Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Tyndaris

(369 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Theatre | Coloniae | Punic Wars (Τυνδαρίς/ Tyndarís). Greek city on the northern coast of Sicily between Mylae [2] and Agathyrnon, modern Tíndari. T. was founded in 396 BC by Dionysius [1] I to protect the Greeks against Carthage. It was settled mainly by Messenians, who, driven from Naupactus and Zacynthos after the Peloponnesian War, had offered their services to the tyrant and named the city after the Tyndaridae, a Messenian version of the D…

Tynnichus

(63 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Τύννιχος; Týnnichos) from Chalcis (Euboea). Choral lyricist of the 7th cent. BC (?), composer of a paean often sung in Delphi (Plat. Ion 534d), which, according to an anecdote, even Aeschylus placed above everything he could have written himself (Porph. De abstinentia animalium 2,18 p. 148 Nauck). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography L. Käppel, Paian, 1992, 359  I. Rutherford, Pindar's Paeans, 2001, 28.

Typaneae

(92 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Τυπανέαι/ Typanéai). City and fortress in Triphylia (Pol. 4,77,9-79,4; Str. 8,3,15; Ptol. 3,16,18: Τυμπανέαι/ Tympanéai) on a rock ridge of Mount Lapithus to the south of modern Platiana: an elongated site (Hellenistic walls, theatre), its western part forming the fortress. T. controlled a pass on the road from Megalopolis to Olympia. In the winter of 218/7 BC T. was occupied by the Aetoli and conquered by Philippus [7] V. Tausend, Sabine Bibliography N. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ἑλλάδος Περιήγησις …

Typhoeus, Typhon

(499 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Τυφωεύς/ Typhōeús, Τυφῶν/ Typhôn; also Τυφάων/ Typháōn, Τυφώς/ Typhṓs). Gigantic mythical monster, according to Hesiod the offspring of Tartaros and Gaia, with a hundred dragons' heads (spitting fire) and serpents' feet (for pictorial representations, see [1]), set up by Gaia as a rival ruler to Zeus after the fall of the Titans but defeated by him and cast into the underworld. From then on, he causes storms and volcanic eruptions (Hes. Theog. 820-880). His union with Echidna produces more monster progeny: Orthus, Cerberus, Hydra [1], Chimaera and others ( ibid. 306-…

Typography

(5 words)

see Writing/Typography

Typology

(397 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[German version] The term typology only dates back to the 18th cent., referring specifically to the mainly Jewish-Christian interpretation method of a salvific history which was seen as both coherent and purposeful (to be distinguished from typology in the sense of assigning individuals to particular types or, respectively, as a method of relative dating used in the study of prehistory). Typology has its etymological roots in τύπος/ týpos ('image', type) respectively τυπικός/ typikós (Rom 5,14; 1 Cor 10,6; 11) and ἀντίτυπον/ antítypon ('counter-image', antitype; 1 Petr 3,21)…

Typology

(1,627 words)

Author(s): Suntrup, Rudolf (Münster RWG)
Suntrup, Rudolf (Münster RWG) [German version] A. Concept and Its Range (CT) In literary studies and theology (unlike in the natural and social sciences and some branches of the humanities since the 19th cent., cf. [8]), the (modern) term typology designates a particular form of allegorical textual interpretation that relates a given text to the history of salvation. It goes back to a medieval conception of history, according to which the Pre-Christian period is fulfilled in Christ one step at a time and in…

Tyracinae

(121 words)

Author(s): Messina, Aldo (Triest)
[German version] (Τυρακῖναι/ Tyrakînai). City in Sicilia (Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.), presumably near modern Cittadella a Vindicari near Marzamemi [1] or Módica [2] (Cic. Verr. 2,3,129: Tyracinus as a personal name; Plin. HN 3,91: Tyracinenses; Diod. Sic. 12,29,2: Τρινακίη/ Trinakíē). The place name appears in a list of thearodókoi from Delphi between Helorus [3] and Camarina, according to [3. 433 f.; 4. 132 with note 22] a reference to the location. Messina, Aldo (Triest) Bibliography 1 E. Pais, Alcune osservazioni sulla storia e sull'amministrazione della Sicilia, in:…

Tyraeum

(71 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τυραῖον; Tyraîon). City on the Royal Road from Sardis to Susa near Philomelium (Xen. An. 1,2,14; Artem. in  Str. 14,2,29: Τυριαῖον; Plin. HN 5,95: Tyrienses; Anna Komnene, Alexias 3,211 f.) in the area of modern Ilgın. On his march against his brother Artaxerxes [2] II in 401 BC, Cyrus [3] the Younger also passed through T. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography W. Ruge, s. v. T. (1), RE 7 A, 1800-1802  Belke/ Mersich, 409f.

Tyrannicide

(313 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (τυραννοκτονία/ tyrannoktonía; Latin tyrannicidium). Term coined in Hellenistic and Roman rhetoric, historiography and law (initially Greek, Diod. Sic. 16,14,1, Latin Sen. Controv. 4,7). The term goes back to the public veneration of the tyrannicides in Athens (Harmodius [1], Aristogiton [1]). Their deed quickly became a democratic topos (Thuc. 1,20; 6,53,3-6,54,1). Injustice, lawlessness and despotism (Pl. Plt. 291e; Pl. Resp. 9,571-586) justified tyrannicide (Pl. Prt. 322d) and the…

