's total income including tolls, or perhaps only a particular ad valor…

Tolma

(137 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τόλμα/ Tólma, 'boldness, daring'). Notes on the ancient concept of T. as a deity, although scanty and late, are unquestionable [1. 1681]: Schol. Aesch. PV 12c Harington mentions an (unidentified) sanctuary to T. and Anaideia in Athens; in App. Lib. 21 Scipio (Cornelius [I 71]) prays to T. and Phobos; Anth. Pal. 9,29,1-4 (Antiphilus [3] of Byzantium) addresses T. as the fateful inventor of sea travel (ambivalent: Anth. Pal. 7,529,1). Claudianus [2] presents the corresponding Latin …

Tolmides

(118 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] (Τολμίδης/ Tolmídēs). Son of Tolmaeus, Athenian stratēgós in the years 457-455, 452, 451, 448 and 447 BC [1. 75 ff.]. After the murder of Ephialtes [2], in the 450s T. became the most important democratic politician and exponent of an aggressive naval league policy (Delian League). T.' often assumed political independence from Pericles [1] is an anachronism (cf. Plut. Pericles 16,3). In 456/5, T. commanded a successful naval operation against the Peloponnese (Thuc. 1,108), in 447 he settled Attic klēroûchoi on Euboea, Naxos and probably …

Tolophon

(88 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τολοφών; Tolophṓn). Port in western Locris (Locri [1]; Thuc. 3,101,3; Dionysios Kalliphontos 66 f.) near modern Vidavi, where remains of city walls are visible near Galaxidi. Frequent mentions of the inhabitants of T. in inscriptions from Delphi. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography L. Lérat, Les Locriens de l'ouest, vol. 1, 1952, 50 f.; 138-145; vol. 2, 1952, passim  Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 1, 372, n. 2  K. Braun, s. v. T., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 688  G. J. Szemler, T., in: E. W. Kase et al. (eds.), The Great Isthmus Corridor Route, vo…

Tolosa

(395 words)

Author(s): Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Christianity | | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Punic Wars (Τολῶσσα/ Tolôssa). Main city of the Volcae Tectosages (Str. 4,1,13; Plin. HN 3,37; Ptol. 2,10,9; Cass. Dio 27,90) on a terrace on the right shore of the upper Garumna, present-day Toulouse. Allied with Rome probably from 121 BC on, T. revolted against the Romans in 106 BC, only to be captured and plundered by the consul Servilius [I 12] Caepio (on the story about the stolen sacred treasure, the aurum Tolosanum, 'gold of T.', cf. Cic. Nat. D. 3,74; Gell. NA 3,9,7; Str. loc. …

Tolumnius

(136 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] Etruscan nomen gentile; most famous bearer: Lars T., king of the Veii, who in 437 BC brought about the killing of Roman ambassadors by the Fidenati (Fidenae), who had defected to him. In the subsequent war, he was killed in single combat by Cornelius [I 20] Cossus (Liv. 4,17,1-5; 4,19,1-5); the year of this single combat was already disputed in ancient tradition (Liv. 4,20,5-11; cf. [1. 563 f.]. Cossus dedicated T.' armour as spolia opima (War booty III.) to Iuppiter Feretrius (for the political role of this under Augustus cf. Licinius [I 13]). The h…

Tomarus

(74 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Τόμαρος/ Tómaros, also Τμάρος/ Tmáros). A sacred mountain (1972 m elevation) to the west of Dodona (Str. 7,7,11; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 319; Plin.  HN 4,2), now again Tómaros (formerly Olytsika). Derived from T. are Τμάριος/ Tmários, Τομαριάς/ Tomariás and Latin Tomarius as epithets of Zeus and the sacred oak in Dodona, and probably the term τομοῦροι/ tomoûroi for oracle priests [1. 368 f.] Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967. Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 2, 1, 86 f.

Tombs

(5 words)

see Funerary architecture

Tomi

(573 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Thraci, Thracia | Christianity | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Moesi, Moesia | Pertinax | Rome | Rome | Balkans, languages (Τόμοι/ Tómoi, Τόμις/ Tómis, Τῶμις/ Tômis; Lat. Tomi). Colony of Miletus [2] (Ps.-Scymn. 765) on the west coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), modern Constanţa (Romania). T. was probably founded in the 6th cent. BC -- although Jer. Chron. 95b,4, lists the founding date as 657 BC. In Plinius [1] the Older (HD 4,44), T. is referred to as Eumenia (originally perhaps an…

Tomos synkollesimos

(179 words)

