Encyclopaedia Iranica Online

Subject: Middle East And Islamic Studies

Editor-in-Chief: Elton Daniel
Associate Editors: Mohsen Ashtiany, Mahnaz Moazami
Managing Editor: Marie McCrone

Encyclopaedia Iranica is the most renowned reference work in the field of Iran studies. Founded by the late Professor Ehsan Yarshater and edited at the Ehsan Yarshater Center for Iranian Studies at Columbia University, this monumental international project brings together the scholarship about Iran of thousands of authors around the world.
Ehsan Yarshater Center for Iranian Studies at Columbia University

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Editor-in-Chief: Elton Daniel
Professor Elton Daniel (A.B., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1970; Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin, 1978) taught Middle Eastern and Islamic History at the University of Hawaii from 1981 until his retirement in 2011. From 1997 to 2001, during periods of academic leave, he served as Associate Editor of the Encyclopaedia Iranica. He has also held a visiting position at the University of Chicago (1980-81) and research fellowships in London, Oxford, Paris, Leiden, Cairo, Damascus, Istanbul, and Tehran. In addition to numerous articles and reviews, Professor Daniel has authored, co-authored, or edited volumes including The Political and Social History of Khurasan under Abbasid Rule (1979), A Shi’ite Pilgrimage to Mecca (1990), Qajar Society and Culture (2002), Culture and Customs of Iran (2006), and The History of Iran (2nd ed., 2012). He has continuing research interests in the history of early Islamic Iran, Islamic historiography in Persian and Arabic, and Persian travel literature of the Qajar period.

Associate Editor: Mohsen Ashtiany
A graduate of University of St. Andrews and Oxford University, Mohsen Ashtiany has taught Persian literature and history at Oxford University, University of Manchester and the University of California at Los Angeles and has held Visiting Fellowships at Harvard and Princeton. He is a member of the Editorial Board of A History of Persian Literature (in 18 volumes); co-editor of vol. II of the series and editor of vol. III. He is also a Fellow of the Stockholm Collegium of World Literary History, Stockholm University and author of the contributions on Classical Persian Poetry in the four-volume Literature: A World History, ed. David Damrosch et al. (2013). An annotated translation of Beyhaqi’s Tarikh-e Mas’udi, carried out in collaboration with Professor C. E. Bosworth, was published in three volumes in 2011.

Associate Editor: Mahnaz Moazami
Dr. Mahnaz Moazami is an Associate Research Scholar at Columbia University. She studied at the Sorbonne University in Paris where she earned her DEA degree in a joint program in Comparative Anthropology of Religions (Africa, America, Mediterranean, Far East), and her Ph.D. in History of Religions.
She has held post-doctoral research fellowships at Harvard and Yale universities, and has taught courses at the Bernard Revel Graduate School of Jewish Studies of Yeshiva University and at Columbia’s Department of Religion.
Her research focuses on history, languages, and religions of ancient Iran. She has written several articles and essays on different aspects of Zoroastrianism.
Her books include Wrestling with the Demons of the Pahlavi Widēwdād, a major source for the understanding of Zoroastrian purification laws (Brill, 2014); Zoroastrianism: A Collection of Articles from the Encyclopædia Iranica (EIF, 2016); and Laws of Ritual Purity: Zand ī Fragard ī Jud-Dēw-Dād, a commentary on the Pahlavi Widēwdād that provides an account of several developments in Sasanian intellectual life in the sixth century (Brill, 2021).

Managing Editor: Marie McCrone
Marisa “Marie” McCrone holds a Master of Science degree in International Relations with Distinction honors from the London School of Economics and Political Science, where she specialized in international law, conflict and peace studies, and international politics. She also holds a B.A. degree in International Relations and English from Syracuse University, and has more than a decade of research, editorial, publishing, and communications experience in international affairs, including for organizations such as the United Nations, NGOs, think tanks, and non-profits. Her interest in Iran includes twentieth- and twenty-first century Iran and its regional and global relations.

