Encyclopaedia Iranica Online

Subject: Middle East And Islamic Studies

Editor-in-Chief: Elton Daniel
Associate Editors: Mohsen Ashtiany, Mahnaz Moazami
Managing Editor: Marie McCrone

Encyclopaedia Iranica is the most renowned reference work in the field of Iran studies. Founded by the late Professor Ehsan Yarshater and edited at the Ehsan Yarshater Center for Iranian Studies at Columbia University, this monumental international project brings together the scholarship about Iran of thousands of authors around the world.
Ehsan Yarshater Center for Iranian Studies at Columbia University

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IBEX, PERSIAN

(2,687 words)

Author(s): Eskandar Firouz | D. T. POTTS
Capra aegagrus, also called Persian Wild Goat, in Persian pāzan. It is regarded as the ancestor of the domestic goat. Formerly it was numerous, found in almost all of Persia’s mountainous areas with rugged cliffs. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 6, pp. 613-615 IBEX, PERSIAN ( Capra aegagrus; PLATE I), also called Persian Wild Goat, in Persian Pazan ( pāzan). It is regarded as the ancestor of the domestic goat. i. NATURAL HISTORY The Persian ibex is of stocky build with relatively short but strong and thick legs. In the adult male the col…
Date: 2012-03-27

IDA

(891 words)

Author(s): Inna N. Medvedskaya
a land and a city, part of Inner Zamua, located in the area of the southwest shore of Lake Urmia, mentioned in Neo-Assyrian sources dating to the 9th century BCE. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 6, pp. 615-616 IDA, a land and a city, part of Inner Zamua, located in the area of the southwest shore of Lake Urmia. Ida and its ruler Nikdêra are mentioned in Neo-Assyrian sources dating to the reign of Shalmaneser III in connection with his campaign to the Inner Zamua/Mazamua in the 4th year of his reign (855…
Date: 2012-03-27

IḎA

(2,354 words)

Author(s): Kaveh Ehsani
town and county in northeast Khuzestan Province. Iḏa is located 20 km east of the Kārun River, in a small oval shaped valley, flanked by part of the Zagros range. IḎA (also Iḏeh, Iḏaj, Ayḏaj, Māl-(e) Amir, Malāmir, Māl-e Mir-Jānaki), a town and county in the northeast of the Khuzestan Province, in 31°50′ north latitude and 49°52′ east longitude. Iḏa is located 20 km east of the Kārun River, in a small oval shaped valley, flanked by the mountains of Mongašt, Murdāfel, and Āsmāri, part of the Zāgros range (Emām Šuštari, p. 209…
Date: 2011-10-14

ʿID-E FEṬR

(5 words)

See FASTING.
Date: 2010-09-21

ʿID-E ḠADIR

(7 words)

See ḠADĪR ḴOMM .
Date: 2010-09-21

ʿID-E MEHREGĀN

(5 words)

See MEHREGĀN.
Date: 2010-03-12

ʿID-E NIMA-YE ŠAʿBĀN

(9 words)

See Islam In Iran vii.
Date: 2010-12-07

ʿID-E NOWRUZ

(5 words)

See NOWRUZ.
Date: 2010-09-21

IDEOGRAPHIC WRITING

(1,879 words)

Author(s): Sims-Williams, Nicholas | Testen, David
the representation of language by means of “ideograms,” that is, symbols representing “ideas,” rather than (or usually side by side with) symbols which represent sounds. i. Terminology and conventions. ii. Ideographic writing in the Ancient Near East.A version of this article is available in printVolume XII, Fascicle 6, pp. 617-618 IDEOGRAPHIC WRITING, the representation of language by means of “ideograms,” i.e. symbols representing “ideas,” rather than (or usually side by side with) symbols which represent sounds.i. Terminology and ConventionsHuman language can be reduce…
Date: 2022-02-17

ʿID-E QORBĀN

(5 words)

See PILGRIMAGE.
Date: 2012-07-11

IGDIR

(555 words)

Author(s): Pierre Oberling
a Turkic tribe in Persia and Anatolia. It was one of the 24 original Oghuz tribes. Like other tribes that migrated to the Middle East in Saljuqid times, it has become widely scattered. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 6, pp. 618-619 IGDIR, a Turkic tribe in Persia and Anatolia. It was one of the 24 original Oghuz tribes (Houtsma, p. 225; for discussions of its etymology, see Houtsma, p. 225, and Pelliot, pp. 194-95). Like other tribes that migrated to the Middle East in Saljuqid times, it has become widely scattered. A group of Igdir settled down in northe…
Date: 2012-03-27

IGNATIUS OF JESUS

(958 words)

Author(s): Orsatti, Paola
(Ignazio di Gesù, 1596-1667), an Italian missionary in Persia and a scholar of the Persian language, renowned mainly for his studies on religion and on the customs of the Mandaeans.A version of this article is available in printVolume XII, Fascicle 6, pp. 619-620 IGNATIUS OF JESUS (Ignazio di Gesù). An Italian missionary in Persia and a scholar of the Persian language. Carlo Leonelli was born near Pesaro in Italy in 1596 and died in Rome in 1667. He entered the Discalced Carmelite Order (see CARMELITES) taking the name Ignatius of Jesus, a…
Date: 2022-08-18