Author(s): Schade, Gerson (Berlin)
[German version] (τόμος συγκολλήσιμος/ tómos synkollḗsimos, literally 'piece glued together'). In Antiquity reports, documents, contracts and other papers belonging together were glued together and kept in archives or in the offices of 'officials' ( logistaí); examples of papyri from such glued collections are POxy. 53 (AD 316) and 87 (AD 342). It is such a document that is being discussed in POxy. 34 I 12f. (AD 127: τὸν τόμον τῶν ... συγκολλησίμων/ tòn tómon tôn ... synkollēsímōn, 'the volume of pieces of writing glued together') and probably also in the earlier PGrenf…

Tomyris

(193 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τόμυρις/ Tómyris), 'the heroic' (?). Queen of the Massagetes, to the southeast of the Aral Sea, c. 530 BC. The exclusively Greek and Latin accounts are presumably legendary, with the earliest surviving being from Herodotus [1], also the most believable (Hdt. 1,205-214). In order to gain power over the Massagetae Cyrus [2] wooed T. but she spurned him. Cyrus decided on a military campaign and at the river Araxes [2] at the border received a message from T.: he may either continue three days' marc…

Tonitrualia

(113 words)

Author(s): Sehlmeyer, Markus (Jena)
[German version] (Greek βροντολόγια/ brontológia). Thunder-books, usually organised according to signs of the zodiac, used for interpreting thunder in divination [3. 1162], e.g. for harvests and war. The surviving tonitrualia are contained either in Lydus [3], De ostentis [1. 105-113; 4] or in astrological MSS, and in the Middle Ages exercised great influence, primarily in Anglo-Saxon areas [5]. Clodius [III 4] Tuscus; Cornelius [II 19] Labeo; Fonteius [I 9]; Vicellius Sehlmeyer, Markus (Jena) Bibliography 1 M. Maas, John Lydus and the Roman Past, 1992 2 E. Rawson, Intel…

Tools

(1,441 words)

Author(s): Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Onken, Björn (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East and Egypt The tools of the Near Eastern cultures and Egypt comprised the most important types still used in similar designs and functions today. The use of natural objects as tools and their adaptation in order to improve their properties dates back to the Palaeolithic period (e.g. stone tools with various basic functions; increasing differentiation in relation to the qualities for particular usages). Improvements were made in handling (grip, mounting, shafts), the systematic exploitation of mechanical principles, e.g. axial mounting ( tournet…

Top

(119 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (στρόβιλος/ stróbilos, also βέμβηξ/ bémbēx, κῶνος/ kônos, στρόμβος/ strómbos, στρόφαλος/ stróphalos, Latin rhombus, turbo). The top was a popular toy in Antiquity (Children's games); made of box wood (hence also called buxum in Latin) with cross grooves, it was set rotating with the fingers and then propelled with a whip (Verg. Aen. 7,373-383 in an epic simile;  Callim. Epigr. 1,9; Tib. 1,5,3; Anth. Pal. 7,89). Original tops of clay, bronze, lead and other materials have been preserved as grave goods and votive gifts in sanctuaries (cf. Anth. Pal. 6,309) [1]. Hurschman…

Toparches

(29 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (τοπάρχης; topárchēs). 'Leader (ἄρχειν/ árchein = rule) of a district ( tópos)'; in the Hellenistic period the highest civil administrative official in a tópos (q.v.). Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Topazos

(80 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] (Τόπαζος; Tópazos). Island, of which Pliny gives a detailed account, allegedly the place of origin of the name of the precious stone topaz. According to Plin.  HN 37,24;108 it was 300 stadia from the Arabian coast in the Red Sea, and  in the language of the Trogodytae T. means 'seek', since the fog-enshrouded island often had to be looked for by seafarers. It appears as an Indian island in Steph. Byz. s.v. Τοπάζιος. Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)

Topics

(1,223 words)

Author(s): Calboli Montefusco, Lucia (Bologna)
[German version] I. Terminology Today, some aspects of the dialectical and rhetorical theory of argument, as systematized by Aristotle [6] in the Topiká and the Rhētorikḕ téchnē, are subsumed under the general term of topics. Τόπος/ Tópos (literally 'place', then 'commonplace') does, of course, already appear earlier as a technical rhetorical term (Isocr. 12,111; 5,109; 10,4; 10,38; 1,25,76; Aristot. Rh. Al. 1443b 31; Lat. locus), but not until Aristotle was an essential role assigned to the tópoi (pl.; Lat. loci) - not only for achieving rational persuasion, but also for …

