Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Torch

(4 words)

see Lighting

Torcularium

(4 words)

see Presses

Toreutics

(1,585 words)

Author(s): Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(τορευτικὴ τέχνη/ toreutikḕ téchnē; Lat. caelatura; literally 'chiseling', from τορεύς/ toreús, Lat. caelum, 'chisel') denotes the chasing and repoussé work of thin plates of metal, or else works in which chasing is combined with repoussé work to design relief work; repoussé work may be replaced by casts. [German version] I. The Ancient Orient and Egypt Toreutics designates primarily the productive technique by which metals (gold/electrum, silver, copper/bronze, lead, iron) were shaped in a cold state. The objects (plaques), usually thin, were forme…

Tormenta

(8 words)

see Catapult; Quaestio; Quaestio per tormentum

Tornadotus

(156 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] Tributary of the Tigris rising in the Iranian uplands, mentioned in Plin. HN 6,132, modern Diyālā. Its name is recorded from the 2nd millennium BC, Akkadian Turan/ Turnat, and as late as in mediaeval Arabic sources as Tāmarrā. The main route to Babylonia from the eastern Tigris region and the Iranian uplands ran along the lower reaches of the T. From the lower T. numerous canals branched off towards the southeast to the Tigris; these may have been identical with rivers mentioned in Graeco-Roman sources, such as Phy…

Torone

(368 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (Τορώνη/ Torṓnē). A city, located at the modern village of Toroni (Hdt. 7,122; Scyl. 66), dominating the whole southern part of Sithonia, the middle finger-like promontory of the Chalcidian peninsula. Its significance in Antiquity was primarily due to an excellent harbour, still in use today, in a bay on the southwestern …

Torquatus

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (decorated with a Torque (I.)), prominent in the Manlii family (cf. Manlius [I 12; 14-21]). Legend on its origin in Liv. 7,10,11. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 346.

Torques

(475 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
('torque'; Lat. also torquis; Gr. στρεπτόν/ streptón, 'twisted'). [German version] I. Classical Antiquity Helically twisted collar of bronze, gold or silver with open but almost touching ends, which were thickened or figure-shaped and could sometimes be turned outwards. Torques are known from the Bronze Age onwards and numerous examples survive. The Greeks learned of torques from the Medes and Persians, where they were worn by people of high status (Hdt. 8,113,1; 9,80,4; Xen. Cyr. 1,3,2-3; cf. Curt. 3,3,13),…

Torso (Belvedere)

(1,796 words)

Author(s): Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG)
Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Since the Renaissance the word 'torso' (Italian for 'trunk', also tronco; from Greek thýrsos) refers to an ancient statue in fragmentary condition due to damages it sustained, usually lacking its head and limbs. More recently the term has also been used for sculptures of bodies intentionally left incomplete by the artist. The name comes from the fragment of a larger-than-life sculpture of a nude male, widely known as the 'Belvedere Torso' (BT) because of its location in the Cortile del Bel…

Tort

(1,662 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette | Schröder, Jan (Tübingen RWG)
Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Roman (private) tort law survived into the Early Modern Period, as Roman private law in general, as ius commune, and was only replaced by the Central European codifications of the 18th and 19th cents. It has strongly influenced modern liability law, especially in the field of culpable damnification Schröder, Jan (Tübingen RWG) [German version] B. Tortious Liability (CT) Actions for culpable injury or the damnification of persons or things in Roman law, especially the actio legis Aquiliae and the actio iniuriarum, form…

Torthyneum

(93 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Τορθύνειον; Torthýneion). Town in central Arcadia (Plin. HN 4,22; inscr.: [2]), to the southeast or south bordering Orchomenus [3] and Methydrium [1], recently identified with the remains of Hagia Sotira to the north of Kamenitsa; a prehistoric settlement is nearby on Mount Sakovouni (finds from the Neolithic to the Mycenaean period). Tausend, Sabine Bibliography 1 A. Plassart, Inscriptions d'Orchomène d'Arcadie, in: BCH 39, 1915, 58-60 2 S. Dusanic, Notes épigraphiques sur l'histoire arcadienne, in: BCH 102, 1978, 346-358. R. Hope Simpson, Mycenaean Gr…

Tortoise

(984 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Klose, Dietrich (Munich)
[German version] [1] Animal (χελώνη/ chelṓnē, ἐμύς/ emýs: Aristot. Hist. an. 5,33, 558a 7-11, cf. Arr. Ind. 21; Latin testudo, in Plin. HN 9,71 and 166 mus marinus, literally 'sea mouse'). The following are known: 1.) the Hermann's Tortoise, χελώνη (χελών, χελύς, χελύνη) χερσαία/ chelṓnē ( chelṓn, chelýs, chelýnē) chersaía; 2.) the very similar Spur-Thighed Tortoise, χ. ὄρειος ( ch. óreios) in Ael. Nat. 14,17 and Plin. HN 9,38: chersinae; 3.) the Pond Terrapin, ἐμύς ( emýs) or χ. λιμναία ( ch. limnaía); 4.) the Loggerhead Sea-Turtle, Thalassochelys caretta, χ. θαλαττία ( ch. thalattía) …

