Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Online

Get access Subject: Biblical Studies and Early Christianity
Edited by: Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking and Pieter W. van der Horst

The Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Online contains academic articles on the named gods, angels, and demons in the books of the Hebrew Bible, Septuagint and Apocrypha, as well as the New Testament and patristic literature. This online version contains the second extensively revised edition.

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Ilib

(1,187 words)

Author(s): J. F. Healey
I. Name The term ilib is found in Ugaritic texts both cultic and literary. In the former the ilib receives offerings and in the latter it is mentioned incidentally as the object of a particular family cult. There is very slight evidence for the ilib otherwise in Israelite literary and epigraphic sources. There are various explanations of the form, the most obvious and widely accepted being that it is a modification of ʾil + ʾab, ‘god’ + ‘father’. Ilib would, on this argument, be the ‘divine ancestor’ par excellence. Others, however, have sought explanations in Hittite a-a-bi (also the deity d A…

Image צלם

(1,060 words)

Author(s): A. Livingstone
I. Name The Babylonian word ṣalmu is used as the equivalent of Sum. alam, dùl and nu. It refers both to statues and other symbols of gods and humans. Though occasionally preceded by the divine determinative ( dingir), the image ( ṣalmu) was not viewed as a god itself. A cult of a deity ‘Image’ (* Ṣulmu), however, is attested for the city of Taima in north-west Arabia. The closest analogy in the Hebrew Bible is the cult of erected stones ( maṣṣēbôt), whose anointment with oil reflects a kind of worship. II. Identity Images played an important role in Babylonian religion. Both image…

Inanna

(9 words)

see ishtar ← previous entry          next entry →

Index A

(2,512 words)

Ab Father I Abaddir Baetyl II, Stone II Abaddon Abaddon II, Dead III, Demon II, Destroyer III, Mastemah II, Rephaim III, Sheol II Abarim Baal of peor III Abba Father III, Son of God IV Abel Abel I, Cain I, Dioskouroi III, Glory III Abomination Abomination I, Astarte III, God of Fortresses II, God of Heaven II, Maʿat II, Milcom III, Molech III, Taboo III, Teraphim III Abraham (Abram) Abel III, Abraham I, Adam II, Amurru III, Angel of Yahweh III, Christ III, El-Olam I, Elyon III, Father III, Glory II, Heracles III, Hypsistos I, Ishmael I, Jacob III, Lagamar III, Lahai…

Index B

(930 words)

Ba Amun II, Apis II, Dead III, Re II, Serpent II Baal (Baʿlu) Baal I, Baal Toponyms I, Baal-Berith I, Baal-Hazor I, Baal-Hermon I, Baal-Meon II, Baal-Tamar II, Bashan III, Beltu II, Bethel II, Calf II, Cherubim II, Constellations III, Council II, Day II, Dead II, Devil II, Dragon II, El II, El-Roi II, Elyon II, Face II, Gad III, Gillulim II, God (I) II, God of Fortresses II, Hayin III, Hebat II, Holy Spirit II, Hubal III, Hypsistos II, Jephthah’s Daughter II, Jezebel I, Jordan III, Lahai-Roi II, Lebanon II, L…

Index C

(730 words)

Cabiri (Kabeiroi) Dioskouroi II, Eshmun II, Zedeq II Cadmus Ares II Caelestis Astarte III, Gad II Caesar Artemis III, Ruler Cult II, Saviour II Cain Abel III, Cain I, Devil III, Dioskouroi III, Eve III, Kenan I, Michael III, Mother III, Rabiṣu I Calf Anat III, Apis III, Asherah III, Atum II, Calf I, Moon II, Mot II, Stars II Calliope Linos II Callisto Artemis II, Nymph II Canis Major Pleiades III Canopus Orion II Capella Orion II, Pleiades III Carmel Bashan I, Carmel I, Lebanon III, Melqart I Castor (Kastor) Dioskouroi I, Dioskouroi II Cat-goddess Artemis II Cautes Mithras III Cautopates Mithra…

Index D

(1,021 words)

