Brill’s Digital Library of World War I

Purchase Access
Subject: History

Brill’s Digital Library of World War I is an online resource that contains over 700 encyclopedia entries plus 250 peer-reviewed articles of transnational and global historical perspectives on significant topics of World War I. This collection includes Brill’s Encyclopedia of the First World War, an unrivalled reference work that showcases the knowledge of experts from 15 countries and offers 26 additional essays on the major belligerents, wartime society and culture, diplomatic and military events, and the historiography of the Great War.

The 250 articles address not only the key issues from political, historical and cultural perspectives, but also engages with aspects of the war which have remained underexplored such as the neutrals, the role of women before, during and after the war, and memory. The chapters have been drawn from a select number of Brill publications that have been published in the last 15 years. Brill’s Digital Library of World War I is a unique digital library that will allow researchers to discover new perspectives and connections with the enhanced navigational tools provided.

Subscriptions: see Brill.

Hidden Courage: Postwar Literature and Anglican Army Chaplains on the Western Front, 1914–1918

(13,743 words)

Author(s): Madigan, Edward
Madigan, Edward - Hidden Courage: Postwar Literature and Anglican Army Chaplains on the Western Front, 1914–1918 Keywords: Anglican army chaplains | British Expeditionary Force (BEF) | postwar writers | Robert Graves | Western Front ISFWWS-Keywords: Western Front | Britain | Religion | Literature | Experience of combat | Published memoirs and biographies | Legacy Abstract: Robert Graves was perhaps the most scathing postwar critic of the Anglican army chaplains who served with the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) during the Great War. It…

High Voltage Fence

(334 words)

Author(s): Roolf, Christoph
High Voltage Fence In early 1915 the German occupation forces in Belgium began the construction of a 300 km long high voltage fence along the Belgian-Dutch border. Conceived above all for security reasons, the project was a countermeasure against the continuing flight of more than 800,000 Belgians to Holland and Great Britain following the German occupation of their land. Moreover, German occupation forces feared enemy espionage and smuggling activities. The two-meter high barbed-wire fence, charge…

Hindenburg Line

(426 words)

Author(s): Pöhlmann, Markus
Hindenburg Line The name in British and French literature for the German defensive line on the Western Front in 1917/18, known in German as Siegfried-Stellung. After the close of the costly battles of 1916, the OHL (German Supreme Army Command) and the Army Group Kronprinz Rupprecht had decided to pull the front back to the Arras – Saint-Quentin – Vailly line. Their reasons had been strategic and operational: building on successes on the Eastern Front and in the unrestricted submarine war, the war in the West was to be waged defensively in…

Hindenburg, Paul von Beneckendorff und von

(1,692 words)

Author(s): Chickering, Roger
Hindenburg, Paul von Beneckendorff und von (October 2, 1847, Posen – August 2, 1934, Neudeck [West Prussia]), German field marshal (chief of the field army). Hindenburg’s military career began with his entry into the military academy at Wahlstatt in Silesia at the age of 12. He was a product of the army of King Wilhelm I of Prussia and his socialization and intellectual development took place within the narrow confines of that institution. Hindenburg’s political loyalties were unconditionally linked t…

Hindenburg Program

(1,030 words)

Author(s): Geyer, Martin H.
Hindenburg Program Economic and armaments program of the Supreme Army Command. Two days after taking over military leadership in Germany, on August 31, 1916, the Operations Branch of the Supreme Army Command (Hindenburg/Ludendorff ) presented the Prussian War Ministry with demands for the wholesale impressment of all economic resources for the war effort and a considerable expansion of armaments production. It was soon common parlance to speak of the “Hindenburg Program.” The armaments program was…

Hipper, Franz Ritter von

(411 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Hipper, Franz Ritter von (September 13, 1863, Weilheim [Upper Bavaria] – May 25, 1932, Altona-Othmarschen [now part of Hamburg]), German admiral. Hipper entered the Imperial Navy in 1881, and initially served as commander and flotilla commander of torpedo boats. He held several cruiser commands after 1903. In 1912 Hipper was appointed commander of reconnaissance forces, and it was in this function that he led the unsuccessful cruiser actions of 1914, which, as early as August 28, led to the loss of the light cruisers Ariadne, Mainz, and Köln in the German Bight. Even worse was the …

Hirschfeld, Magnus

(333 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard
Hirschfeld, Magnus (May 14, 1868, Kolberg [Kołobrzeg, Poland] – May 14, 1935, Nice), German doctor and sexual researcher. Hirschfeld is regarded as the pioneer of sexual research in Germany. One of his achievements was to outline a biological theory of homosexuality and he was a committed advocate of equal social rights for homosexuals. In 1897 he co-founded the Wissenschaftlich-humanitäres Komitee (Scientific Humanitarian Committee) for the decriminalization of homosexuality and served as its first chairman until 1929. In 1907 he was an expert witness …

History of Warfare

(1,624 words)

Contributor(s): Keene, Jennifer D. | Neiberg, Michael S.
Keene, Jennifer D., Neiberg, Michael S., - History of Warfare Keywords: early nineteenth century | military history | warfare Abstract: This section on the history of warfare presents the latest research on all aspects of military history. Publications in the series examines technology, strategy, logistics, and economic and social developments related to warfare in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East from ancient times until the early nineteenth century. The series accepts monographs, collections of essays, conference proceedings, and translation of military texts. Finding Comm…

Hitler, Adolf

(814 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard
Hitler, Adolf (April 20, 1889, Braunau am Inn, Austria – April 30, 1945, Berlin [suicide]), soldier, private first class, subsequently German politician (1933–1945 Reich chancellor). By Hitler’s own account, the First World War was for him “the most unforgettable and greatest period of my life on this earth” ( Mein Kampf, 1925). Even during the Second World War, he repeatedly reminded those around him of his time as a soldier from 1914 to 1918, “when nothing troubled me”; he had “passionately enjoyed being a soldier” ( Monologe im Führerhauptquartier, 1941). Living as an artist in Mu…