Tyrannidos graphe

(206 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (τυραννίδος γραφή; tyrannídos graphḗ). Popular action for tyranny ( tyrannis ). Plutarch's report of the amnesty law of Solon [1] provides evidence that atimia (cf. also time (1)) for tyranny was already current before Solon (Plut. Solon 19). Those supporters of Cylon [1] who fled into exile after the attempted coup were probably excepted from the amnesty (on their condemnation by the Areios Pagos , [4. 1806]). Solon sanctioned the attempt to set up a tyrannis, with heritable atimia (Aristot. Ath. pol. 16,10; [5. fr. 37a]). Forfeiture of assets is first at…

Tyrannion

(277 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Τυραννίων/ Tyranníōn). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian, 1st cent. BC T. of Amisus, Greek grammarian of the 1st cent. BC (d. c. 25 BC). After training with Hestiaeus and Dionysius [17] Thrax, he probably worked at Rome from c. 68 BC [1. 29], where he came into contact with Caesar, Atticus and Cicero [2. 94]. Among his pupils was Strabo. T., with other grammarians (e.g. Tryphon [3]), marked the beginnings of normative grammar [3. 27]. On his role in the establishment of the grammatical quadripartite model, s. [4. 31-32]. Of …

Tyrannis

(4,282 words)

Author(s): Friedeburg, Robert v.
Friedeburg, Robert v. [German version] A. Introduction (CT) The concept of tyranny allows the denunciation of particular ruling practices in favour of a supposedly better political order. In Antiquity, the favoured order was the autonomous polity of citizens. After the fall of these pagan citizen states, the reception of the term tyrannis in the monarchies of the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period signaled demands addressed to the constitution of the political order that were in a relation of tension with Christian doctrines of original sin…

Tyrannis, Tyrannos

(1,195 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen)
(τυραννίς/ tyrannís, Archaic Gk. also τυραννίη/ tyranníē; τύραννος/ týrannos; Latin tyrannus). [German version] I. Term; alterations in meaning Tyrannos (non-Greek loan-word, perhaps from Lydian tūran/'lord') is first attested around the mid-7th cent. as the term denoting the Lydian king Gyges [1] (Archil. 22,3 Diehl; fr. 19 West). Greek Archaic poetry used tyrannis synonymously with monarchía , but tyrannos was never used in self-presentation or as a title, but was used by aristocrats to attack a peer. This is exemplified in the polemic of Alcaeus[4]…

Tyrannus

(106 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Τύραννος/ Týrannos). Greek rhetor of the 4th or 5th cent. AD (definitely before Georgius Monos, who wrote around 500 and used T.); fragments survive from two of his works, five from Περὶ στάσεων ( Perì stáseōn, ‘Case Categories’, a systematic work on stasis theory; cf. status [1]) and seven from Περὶ διαιρέσεως λόγου ( Perì dihairéseōs lógou), a work which, similarly to the Dihaíresis zētēmátōn of Sopater [1], provides guidelines and examples for the preparation of speeches using fictitious cases organized by category. T. generally followed …

Tyras

(182 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Thraci, Thracia | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Patricius | Rome | Rome (Τύρας/ Týras). Colony of Miletus [2] on the northwestern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), modern Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, at the mouth of the river of the same name, modern Dnister (Ps.-Skymn. 7,98; 7,802 f.; Plin. HN. 4,82). The Ionian character of the polis is confirmed by inscriptions (IOSPE I2 2-19), the calendar and the cult of Apollo Ietrus. The date of foundatio…

Tyrmeidae

(78 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Attica (Τυρμεῖδαι; Tyrmeîdai). Small Attic mesogeia(?) deme of the Oineis, from 200/199 BC of the Attalis (Attalus [4] I), one (two) bouleutaí. In 360/59 and 335/4 BC T. did not send a council member. Its precise location is not known. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography Traill, Attica 9, 19, 49, 70, 78, 112 no. 141 tab. 6, 14  J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 15, 134, 143 f., 149.

Tyro

(288 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Τυρώ; Tyrṓ). The daughter of Salmoneus and Alcidice, famed for her very white skin (from tyrós, cheese) and her magnificent head of curls (cf. Hom. Od. 2,119 f.; Hes. Cat. 30,25; Pind. Pyth. 4,136, cf 109; Soph. fr. 648; Diod. Sic. 6 fr. 6,5; 7,2). After her parents were killed by Zeus, T. who had opposed her father's sacrilege, is taken to Thessalia to her uncle Cretheus and his wife Sidero. Here Poseidon, assuming the shape of the river god Enipeus, fathers her twins Neleus [1] and Pelias; At…

Tyrrheni

(402 words)

Author(s): GI.MAR.
[German version] (Τυρρηνοί/ Tyrrhēnoí, Ionian and Old Attic Τυρσηνοί/ Tyrs ēnoí cf. Lat. Tyrrheni). Greek name for the Etruscans (Etrusci), used not only of that people in Italy, but also of peoples of the east, occasionally also identified with the Pelasgi (cf. Hes. Theog. 1011-1016; Hecat. FGrH 1 F 59; H. Hom. 7,8; Soph. fr. 270 Radt; Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 4; Thuc. 4,109,4; Philochorus FGrH 328 F 100). Loci classici for the issue of the origins of the Etruscans are Hdt. 1,57; 1,94 and Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,25-30. Herodotus believes the first Etruscans to ha…

Tyrrhenian amphorae

(304 words)

Author(s): Mommsen, Heide (Stuttgart)
[German version] Homogenous group of Attic black figured amphorae, produced between 570 and 545 BC specifically for export. The name refers to the mainly Etruscan finding places (Tyrrheni), foremost amongst them Volci/Vulci and Caere. Neck amphorae with egg-shaped bodies, decorated with animal friezes, make up about 90% of this group, of which a total of 260 vessels and fragments are known to date, attributable to eight master craftsmen (potters-painters). Their standard decoration consists of a s…
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