Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Online

Get access Subject: Biblical Studies And Early Christianity
Edited by: Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking and Pieter W. van der Horst

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The Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Online contains academic articles on the named gods, angels, and demons in the books of the Hebrew Bible, Septuagint and Apocrypha, as well as the New Testament and patristic literature. This online version contains the second extensively revised edition.

More information: Brill.com

Qôs קושׁ

(2,096 words)

Author(s): E. A. Knauf
I. Name Qôs is the national deity of Edom. He is attested only once in the Hebrew Bible as an element in the personal name Barqos, “Qôs gleamed forth” (cf. Lihyanite qwsbr; Bartlett 1989: no. 34; South Safaitic brqs, Bartlett 1989: no. 36), indicating the ‘father’ of an exiled clan of nĕtînîm returning from Babylon ( Ezra 2.53 = Neh. 7.55). This clan or family must have been of Edomite or Idumaean origin. (The name Kushaiah, 1 Chr. 15.17, cannot be connected with Qôs [ pace Bartlett 1989:200–201]: according to 1 Chr. 6.29, Etan’s father was also called Kishi, and Qôs is never spelled with [ ] i…

Queen of Heaven מלכת השׁמים

(1,588 words)

Author(s): C. Houtman
I. Name As a designation of a goddess, * malkat haššāmayim occurs in Jer. 7.18; Jer. 44.17–19, Jer. 25 as well as in Hermopolis Letter 4.1 from South Egypt (5th century bce; Bresciani & Kamil 1966). In the MT mlkt (a number of MSS have mlkʾt) hšmym has been vocalized as mĕleket (= mĕleʾket) haššāmayim, “the work of heaven” which, as appears from a comparison of Gen. 2.1 with Gen. 2.2, apparently has to be interpreted as ṣĕbaʾ haššāmayim, “the host of heaven” (cf. LXX Jer. 7.18, hē stratiā tou ouranou, “the host of heaven”). So it is likely that the punctuators of the …


(646 words)

Author(s): K. Dowden
I. Name Quirinus, a Roman god progressively identified with Romulus, occurs as a theophoric element in the name of P. Sulpicius Quirinius at Luke 2.2. II. Identity It is difficult to obtain any accurate understanding of archaic Roman religion (say, before 509 bce) and Quirinus is even by these standards unclear. His festival is obviously the Quirinalia on 17th February, but what happened there is known neither to us nor, apparently, to Ovid. For some reason his name links with the title of the Roman citizens in assembly, the ‘Quirites’.…