Brill’s Digital Library of World War I

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Brill’s Digital Library of World War I is an online resource that contains over 700 encyclopedia entries plus 250 peer-reviewed articles of transnational and global historical perspectives on significant topics of World War I. This collection includes Brill’s Encyclopedia of the First World War, an unrivalled reference work that showcases the knowledge of experts from 15 countries and offers 26 additional essays on the major belligerents, wartime society and culture, diplomatic and military events, and the historiography of the Great War.

The 250 articles address not only the key issues from political, historical and cultural perspectives, but also engages with aspects of the war which have remained underexplored such as the neutrals, the role of women before, during and after the war, and memory. The chapters have been drawn from a select number of Brill publications that have been published in the last 15 years. Brill’s Digital Library of World War I is a unique digital library that will allow researchers to discover new perspectives and connections with the enhanced navigational tools provided.

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(638 words)

Author(s): Hüppauf, Bernd
Photography While photographic cameras had already been used in the Crimean War, and not long afterwards in the American Civil War, and albums of war photographs had been made commercially available, war was first comprehensively portrayed in photographs from 1914 onwards. Military photography also came into its own with the general use of photographic reconnaissance. Indeed, photography fundamentally altered the image of war. In all the belligerent states large and sometimes widely dispersed hoa…


(667 words)

Author(s): Isnenghi, Mario
Piave After the surprising breakthrough of the Central Powers during the Battle of Caporetto in the Julian Alps in late October 1917, the beaten Italian troops found themselves retreating across Friuli to Venice. The first line of defense at the Tagliamento had fallen after just a few days. Within the Italian High Command under Cadorna, pessimism and anxiety were widespread. Initial plans for relocating the front back to the Po River were drawn up. Soon, however, the situation changed. The Italia…

Piłsudski, Józef Klemens

(325 words)

Author(s): Hecker, Hans
Piłsudski, Józef Klemens (December 5, 1867, Zułowo [now Zalavas, near Vilnius] – May 12, 1935, Warsaw), Polish politician and marshal. Co-founder of the Polish Socialist Party in 1892, Piłsudski was a determined opponent of Russia. He pursued the goal of a Polish federal republic on the model of the old Polish-Lithuanian Union, reaching far to the east and including non-Polish nationalities. This national revolutionary activist organized paramilitary groups from 1908 on and sent his forces over the…


(9,690 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard | Krumeich, Gerd | Renz, Irina
Places Aarschot 29 Abadan 798 Abercorn 569, 684 Abrolhos Islands 502 Abu Chuff 563 Abyssinia 227 Acre 945 Aden 625 Adrianople (Edirne) 350, 946 Adriatic 44, 57, 73, 255, 313, 350, 368, 452, 482, 506, 644, 741, 875f., 888, 896, 918, 1021 Aegean 236, 350, 392, 454, 486, 585 Afghanistan 474, 495, 592, 626, 777 Africa 184–187, 191f., 194, 213, 218, 225, 293, 299, 306, 343, 355, 380f., 407, 413, 428, 430–434, 438, 511, 569, 576f., 597, 625, 627, 630, 663, 668, 683f., 735, 737, 746, 764, 785–788, 806, 824, 835, 867, 876, 888, 893, 902, 919f., 938f., 961, 1021 Agadir 687, 746 Agram (Zagreb) 61 Ağri 409 Aire …

Planning for the Endgame: The Central Powers, September 1916–April 1917

(10,180 words)

Author(s): Sondhaus, Lawrence
Sondhaus, Lawrence - Planning for the Endgame: The Central Powers, September 1916–April 1917 Keywords: Central Powers | Erich Ludendorff | Franz Conrad | Paul von Hindenburg | Western Front ISFWWS-Keywords: International Relations during the War | Germany | Austria-Hungary | The Military and Naval War | Italian-Austrian Front | Russian Front | Western Front | Naval Warfare | Economy Abstract: Between September 1916, when Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff were granted sweeping authority over the war effort of the Central Powers, and Apri…

‘Playing at being Soldiers’?: British Women and Military Uniform in the First World War

(10,127 words)

Author(s): Noakes, Lucy
Noakes, Lucy - ‘Playing at being Soldiers’?: British Women and Military Uniform in the First World War Keywords: British women | femininity | First World War | Marjorie Garber | military uniform | soldiering | Susan Grayzel ISFWWS-Keywords: Britain | Women and War | Home fronts | Politics | Masculinity | Gender | Society Abstract: The woman in military uniform threatens to destabilise both the femininity of the women who wear it and the naturalised linkage between soldiering and masculinity. As Marjorie Garber has argued, the “sight …