Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

Subscriptions: see

Twelve Cities, League (Etruscan) of

(471 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] The federation of 12 cities or tribes into an alliance was an old and widespread occurrence in the Mediterranean region and well beyond (cf. the 12 tribes of Israel). The number 12, which had symbolic significance, emphasized internal closeness and, at the same time, differentiation from the outside. Political/military goals in the sense of a defensive community or a federation for the arrangement of common policies cannot be identified in any of the ancient leagues of twelve citi…

Twelve (Olympian) gods

(600 words)

Author(s): Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)
(Δωδεκάθεοι/ Dōdekátheoi, Lat. Di Consentes). [German version] I. General Groups of TG are a topic that was already dealt with in Hellenistic literature; their composition has been subject of antiquarian speculation throughout the whole of Antiquity. Nevertheless, they did not represent a 'monotheistic dodecade'. Worshipping them as a set group of gods was, in compliance with the structural principles of ancient polytheism, not obligatory and the members of the group varied from one region to the other [1. 360 f.]. Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania) …

Twelve tables

(6 words)

see Tabulae Duodecim


(942 words)

Author(s): R.RA.
(Greek δίδυμοι/ dídymoi; Latin gemini). [German version] I. In religion In Greek and Roman Antiquity, multiple births were considered numinous. Even Pliny the Elder (1st cent. AD) considered a birth of more than three children at the same time as a prodigium (Plin. HN 7,33; cf. Dig. 34,5,7). In Greek mythology, the birth of twins was seen as caused by the influence of divine power. It was assumed that they had been fathered by a god or that the mother had been impregnated by both a god and a man. The Dioscuri Cast…


(216 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Syria | Byzantium | Christianity | Xenophon | Zenobia | | Coloniae | Ḫattusa | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Aegean Koine (Τύανα/ Týana; Luwian Tuwana). Ancient Anatolian city, capital of southern Cappadocia, on the road to the Cilician Gates [1], modern Kemerhisar (settlement mound, aqueduct, tapping of springs). Seat of a Late-Hittite kingdom, which in the later 8th cent. BC probably came under the predominance of the Phrygian kingdom (Phryges). In the Hellenistic…


(702 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Falco
(Τύχη/ Týchē, Τύχα/ Týcha). [German version] [1] Greek goddess of fate Greek goddess of fate, the personification of the abstract term tyche ('fate', 'chance'; 'fortune' - both good and bad), etymologically related to the verb τυγχάνειν/ tynchánein ('hit', 'meet with', 'be favoured with', 'happen accidentally'). The close connection between the two aspects (by what is called 'Person-Bereichdenken') often makes it very difficult in Greek literature to distinguish between the deity and the abstraction [3.35-36]. No specific myth is associated with the personified figure…


(284 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Τύχων/ Týchōn). [German version] [1] Ithyphallic god Ithyphallic god (Str. 13,1,12), associated with Priapus (Diod. Sic. 4,6,4), but primarily with Hermes (Clem. Al. Protreptikos 102,1; Theognostus, Anecdota Oxoniensia 2, p. 33,31 Cramer), as in the only inscriptional record, from Magnesia [2] on the Maeander [2] [2. 136 no. 203]; also with Aphrodite (Herodian. 1,37,15 Lentz; Hesych. s. v. T.; cf. Apollophanes PCG 2 fr. 6). His efficacy was considered limited (Anth. Pal. 9,334,1), but Alexander [II 15…


(258 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[German version] c. AD 330-390 in Africa (Gennadius Vir. ill. 18). His Latin Liber Regularum ('Book of Rules') from c. 383, which surviving almost complete, represents the first extant Christian hermeneutics. In biblical exegesis, according to T., attention must be paid to seven core issues: 1) the Lord and his body, i.e. the Church; 2) the body of the Lord, dichotomized into Good and Evil; 3) the Prophecies and the Law; 4) the particular subitem and the textual genre in general; 5) symbolic time information; 6) r…


(361 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough)
(Τυδεύς; Tydeús). [German version] [1] Son of Oeneus and Periboea Son of Oeneus and Periboea [6]. He has to leave his home after killing one of his relatives (for his motive: [1. 175]). In Argos, Adrastus [1] gives him his daughter Deipyle in marriage. In the siege of Troy, their son Diomedes [1] fights hard to match the achievements of his father in every way. As one of the Seven against Thebes, T. is part of an embassy to the city and emerges victorious from a series of contests with the Thebans. On his…