Dad Dod II Dada Adrammelech II, Dod II Dadat Dod II Dadu Dod II Dadudu Dod II Dagan (Dagon, Dgn) Am II, Baal II, Beltu II, Dagon I, Hadad II, Lim II, Malik I, Mot II, Olden Gods II, Sheger III, Tirash II, Yahweh III Daganzipa Earth I Daimon (Daimones, Daemones) Gad II, Heros III Daimon paredros Holy Spirit III Dakdadra Tartak II Damater Soil II Da.mu Blood II, Blood I Damu Day II, Tammuz II Danaë Perseus II Danaids Thessalos II Danaos Thessalos II Danel (Danʾil, Danʾilu) Anat II, Baal II, Daniel IV, El II, Rephaim II Daniel Abomination I, Adam II, Ancient of Days III, Angel (II) II, Angel (I…

Index E

(1,201 words)

Ea Apkallu II, Aya I, Aya II, Council II, Eagle II, El II, Ends of the Earth I, Ends of the Earth II, God (I) II, Heaven II, Marduk II, Nabû II, Nibhaz II, Noah II, Olden Gods II, Sea II, Ten Sephirot IV, Tiamat II Eagle Anat II, Eagle I Earth Baetyl II, Behemoth II, Carmel III, Earth I, Ends of the Earth I, Giants I, God (I) II, Heaven II, Lel II, Mot II, Mother I, Nephilim I, Nimrod I, Nomos IV, Olden Gods II, Ptah III, Rahab III, River II, Saviour II, Sea II, Stars II, Themis II, Tiamat I, Wisdom II, Witness I Earth goddess Ishtar II Eben Stone I Ebiḫ Sea II Echo Apkallu III, Astarte II, Avenger III, Narcissus II E…

Index F

(314 words)

Face Archangel II, Face II, Moon II, Torah II Face-of-Baal Gad II Fadahel Angel of Yahweh III Falcon Apis II, Horon II, Horus II Fallen angel Angel (II) III, Daniel IV, Enoch II, Watcher II False gods Spirit of the Dead II Falsehood Falsehood I, Mastemah III, Prince III, Vanities III Familiar spirit Wizard I Fate Amun II, Amun III, Ananke I, Falsehood III, First-Born of Death II, Fortuna II, Hathor II, Helel III, Pronoia II, Protectors III, Raphael II, Re II, Taboo III, Tammuz II, Thanatos II, Thoth II, Zeus II Father Abraham II, Abraham III, Adonis II, Almighty IV, Amaltheia II, Amurr…

Index G

(644 words)

Gabnunnim Gabnunnim I Gabriel Angel (II) III, Archangel II, Gabriel I, Holy Spirit III, Michael II, Son of Man II, Uriel II Gad Ariel II, Baal-Gad I, Demon III, Meni I, Strong Drink III, Gad I gaddē Meni III Gaga Gog I, Magog II Gaia (Gaea, Ge) Bethel II, Edom II, Elyon II, Eros II, Giants II, Heaven II, Helios II, Olden Gods II, Themis II, Typhon II, Zeus II Gaius Ruler Cult I, Ruler Cult II, Ruler Cult III Gamos, Aphrodite II, God (II) II Gapnu Angel of Yahweh II Gatharu (Gathru) Gether I, Protectors III, Rephaim II Gatumdu Son of God II Gauas Adonis IV Gayomart Anthropos II Geb Atum II, Name II, One …

Index H

(1,205 words)

Habur Hubur II Haburtu Hubur II Haby Haby I Hadad (Hadda, Haddu) Baal II, Baal-Hazor II, Barad II, Carmel II, Curse II, Dod II, El II, Eternity II, Hadad I, Lamp II, Lord II, Min III, Nabû II, Qôs III, Rakib-El II, Rephaim II, Shaushka II, Source II, Tammuz III, Yahweh III Hadad-Rimmon Hadad II, Tammuz III Hades Bashan II, Chaos II, Demeter II, Giants III, Hades I, Hades III, Helios II, Hyacinthus II, Jeremiel II, Kyrios II, Michael III, Olympus II, Shemesh IV, Thanatos II, Titans II, Uriel II, Zeus II Hadrian Abraham III, Artemis III, Ruler Cult II, Saviour II Hagar Angel of Yahweh III, Ishmael II Ha…

