Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Twelve Cities, League (Etruscan) of

(471 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] The federation of 12 cities or tribes into an alliance was an old and widespread occurrence in the Mediterranean region and well beyond (cf. the 12 tribes of Israel). The number 12, which had symbolic significance, emphasized internal closeness and, at the same time, differentiation from the outside. Political/military goals in the sense of a defensive community or a federation for the arrangement of common policies cannot be identified in any of the ancient leagues of twelve citi…

Twelve (Olympian) gods

(600 words)

Author(s): Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)
(Δωδεκάθεοι/ Dōdekátheoi, Lat. Di Consentes). [German version] I. General Groups of TG are a topic that was already dealt with in Hellenistic literature; their composition has been subject of antiquarian speculation throughout the whole of Antiquity. Nevertheless, they did not represent a 'monotheistic dodecade'. Worshipping them as a set group of gods was, in compliance with the structural principles of ancient polytheism, not obligatory and the members of the group varied from one region to the other [1. 360 f.]. Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania) …

Twelve tables

(6 words)

see Tabulae Duodecim


(942 words)

Author(s): R.RA.
(Greek δίδυμοι/ dídymoi; Latin gemini). [German version] I. In religion In Greek and Roman Antiquity, multiple births were considered numinous. Even Pliny the Elder (1st cent. AD) considered a birth of more than three children at the same time as a prodigium (Plin. HN 7,33; cf. Dig. 34,5,7). In Greek mythology, the birth of twins was seen as caused by the influence of divine power. It was assumed that they had been fathered by a god or that the mother had been impregnated by both a god and a man. The Dioscuri Cast…


(216 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Syria | Byzantium | Christianity | Xenophon | Zenobia | | Coloniae | Ḫattusa | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Aegean Koine (Τύανα/ Týana; Luwian Tuwana). Ancient Anatolian city, capital of southern Cappadocia, on the road to the Cilician Gates [1], modern Kemerhisar (settlement mound, aqueduct, tapping of springs). Seat of a Late-Hittite kingdom, which in the later 8th cent. BC probably came under the predominance of the Phrygian kingdom (Phryges). In the Hellenistic…


(702 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Falco
(Τύχη/ Týchē, Τύχα/ Týcha). [German version] [1] Greek goddess of fate Greek goddess of fate, the personification of the abstract term tyche ('fate', 'chance'; 'fortune' - both good and bad), etymologically related to the verb τυγχάνειν/ tynchánein ('hit', 'meet with', 'be favoured with', 'happen accidentally'). The close connection between the two aspects (by what is called 'Person-Bereichdenken') often makes it very difficult in Greek literature to distinguish between the deity and the abstraction [3.35-36]. No specific myth is associated with the personified figure…


(284 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Τύχων/ Týchōn). [German version] [1] Ithyphallic god Ithyphallic god (Str. 13,1,12), associated with Priapus (Diod. Sic. 4,6,4), but primarily with Hermes (Clem. Al. Protreptikos 102,1; Theognostus, Anecdota Oxoniensia 2, p. 33,31 Cramer), as in the only inscriptional record, from Magnesia [2] on the Maeander [2] [2. 136 no. 203]; also with Aphrodite (Herodian. 1,37,15 Lentz; Hesych. s. v. T.; cf. Apollophanes PCG 2 fr. 6). His efficacy was considered limited (Anth. Pal. 9,334,1), but Alexander [II 15…


(258 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[German version] c. AD 330-390 in Africa (Gennadius Vir. ill. 18). His Latin Liber Regularum ('Book of Rules') from c. 383, which surviving almost complete, represents the first extant Christian hermeneutics. In biblical exegesis, according to T., attention must be paid to seven core issues: 1) the Lord and his body, i.e. the Church; 2) the body of the Lord, dichotomized into Good and Evil; 3) the Prophecies and the Law; 4) the particular subitem and the textual genre in general; 5) symbolic time information; 6) r…


(361 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough)
(Τυδεύς; Tydeús). [German version] [1] Son of Oeneus and Periboea Son of Oeneus and Periboea [6]. He has to leave his home after killing one of his relatives (for his motive: [1. 175]). In Argos, Adrastus [1] gives him his daughter Deipyle in marriage. In the siege of Troy, their son Diomedes [1] fights hard to match the achievements of his father in every way. As one of the Seven against Thebes, T. is part of an embassy to the city and emerges victorious from a series of contests with the Thebans. On his…