Tydeus Painter

(118 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] Significant painter of Corinthian vases, who c. 560 BC primarily made amphorae, kraters, lekythoi and oinochoai; scholarship has not so far been quite successful in distinguishing the TP from stylistically related painters. His most important work can be found on red-ground neck amphorae, such as the eponymous Killing of Ismene by Tydeus [1] (Paris, LV E 640). Apart from a battle between Theseus and the Minotaur (amphora Paris, LV E 651) the TP primarily shows battles, horsemen, komasts …


(116 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Τύλη; Týlē). [German version] [1] City in Thrace Capital of the Celtic kingdom in Thrace (Thraci, Thracia), founded under Comontorius in 278 BC, abandoned in 212 BC after the Thracians' victory over the Celtic king Cavarus (Pol. 4,46). On the basis of Steph. Byz. s.v. Τύλις, T. is generally localized near Haemus, in the region around modern Tulovo (district of Kazanlăk in Bulgaria). A textual variant in Steph. Byz. loc.cit., however, suggests a location in the Late Antiquity province of Haemimontus in southeastern Thrace, where the fortress Τουλεοῦς/ Touleoûs (Procop. Aed. 4,11,20…


(262 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete | Aegean Koine (Τυλισσός/ Tylissós). City in central Crete, 13 km to the southwest of Heracleum [1] at modern T.; settlement evidently of considerable size from the early Minoan period. From the late Minoan period, there are three richly furnished houses of at least two storeys which afford an impression of superior domestic comfort. There is also evidence of settlement continuity for the Mycenaean period. In the Archaic period, a sanctuary to…


(4 words)

see Dilmun


(138 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Τύμνης; Týmnēs). Epigrammatist with a Carian name from the 'Garland' of Meleager [8] (Anth. Pal. 4,1,19), perhaps 3rd or 2nd cent. BC. Seven poems survive, each consisting of two couplets, with the exception of an epideictic six-line poem Anth. Pal. 7,433 on the 'Spartan mother' (imitated by Erycius, Anth. Pal. 7,230 and Antipater [9], Anth. Pal. 7,531). Two of the four epitaphs are considered to be on animals, cf. Anyte (Anth. Pal. 7,199,211). The Priapic poem Anth. Pal. 16,237 i…


(78 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τύμνος; Týmnos). Port in Caria (Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.; Cares) on the western coast of the Bozburun peninsula, modern Bozburun. T. was part of the Rhodian Peraia. Inscriptions survive, including some relating to sacred law [1. no. 201], as do a number of ruins. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 W. Blümel, Die Inschriften der rhodischen Peraia (IK 38), 1991, 63-74. P. M. Fraser, G. E. Bean, The Rhodian Peraea and Islands, 1954, 61 f.  W. Ruge, s. v. T., RE 7 A, 1748 f.  Zgusta, Nr. 1384, Nr. 4.

Tympanon, Tympanum

(12 words)

see Gable; Musical instruments,V. Greece D. Membranophones (with illustration)


(163 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Τυμφαία; Tymphaía). Region in Epirus, to the east of Mount Tymphe (2497 m high, modern Mavrovouni) in the Pindus [1]. T. extended in the northeast from the source rivers of the Veneticus to the basin region of the upper Haliacmon as far as modern Grevená, in the south as far as the area of the source of the Peneius around modern Kalabáka. The Tymphaei were originally considered as Epeirotae (Arr. An. 1,7,5; Str. 7,7,8f.; Plin. HN 4,6), and from the time of Philippus [4] II (cf. [1…


(264 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Sylvia
[German version] (Τυνδάρεως/ Tyndáreōs). Mythical king of Sparta, son of Oebalus [1] and the Naïad Bateia (Hes. fr. 199) or of Perieres [1] and Gorgophone [3] (Stesich. PMGF fr. 227). After his father's death, T. is driven from Sparta by his (half-?)brother Hippocoon (Apollod. 3,124; Str. 10,2,24), and seeks refuge in Messenia (Paus. 3,1,4) or Aetolia with king Thestius, who gives him the hand of his daughter Leda (Hom. Od. 2,298). Heracles [1] subsequently kills Hippocoon and his twelve sons, ther…


(4 words)

see Dioscuri


(78 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Τυνδάριον; Tyndárion). Tyrant of Tauromenium, who together with other Sicilian Greeks asked Pyrrhus [3] to intervene against the power ambitions of the Carthaginians on the island in 279 BC. In 278 he readily received Pyrrhus when he landed at Tauromenium and was, as the latter's ally, confirmed in his power (Diod. 22,2,1; Plut. Pyrrhus 22; Paus. 1,12,5;  Just. Epit. 18,2,11). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, vol. 1, 1967, 459; 461; 732.