Toponyms

(5 words)

see Geographical Names

Topos

(215 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
(τόπος/ tópos). [German version] [1] Administrative unit Territorial subdivision of a nome ( nomós [2]), attested from the Hellenistic period onwards in Egypt and in its external possessions (Syria, Palestine, southern Asia Minor); also as an administrative unit under the Seleucids and Attalids (Attalus, with stemma), probably with a similar structure but not understood in detail [1. 440]. In Egypt a topos comprised several villages or kômai (Kome B), and therefore formed a unit of intermediate size, which had no pharaonic antecedent, unlike the nome and kome, but was newly form…

Toprakkale

(4 words)

see Urarṭu

Torah

(6 words)

see Judaic law; Pentateuch

Toranius

(139 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Italian gens name, primarily in Latium (cf. [2. 98]; AE 1980,588). [German version] [1] T., C. In 73 BC quaestor of P. Varinius, defeated by Spartacus (Sall. Hist. 3,96 M.; Flor. Epit. 2,8,5); c. 64 aed. pl. with C. Octavius [I 2] and in 62 (or 60-58: [1]) praetor (otherwise: MRR 3,63). After the death of Octavius in 59 BC he became the guardian of the later Augustus. A moderate Pompeian in the Civil War, T. waited until c. 45 (on Corcyra?: Cic. Fam. 6,20 f.) for a pardon from Caesar. His own ward had him proscribed in 43 BC (Suet. Aug. 27,1; hushed up in Nicolaus of…

Torch

(4 words)

see Lighting

Torcularium

(4 words)

see Presses

Toreutics

(1,585 words)

Author(s): Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(τορευτικὴ τέχνη/ toreutikḕ téchnē; Lat. caelatura; literally 'chiseling', from τορεύς/ toreús, Lat. caelum, 'chisel') denotes the chasing and repoussé work of thin plates of metal, or else works in which chasing is combined with repoussé work to design relief work; repoussé work may be replaced by casts. [German version] I. The Ancient Orient and Egypt Toreutics designates primarily the productive technique by which metals (gold/electrum, silver, copper/bronze, lead, iron) were shaped in a cold state. The objects (plaques), usually thin, were forme…

Tormenta

(8 words)

see Catapult; Quaestio; Quaestio per tormentum

Tornadotus

(156 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] Tributary of the Tigris rising in the Iranian uplands, mentioned in Plin. HN 6,132, modern Diyālā. Its name is recorded from the 2nd millennium BC, Akkadian Turan/ Turnat, and as late as in mediaeval Arabic sources as Tāmarrā. The main route to Babylonia from the eastern Tigris region and the Iranian uplands ran along the lower reaches of the T. From the lower T. numerous canals branched off towards the southeast to the Tigris; these may have been identical with rivers mentioned in Graeco-Roman sources, such as Phy…

Torone

(368 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (Τορώνη/ Torṓnē). A city, located at the modern village of Toroni (Hdt. 7,122; Scyl. 66), dominating the whole southern part of Sithonia, the middle finger-like promontory of the Chalcidian peninsula. Its significance in Antiquity was primarily due to an excellent harbour, still in use today, in a bay on the southwestern …

Torquatus

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (decorated with a Torque (I.)), prominent in the Manlii family (cf. Manlius [I 12; 14-21]). Legend on its origin in Liv. 7,10,11. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 346.

Torques

(475 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
('torque'; Lat. also torquis; Gr. στρεπτόν/ streptón, 'twisted'). [German version] I. Classical Antiquity Helically twisted collar of bronze, gold or silver with open but almost touching ends, which were thickened or figure-shaped and could sometimes be turned outwards. Torques are known from the Bronze Age onwards and numerous examples survive. The Greeks learned of torques from the Medes and Persians, where they were worn by people of high status (Hdt. 8,113,1; 9,80,4; Xen. Cyr. 1,3,2-3; cf. Curt. 3,3,13),…

Torso (Belvedere)

(1,796 words)

Author(s): Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG)
Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Since the Renaissance the word 'torso' (Italian for 'trunk', also tronco; from Greek thýrsos) refers to an ancient statue in fragmentary condition due to damages it sustained, usually lacking its head and limbs. More recently the term has also been used for sculptures of bodies intentionally left incomplete by the artist. The name comes from the fragment of a larger-than-life sculpture of a nude male, widely known as the 'Belvedere Torso' (BT) because of its location in the Cortile del Bel…

Tort

(1,662 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette | Schröder, Jan (Tübingen RWG)
Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Roman (private) tort law survived into the Early Modern Period, as Roman private law in general, as ius commune, and was only replaced by the Central European codifications of the 18th and 19th cents. It has strongly influenced modern liability law, especially in the field of culpable damnification Schröder, Jan (Tübingen RWG) [German version] B. Tortious Liability (CT) Actions for culpable injury or the damnification of persons or things in Roman law, especially the actio legis Aquiliae and the actio iniuriarum, form…
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