Index I

(516 words)

Ialdabaoth Archon IV, Yahweh Zebaoth IV Iao Archon IV, Kyrios II, Zeus III Iapetos (Iapetus, Japetos) Japheth I, Japheth II, Titans II, Titans III Iasion Demeter II Ibaʾum Viper I Ibis Apis I, Ibis I, Thoth II Ibnahaz (Ibnahaza) Nibhaz II, Tartak II Id Id I, Riding Horseman I Ida Amaltheia II Idiqlat (Idigna) Tigris I Idols Azabbim I, Azabbim III, Sakkuth I, Spirit of the Dead II, Teraphim I, Terebinth III, Vanities II, Wizard III Idris Enoch III Igigi Lioness II, Marduk II, Milcom II, Molech II Ikrub-El (Ikrub-Il, Yakrub-El) Ishmael II, Yahweh III Ikshudum Yahweh III Ilaba Ilib II Ilahu (Ilh) …

Index J

(333 words)

Jackals Jackals II Jacob (Jacob-El) Abraham II, Aliyan I, Breasts and Womb III, Calf III, Creator of All III, El-Olam III, Esau I, Face III, Glory II, Hypsistos I, Jacob I, Leah I, Moon II, Qeteb III, Rachel I, Shadday III, Shunama II, Son of God IV, Teraphim III, Uriel III, Yehud I Jael Jael I Jaghut Jaghut I, Jalam II Jalam (Yaʿlam) Jalam I Jaldabaoth Sabbath II Jaoel Michael III Japheth Ham I, Japheth I, Magog III, Noah III, Olden Gods III, Shem III Jason Aeneas III, Jason I, Menelaos I, Thessalos II Jephthah’s daughter Artemis II, Jephthah’s Daughter I, Jephthah’s Daughter III Jerachmeel Jerem…

Index K

(525 words)

Ka Amun II, Dead I Kabod Angel of Yahweh III, Cherubim III, Cherubim IV, Helios I, Glory I, Shemesh II, Kaikias Wind-Gods II Kairos God (II) II Kaiwan Image III, Kaiwan I, Sakkuth II, Stars II Kajjamānu Kaiwan I, Sakkuth II Kakka Angel (I) II, Angel of Yahweh II, Gog I Kallinikos Saviour II Kamish Clay III Kamosh Bethel III Kamrushepa Shaushka II Kamutef Atum II, Isis II Kanisurra Nanea II Karibu Calf II, Cherubim I Kasios Baal III, Baal-Zaphon II, Typhon II Kassion Zaphon II Kathirātu Helel I Kaukabta Queen of Heaven IV Kek God (I) II Kelti Kelti II Kematef Amun II Kenan Cain II, Kenan I Keres Dionysu…

Index L

(619 words)

Laban Brother III, Fear of Isaac II, Jacob I, Laban I, Ram II, Teraphim III Labbatu Lioness I Labbu Rahab I Ladon Daphne II Lady Anat II, Asherah II, Assur II, Athena II, Kyrios II Lady Folly Rephaim III Lady of heaven Anat II, Hebat II, Queen of Heaven II Lagamal Lagamar I Lagamar Lagamar I Lah Lah I, Shelah III Lahab Flame I Lahai-roi Ishmael III, Lah I, Lahai-Roi I, Source III Lahamu Earth II, Ends of the Earth II, Lahmu I, Olden Gods II, Tiamat II Lahar Rachel II, River II Lahmu Earth II, Ends of the Earth II, Lahmu I, Olden Gods II, Sea II, Tiamat II Lake Nile II Lamashtu Demon II, Lilith II, Serpent …

Index M

(1,330 words)

