Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Online

Get access Subject: Biblical Studies And Early Christianity
Edited by: Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking and Pieter W. van der Horst

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The Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Online contains academic articles on the named gods, angels, and demons in the books of the Hebrew Bible, Septuagint and Apocrypha, as well as the New Testament and patristic literature. This online version contains the second extensively revised edition.

More information: Brill.com


(9 words)

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Viper אפעה

(285 words)

Author(s): K. van der Toorn
I. Name The viper ( ʾepʿeh) occurs three times in the Hebrew Bible, always in poetic contexts to describe negative environments or sensations. Third-millennium texts from Mesopotamia attest to the veneration of a god Ibaʾum, etymologically related to Heb. ʾepʿeh. II. Identity A third-millennium Akkadian seal depicting a fully developed snake-dragon is dedicated to a god i-ba-um (R. M. Boehmer, Die Entwicklung der Glyptik während der Akkad-Zeit [Berlin 1965] Tafel XLVIII no. 570). This snake-god is probably identical with d ip-pu, the vizier of the chthonic deity Ningišzida…

Virgin בתולה

(703 words)

Author(s): B. Becking
I. Name In Hebrew two nouns occur which traditionally have been translated with ‘virgin’: ʿalmâ and bĕtûlâ. A convincing etymology of the noun ʿalmâ has not been given. The word has cognates in various Semitic languages; Ugar ǵlmt, ‘girl’; Phoen. ʿlmt;Aram. ʿljmt. The exact meaning of these words, however, is not easily established. The proposal of Dohmen (1987:172–173) who sees a relation—via Ugar ǵlm—between Heb. ʿalmâ and Akk./Semitic ṣlm, ‘image’ and proposes a semantic field including ‘image of’ and ‘image referring to’, is unlikely. The noun bĕtûlâ is etymologic…