(369 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Theatre | Coloniae | Punic Wars (Τυνδαρίς/ Tyndarís). Greek city on the northern coast of Sicily between Mylae [2] and Agathyrnon, modern Tíndari. T. was founded in 396 BC by Dionysius [1] I to protect the Greeks against Carthage. It was settled mainly by Messenians, who, driven from Naupactus and Zacynthos after the Peloponnesian War, had offered their services to the tyrant and named the city after the Tyndaridae, a Messenian version of the D…


(63 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Τύννιχος; Týnnichos) from Chalcis (Euboea). Choral lyricist of the 7th cent. BC (?), composer of a paean often sung in Delphi (Plat. Ion 534d), which, according to an anecdote, even Aeschylus placed above everything he could have written himself (Porph. De abstinentia animalium 2,18 p. 148 Nauck). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography L. Käppel, Paian, 1992, 359  I. Rutherford, Pindar's Paeans, 2001, 28.


(92 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Τυπανέαι/ Typanéai). City and fortress in Triphylia (Pol. 4,77,9-79,4; Str. 8,3,15; Ptol. 3,16,18: Τυμπανέαι/ Tympanéai) on a rock ridge of Mount Lapithus to the south of modern Platiana: an elongated site (Hellenistic walls, theatre), its western part forming the fortress. T. controlled a pass on the road from Megalopolis to Olympia. In the winter of 218/7 BC T. was occupied by the Aetoli and conquered by Philippus [7] V. Tausend, Sabine Bibliography N. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ἑλλάδος Περιήγησις …

Typhoeus, Typhon

(499 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Τυφωεύς/ Typhōeús, Τυφῶν/ Typhôn; also Τυφάων/ Typháōn, Τυφώς/ Typhṓs). Gigantic mythical monster, according to Hesiod the offspring of Tartaros and Gaia, with a hundred dragons' heads (spitting fire) and serpents' feet (for pictorial representations, see [1]), set up by Gaia as a rival ruler to Zeus after the fall of the Titans but defeated by him and cast into the underworld. From then on, he causes storms and volcanic eruptions (Hes. Theog. 820-880). His union with Echidna produces more monster progeny: Orthus, Cerberus, Hydra [1], Chimaera and others ( ibid. 306-…


(5 words)

see Writing/Typography


(397 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[German version] The term typology only dates back to the 18th cent., referring specifically to the mainly Jewish-Christian interpretation method of a salvific history which was seen as both coherent and purposeful (to be distinguished from typology in the sense of assigning individuals to particular types or, respectively, as a method of relative dating used in the study of prehistory). Typology has its etymological roots in τύπος/ týpos ('image', type) respectively τυπικός/ typikós (Rom 5,14; 1 Cor 10,6; 11) and ἀντίτυπον/ antítypon ('counter-image', antitype; 1 Petr 3,21)…


(1,627 words)

Author(s): Suntrup, Rudolf (Münster RWG)
Suntrup, Rudolf (Münster RWG) [German version] A. Concept and Its Range (CT) In literary studies and theology (unlike in the natural and social sciences and some branches of the humanities since the 19th cent., cf. [8]), the (modern) term typology designates a particular form of allegorical textual interpretation that relates a given text to the history of salvation. It goes back to a medieval conception of history, according to which the Pre-Christian period is fulfilled in Christ one step at a time and in…


(121 words)

Author(s): Messina, Aldo (Triest)
[German version] (Τυρακῖναι/ Tyrakînai). City in Sicilia (Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.), presumably near modern Cittadella a Vindicari near Marzamemi [1] or Módica [2] (Cic. Verr. 2,3,129: Tyracinus as a personal name; Plin. HN 3,91: Tyracinenses; Diod. Sic. 12,29,2: Τρινακίη/ Trinakíē). The place name appears in a list of thearodókoi from Delphi between Helorus [3] and Camarina, according to [3. 433 f.; 4. 132 with note 22] a reference to the location. Messina, Aldo (Triest) Bibliography 1 E. Pais, Alcune osservazioni sulla storia e sull'amministrazione della Sicilia, in:…


(71 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τυραῖον; Tyraîon). City on the Royal Road from Sardis to Susa near Philomelium (Xen. An. 1,2,14; Artem. in  Str. 14,2,29: Τυριαῖον; Plin. HN 5,95: Tyrienses; Anna Komnene, Alexias 3,211 f.) in the area of modern Ilgın. On his march against his brother Artaxerxes [2] II in 401 BC, Cyrus [3] the Younger also passed through T. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography W. Ruge, s. v. T. (1), RE 7 A, 1800-1802  Belke/ Mersich, 409f.