Tydeus Painter

(118 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] Significant painter of Corinthian vases, who c. 560 BC primarily made amphorae, kraters, lekythoi and oinochoai; scholarship has not so far been quite successful in distinguishing the TP from stylistically related painters. His most important work can be found on red-ground neck amphorae, such as the eponymous Killing of Ismene by Tydeus [1] (Paris, LV E 640). Apart from a battle between Theseus and the Minotaur (amphora Paris, LV E 651) the TP primarily shows battles, horsemen, komasts …


(116 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Τύλη; Týlē). [German version] [1] City in Thrace Capital of the Celtic kingdom in Thrace (Thraci, Thracia), founded under Comontorius in 278 BC, abandoned in 212 BC after the Thracians' victory over the Celtic king Cavarus (Pol. 4,46). On the basis of Steph. Byz. s.v. Τύλις, T. is generally localized near Haemus, in the region around modern Tulovo (district of Kazanlăk in Bulgaria). A textual variant in Steph. Byz. loc.cit., however, suggests a location in the Late Antiquity province of Haemimontus in southeastern Thrace, where the fortress Τουλεοῦς/ Touleoûs (Procop. Aed. 4,11,20…


(262 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete | Aegean Koine (Τυλισσός/ Tylissós). City in central Crete, 13 km to the southwest of Heracleum [1] at modern T.; settlement evidently of considerable size from the early Minoan period. From the late Minoan period, there are three richly furnished houses of at least two storeys which afford an impression of superior domestic comfort. There is also evidence of settlement continuity for the Mycenaean period. In the Archaic period, a sanctuary to…


(4 words)

see Dilmun


(138 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Τύμνης; Týmnēs). Epigrammatist with a Carian name from the 'Garland' of Meleager [8] (Anth. Pal. 4,1,19), perhaps 3rd or 2nd cent. BC. Seven poems survive, each consisting of two couplets, with the exception of an epideictic six-line poem Anth. Pal. 7,433 on the 'Spartan mother' (imitated by Erycius, Anth. Pal. 7,230 and Antipater [9], Anth. Pal. 7,531). Two of the four epitaphs are considered to be on animals, cf. Anyte (Anth. Pal. 7,199,211). The Priapic poem Anth. Pal. 16,237 i…


(78 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τύμνος; Týmnos). Port in Caria (Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.; Cares) on the western coast of the Bozburun peninsula, modern Bozburun. T. was part of the Rhodian Peraia. Inscriptions survive, including some relating to sacred law [1. no. 201], as do a number of ruins. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 W. Blümel, Die Inschriften der rhodischen Peraia (IK 38), 1991, 63-74. P. M. Fraser, G. E. Bean, The Rhodian Peraea and Islands, 1954, 61 f.  W. Ruge, s. v. T., RE 7 A, 1748 f.  Zgusta, Nr. 1384, Nr. 4.

Tympanon, Tympanum

(12 words)

see Gable; Musical instruments,V. Greece D. Membranophones (with illustration)


(163 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Τυμφαία; Tymphaía). Region in Epirus, to the east of Mount Tymphe (2497 m high, modern Mavrovouni) in the Pindus [1]. T. extended in the northeast from the source rivers of the Veneticus to the basin region of the upper Haliacmon as far as modern Grevená, in the south as far as the area of the source of the Peneius around modern Kalabáka. The Tymphaei were originally considered as Epeirotae (Arr. An. 1,7,5; Str. 7,7,8f.; Plin. HN 4,6), and from the time of Philippus [4] II (cf. [1…


(264 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Sylvia
[German version] (Τυνδάρεως/ Tyndáreōs). Mythical king of Sparta, son of Oebalus [1] and the Naïad Bateia (Hes. fr. 199) or of Perieres [1] and Gorgophone [3] (Stesich. PMGF fr. 227). After his father's death, T. is driven from Sparta by his (half-?)brother Hippocoon (Apollod. 3,124; Str. 10,2,24), and seeks refuge in Messenia (Paus. 3,1,4) or Aetolia with king Thestius, who gives him the hand of his daughter Leda (Hom. Od. 2,298). Heracles [1] subsequently kills Hippocoon and his twelve sons, ther…


(4 words)

see Dioscuri


(78 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Τυνδάριον; Tyndárion). Tyrant of Tauromenium, who together with other Sicilian Greeks asked Pyrrhus [3] to intervene against the power ambitions of the Carthaginians on the island in 279 BC. In 278 he readily received Pyrrhus when he landed at Tauromenium and was, as the latter's ally, confirmed in his power (Diod. 22,2,1; Plut. Pyrrhus 22; Paus. 1,12,5;  Just. Epit. 18,2,11). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, vol. 1, 1967, 459; 461; 732.
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