Torture

(809 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Historical foundations In a legal history sense, torture in Antiquity can be understood primarily as a means for eliciting evidence. Furthermore, torture occurs as a(n additional) punishment. The origins of the legally recognized use of torture is obscure. In the Babylonian law Code of Hammurabi (Cuneiform, legal texts in), for instance, there is no mention of torture at all [1]. By contrast, it was widespread in Greece. The Greek expression for the use of torture, βασανίζειν ( basanízein) is probably a loanword from the Orient, however, so that torture …

Torus

(137 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Latin term (Greek τύλη/ týlē; τυλεῖον/ tyleîon) for anything raised or bulge-like, such as the convex circular parts of an Ionic column base (Column [II B 3] with ill.; the term entered mediaeval and modern architectural terminology in the form ( torus) usual in Vitr. De arch. 3,5,2-3), the calloused skin of the neck and shoulders of a load carrier (Aristoph. Ach. 860; 954: týlē) or the bulging of animals' muscles (Plin. HN 18,78: torus ). Týlē was also the word for cushions on klinai and furniture for sitting on (Sappho fr. 46 Lobel/Page; Diod. Sic. 13,84,5…

Torybea

(75 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania (Τορύβεια/ Torýbeia, Τύρβειον/ Týrbeion). City in the interior of Acarnania (Acarnanes) above modern Komboti, mentioned only in a few lists of theorodokoi (cf. IG IV2 1, 95, 18; FdD III 3, 203). The city was systematically laid out in the 4th cent. BC (orthogonal streets, insulae; Insula ). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Pritchett 8, 104-108  D. Strauch, Römische Politik und griechische Tradition, 1996, 305 f.

Toscanos

(333 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization (Μαινάκη/ Mainákē?; Lat. M(a)enaca, Maenoba?). Modern name of a Phoenician settlement to the west of Torre del Mar (province of Málaga in Spain) at the mouth of the Río de Vélez, with a protected harbour; a pass leads into the highlands and the mining regions around Jaén. Excavations (1964-1986) discovered a trading post founded c. 730 BC by the Phoenicians. The settlement, which flourished in the 7th cent., extended to the Cerro del Peñón (94 m) to the west, where at a moderate elevat…

Totila

(405 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Τωτίλας/ Tōtílas; alternate name Baduila, e.g. Iord. De summa temporum vel origine actibusque gentis Romanorum 380; [1. 458]). King of the Goths AD 541-552, nephew of Hildebald (Ostrogothic king 540/541), great-nephew of the Visigothic king Theudis. He commanded the Gothic troops in Tarvisium when his uncle was murdered. When Erarich's rule caused discontent among the Ostrogoths, T. decided to succeed his uncle despite negotiations with Byzantium (Procop. Goth. 3,2). In 542, he re-engaged in the war against Byzantium during the absence of Belisarius ( ibid. 3…

Tougeni

(137 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Τωϋγενοί/ Tōÿgenoí). Sub-tribe of the Helvetii, affiliated with the Cimbri on the westward migration (Poseid. FGrH 87 F 31,2). According to Str. 4,1,8 Marius [I 1] fought against the T. and the Ambrones; but since, besides the Cimbri and the Ambrones, Plut. Marius 15,6 mentions the Teutoni as opponents of Marius at Aquae [III 5] Sextiae in 102 BC, Strabo may have confused the T. with the Teutoni [1. 145-157]. Identification of the T. with the Teutoni [1; 3. 356 f.; 4. 300-309, 455-459], however, is fundamentally unlikely [2; 5; 6. 20810]. Wiegels, Rainer (Osna…

Tourism

(6 words)

see Travels II. E.

Tourism

(4,392 words)

Author(s): Büttner, Nils
Büttner, Nils A. Introduction (CT) [German version] 1. Terminological History (CT) A typical theoretical definition calls tourism "those relationships and phenomena which accrue from a journey and a sojourn for the visitor to a locality, provided that no residence is founded by the sojourn and that no employment is connected with it" [33. 270]. The French word tour (m.), derived from the Greek tornos ('tool for drawing a circle'; 'that which is turned') by way of the mediaeval Latin tornum, established itself in the 17th cent. as denoting a circular or round trip [19]. At the same time, To…
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