(313 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (τυραννοκτονία/ tyrannoktonía; Latin tyrannicidium). Term coined in Hellenistic and Roman rhetoric, historiography and law (initially Greek, Diod. Sic. 16,14,1, Latin Sen. Controv. 4,7). The term goes back to the public veneration of the tyrannicides in Athens (Harmodius [1], Aristogiton [1]). Their deed quickly became a democratic topos (Thuc. 1,20; 6,53,3-6,54,1). Injustice, lawlessness and despotism (Pl. Plt. 291e; Pl. Resp. 9,571-586) justified tyrannicide (Pl. Prt. 322d) and the…

Tyrannidos graphe

(206 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (τυραννίδος γραφή; tyrannídos graphḗ). Popular action for tyranny ( tyrannis ). Plutarch's report of the amnesty law of Solon [1] provides evidence that atimia (cf. also time (1)) for tyranny was already current before Solon (Plut. Solon 19). Those supporters of Cylon [1] who fled into exile after the attempted coup were probably excepted from the amnesty (on their condemnation by the Areios Pagos , [4. 1806]). Solon sanctioned the attempt to set up a tyrannis, with heritable atimia (Aristot. Ath. pol. 16,10; [5. fr. 37a]). Forfeiture of assets is first at…


(277 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Τυραννίων/ Tyranníōn). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian, 1st cent. BC T. of Amisus, Greek grammarian of the 1st cent. BC (d. c. 25 BC). After training with Hestiaeus and Dionysius [17] Thrax, he probably worked at Rome from c. 68 BC [1. 29], where he came into contact with Caesar, Atticus and Cicero [2. 94]. Among his pupils was Strabo. T., with other grammarians (e.g. Tryphon [3]), marked the beginnings of normative grammar [3. 27]. On his role in the establishment of the grammatical quadripartite model, s. [4. 31-32]. Of …


(4,282 words)

Author(s): Friedeburg, Robert v.
Friedeburg, Robert v. [German version] A. Introduction (CT) The concept of tyranny allows the denunciation of particular ruling practices in favour of a supposedly better political order. In Antiquity, the favoured order was the autonomous polity of citizens. After the fall of these pagan citizen states, the reception of the term tyrannis in the monarchies of the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period signaled demands addressed to the constitution of the political order that were in a relation of tension with Christian doctrines of original sin…

Tyrannis, Tyrannos

(1,195 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen)
(τυραννίς/ tyrannís, Archaic Gk. also τυραννίη/ tyranníē; τύραννος/ týrannos; Latin tyrannus). [German version] I. Term; alterations in meaning Tyrannos (non-Greek loan-word, perhaps from Lydian tūran/'lord') is first attested around the mid-7th cent. as the term denoting the Lydian king Gyges [1] (Archil. 22,3 Diehl; fr. 19 West). Greek Archaic poetry used tyrannis synonymously with monarchía , but tyrannos was never used in self-presentation or as a title, but was used by aristocrats to attack a peer. This is exemplified in the polemic of Alcaeus[4]…


(106 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Τύραννος/ Týrannos). Greek rhetor of the 4th or 5th cent. AD (definitely before Georgius Monos, who wrote around 500 and used T.); fragments survive from two of his works, five from Περὶ στάσεων ( Perì stáseōn, ‘Case Categories’, a systematic work on stasis theory; cf. status [1]) and seven from Περὶ διαιρέσεως λόγου ( Perì dihairéseōs lógou), a work which, similarly to the Dihaíresis zētēmátōn of Sopater [1], provides guidelines and examples for the preparation of speeches using fictitious cases organized by category. T. generally followed …


(182 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Thraci, Thracia | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Patricius | Rome | Rome (Τύρας/ Týras). Colony of Miletus [2] on the northwestern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), modern Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, at the mouth of the river of the same name, modern Dnister (Ps.-Skymn. 7,98; 7,802 f.; Plin. HN. 4,82). The Ionian character of the polis is confirmed by inscriptions (IOSPE I2 2-19), the calendar and the cult of Apollo Ietrus. The date of foundatio…


(78 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Attica (Τυρμεῖδαι; Tyrmeîdai). Small Attic mesogeia(?) deme of the Oineis, from 200/199 BC of the Attalis (Attalus [4] I), one (two) bouleutaí. In 360/59 and 335/4 BC T. did not send a council member. Its precise location is not known. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography Traill, Attica 9, 19, 49, 70, 78, 112 no. 141 tab. 6, 14  J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 15, 134, 143 f., 149.