Ma Aphrodite II, Cybele II, Magog II Maat (Maʿat) Ibis II, Maʿat I, Maʿat III, Thoth II, Wisdom II Madānu Sukkoth-Benoth II Maenads Perseus II Magistrate Archai I, Archon I Magna Mater Atargatis II Magnes Hymenaios II, Makedon II Magog Antichrist II, Behemoth II, Gog IV, Japheth III Magog I Maia Hermes II Makedon Makedon I Mala First-Born of Death I, River II Malak Angel (I) I Malakbel Baal-Shamem II, Yahweh III Malʾak meliṣ Mediator (I) I MalʾakYahweh Angel of Yahweh I, Satan III Malik (Malek, Maliku) El Rophe II, Malik I, Melqart II, Milcom II, Milcom I, Molech II Malkatu Sarah II Mama Mother II M…

Index N

(715 words)

Nablum Euphrates I Nabû (Nebo) Azabbim III, Dagon I, Image II, Marduk II, Nabû I, Nanea II Nahar (Naharu) Baal II, River II Nahash Serpent I Nahhunte Lagamar II, Lagamar I Nahor Nahor I Nahriel Lamp III Naḫur Serug II Naiades Nymph II Name Cherubim I, Dod I, Face I, God (I) I, Name I, Name III, Shelah I, Yahweh I Nammu Earth II, Sea II, Thillakhuha II Namsaras Olden Gods II Namtar (Namtaru) Demon II, Destroyer I, First-Born of Death II, First-Born of Death III, King of Terrors II Nanaya (Nanaia, Nanay, Nanea) Nabû II, Nanea II, Satan II Nanna God (I) II, Ishtar II, Moon II, Sı̂n II Nanni Zaphon II Napiri…

Index O

(382 words)

Oak Oak I, Sycomore III, Terebinth III, Zeus II Oannes (Uanna) Apkallu II Oath Athena II, Azazel III Ob (Obot) Baal of Peor III, Travellers III, Wizard IV Oberim Travellers I Ocean Aya II, Ends of the Earth II, God (I) II, Re II, River II, Sea II, Source II Oceanus (Okeanos) Helios II, Nike II, Olden Gods II, Tyche II Ochlos God (II) II Octavian Ruler Cult II Odysseus Ares II, Athena II, Perseus III Og (Og-Melech) Astarte III, Bashan I, El Rophe II, Gabnunnim II, Gog II, Hermon II, Noble Ones II, Og I, Rephaim II, Zamzummim II Ogdoad Archon IV, Olden Gods II, Thoth II Ogyges Abraham III Ohrmazd (Ohrmezd,…

Index P

(740 words)

Pabilsag Nimrod II Padar Sasam II Padrashasha Sasam II Paḥad, Ten Sephirot III Pahad Laylah Terror of the Night I Pallas Athena II, Nike II Pan Hermes II, Nymph II, Qeteb III Pantokrator Almighty I, Almighty IV, Hypsistos III, Yahweh Zebaoth I Papsukkal Angel of Yahweh II Paraclete Holy Spirit III, Paraclete I Paranomia God (II) II Parnassus Olden Gods II Parthenos Athena III, Dike II Pashittu Demon II Pasithea Hypnos II Patroklos Patroklos I Patron angels Prince I Pazuzu Demon II, Serpent II Peace Ariel III, Assur II, Nomos II Pegasos Perseus II Peitho Aphrodite II, God (II) II Pelasgos Maked…

Index Q

(171 words)

Qadar Qatar I Qadeshet Astarte II Qadish Angel of Yahweh II Qadishtu Riding Horseman I Qadosh Eloah III Qais Qôs II Qaishah Meni II Qardum Aliyan II Qatar Qatar II Qaus Edom II Qayn Cain I Qaynan Cain II, Kenan I Qdš Holy One I Qdš w Ammr Saints II Qedar Arm II, Qatar I Qedešet Holy One II Qedoshim Saints I, Saints III Qeteb (Qoṭeb) Barad III, Deber III, Meriri II, Midday Demon I, Qeteb I, Qeteb III, Resheph III, Terror of the Night III Qôs Baal Toponyms II, Edom II, Qôs I Qudshu Anat II, Asherah II, Baalat II, Lioness II, Mother II, Queen of Heaven II, Serpent II Qudur (Qudar) Qatar I Queen of Heaven Anat I…
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