(288 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Τυρώ; Tyrṓ). The daughter of Salmoneus and Alcidice, famed for her very white skin (from tyrós, cheese) and her magnificent head of curls (cf. Hom. Od. 2,119 f.; Hes. Cat. 30,25; Pind. Pyth. 4,136, cf 109; Soph. fr. 648; Diod. Sic. 6 fr. 6,5; 7,2). After her parents were killed by Zeus, T. who had opposed her father's sacrilege, is taken to Thessalia to her uncle Cretheus and his wife Sidero. Here Poseidon, assuming the shape of the river god Enipeus, fathers her twins Neleus [1] and Pelias; At…


(402 words)

Author(s): GI.MAR.
[German version] (Τυρρηνοί/ Tyrrhēnoí, Ionian and Old Attic Τυρσηνοί/ Tyrs ēnoí cf. Lat. Tyrrheni). Greek name for the Etruscans (Etrusci), used not only of that people in Italy, but also of peoples of the east, occasionally also identified with the Pelasgi (cf. Hes. Theog. 1011-1016; Hecat. FGrH 1 F 59; H. Hom. 7,8; Soph. fr. 270 Radt; Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 4; Thuc. 4,109,4; Philochorus FGrH 328 F 100). Loci classici for the issue of the origins of the Etruscans are Hdt. 1,57; 1,94 and Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,25-30. Herodotus believes the first Etruscans to ha…

Tyrrhenian amphorae

(304 words)

Author(s): Mommsen, Heide (Stuttgart)
[German version] Homogenous group of Attic black figured amphorae, produced between 570 and 545 BC specifically for export. The name refers to the mainly Etruscan finding places (Tyrrheni), foremost amongst them Volci/Vulci and Caere. Neck amphorae with egg-shaped bodies, decorated with animal friezes, make up about 90% of this group, of which a total of 260 vessels and fragments are known to date, attributable to eight master craftsmen (potters-painters). Their standard decoration consists of a s…


(209 words)

Author(s): Aigner-Foresti, Luciana (Vienna)
[German version] (Τυρρηνός/ Tyrrhēnós, also Τυρσηνός/ Tyrsēnós, Lat. Turrenus). Legendary son of the Lydian king Atys [1] (Hdt. 1,94; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,27,2;  Str. 5,2,2), of Telephus [1] (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,28,1; Serv. Aen. 8,479) or of Heracles [1] (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,28,1; Paus. 2,21,3). Driven by a famine, T. allegedly led half of the Lydian people to Italy, where the Lydians named themselves Tyrrhenians after him (Hdt. 1,94: Τυρσηνοί/ Tyrsēnoí). The roots of T. as a cultural figure probably go back to Greek Asia minor, as indicated by Tyrrhenian sett…


(4 words)

see Turrenus


(621 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Τυρταῖος; Tyrtaîos). Spartan elegist and aulete, c. 640 BC (Suda s.v. Τυρταῖος, 1205; cf. T.' dating of Theopompus [1] to two generations before his own day, 5 W). The (probably Hellenistic) edition of his poems in 5 vols. (Suda loc.cit.) contains (1) martial exhortatory elegies, (2) the Eunomía and (3) war songs. (1) The battle exhortations (ὑποθῆκαι/ hypothêkai, Suda loc.cit.) urged the Spartans (always in the pl.) to courageous action against the enemy (Messenians: 23 W; Arcadians and Argives: 23a W). Honour in victory or death wa…


(942 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Writing | Syria | Christianity | Zenobia | Coloniae | Diadochi and Epigoni | Alexander | Commerce | Hasmonaeans | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Mesopotamia | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Rome | Aegean Koine (Tyre. Phoenician, Ugaritic ṣr; Egyptian Ḏwr, Dr; Akkadian Ṣurru; Hebrew Ṣor; Greek ἡ Τύρος/ hē Týros; Latin Tyrus, feminine; Arabic Ṣūr) was a Phoenician island city that was connected to the mainland when Alexander [4] the Great had a causeway built for its conques…


(783 words)

Author(s): Eleuteri, Paolo (Venice) | G.KA.
(Τζέτζης; Tzétzēs). [German version] [1] Isaac T. Byzantine scholar, c. AD 1110-1138 (Ἰσαὰκ Τ.; Isaàk T.). Byzantine scholar ( grammatikós, c. 1110-1138), older brother of Iohannes T. [2] and author of a treatise on Pindaric metre (Pind. Ol. 1-14, Pind. Pyth. 1; the title Περὶ τῶν πινδαρικῶν μέτρων/ Perì tôn pindarikôn métrōn is not authentic and only appears in a more recent MS). With the exception of ten introductory dodecasyllables, the work is written in what is known as 'political' verse (i.e. decapentasyllabic verse). After a general intro…
▲   Back to top   ▲