Hamid Algar, University of California, Berkeley (emeritus), Islamic Heritage
Abbas Amanat, Yale University, Qajar History
Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi, École Pratique des Hautes Études, University of Paris-Sorbonne, Shi’ism
Steven C. Anderson, University of the Pacific (emeritus), Fauna
Hassan Ansari, Institute for Advanced Study, School of Historical Studies, Classical Islam
Adam Becker, New York University, Assyrians
Michal Biran, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, History of the Mongol Period
Stephen Blum, Graduate Center, City University of New York, Music
Gerhard Böwering, Yale University, Sufism
Carlo G. Cereti, Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza,” Sasanian History
Jamsheed Choksy, Indiana University, Modern Zoroastrianism
Farhad Daftary, Institute of Ismaili Studies, London, Ismailism
Agnes Devictor, Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, Media Studies
Devin A. DeWeese, Indiana University, Bloomington, Medieval and Pre-Modern Central Asia
Desmond Durkin-Meisterernst, Institute of Iranian Studies, Freie Universität Berlin, Manicheism
Richard M. Eaton, University of Arizona, Indo-Persian Studies
Willem Floor, Bethesda, Md., Material Culture
Ali Gheissari, University of San Diego, Twentieth-Century Intellectual History
Bahram Grami, Winona, Minn., Flora
Wouter Henkelman, École Pratique des Hautes Études, University of Paris-Sorbonne, Elamite and Achaemenid History
Sooyong Kim, Koç Üniversitesi, Ottoman-Iranian Cultural Relations
Agnes Korn, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Linguistics
Sergio La Porta, California State University, Fresno, Early Armenia and Irano-Armenian Relations
Scott Levi, Ohio State University, Modern Central Asia
Paul Losensky, Indiana University, Classical Persian Literature
William Malandra, University of Minnesota (emeritus), Zoroastrian Religion
Rudi Matthee, University of Delaware, Safavid History
Eden Naby, Cambridge, Mass., Assyrians of Modern Iran
Mahmoud Omidsalar, California State University, Los Angeles, Folklore
Antonio Panaino, Università di Bologna, Ancient Iran
John Perry, University of Chicago (emeritus), 18th-Century Iranian History and Culture
Daniel T. Potts, New York University, Archeology
Houman Sarshar, Center for Iranian Jewish Oral History, New York, Judeo-Persian Studies
Rüdiger Schmitt, Saarland University, Germany (emeritus), Comparative Indo-European Linguistics and Indo-Iranian Studies
Nicholas Sims-Williams, School of Oriental and African Studies, London (emeritus), Iranian and Central Asian Philology
Prods Oktor Skjærvø, Harvard University (emeritus), Old and Middle Iranian Languages
Priscilla Soucek, New York University, Art History
Brian Spooner, University of Pennsylvania, Anthropology
Maria Szuppe, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, Tajikistan
Ernest Tucker, United States Naval Academy, Zand and Afsharid Periods
Elaine van Dalen, Columbia University, History of Science and Medicine
Ameneh Youssefzadeh, New York, N. Y., Music

Encyclopaedia Iranica articles in print up to volume XV used standard abbreviations for certain journals and shortened titles for frequently cited reference works. These have generally been retained in the versions of those articles in Encyclopaedia Iranica Online. The full bibliographical information for them may be found in the lists below.

Abbreviations of Journals

Short Titles for Commonly Cited References

Transliteration of Persian and Arabic

Abbreviations of Journals

Acta antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae.

Annali dell’Istituto universitario orientale di Napoli.

American Journal of Archeology.

American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literature.

Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes.

AMI and AMI N.F.
Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran.

Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan.

Acta orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae.

Altorientalische Forschungen.

Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Bulletin de la Société de linguistique de Paris.

Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies.

Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies.

Farhang-e Irān-zamin.

Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies.

Indogermanische Forschungen.

Indian Historical Quarterly.

Indo-Iranian Journal.

International Journal of Middle East Studies.

Iran: Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies.

Der Islam.

Journal asiatique.

Journal of the American Oriental Society.

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.

Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient.

Journal of Islamic Studies.

Journal of Near Eastern Studies.

Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society.

Journal of Persianate Studies.

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal.

Journal of the Royal Geographic Society of London.

Majalla-ye Dāneškada-ye adabiyāt o ʿolum-e ensāni-e Dānešgāh-e Tabriz.

Majalla-ye Dāneškada-ye adabiyāt o ʿolum-e ensāni-e Dānešgāh-e Ferdowsi.

Mémoires de la Délégation archéologique française en Afghanistan.

Mémoires de la Délégation archéologique française en Iran.

Majalla-ye Dāneškada-ye adabiyāt o ʿolum-e ensāni-e Dānešgāh-e Mašhad.

Majalla-ye Dāneškada-ye adabiyāt o ʿolum-e ensāni-e Dānešgāh-e Tehrān.

Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft zu Berlin.

Mélanges – Institut dominicain d’études orientales du Caire.

Le monde oriental.

Mémoires de la Société de linguistique de Paris.

Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft.

Numismatic Chronicle.

NDA Tabriz
Našriya-ye Dāneškada-ye adabiyāt o ʿolum-e ensāni-e Dānešgāh-e Tabriz.

Norsk tidsskrift for sprogvidenskap/Norwegian Journal of Linguistics.

Orientalistische Literaturzeitung.

Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society.

Revue d’assyriologie et d’archéologie orientale.

Revue des arts asiatiques.

Revue des études arméniennes.

Revue des études islamiques.

Revue de l’histoire des religions.

Revue du monde musulman.

Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Stud. Ir.
Studia Iranica.

Stud. Isl.
Studia Islamica.

Stud. Or.
Studia Orientalia.

Transactions of the Philological Society (London).

Vestnik drevniĭ istorii.

Die Welt des Islams.

Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes.

Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und verwandte Gebiete.

Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft.

Zeitschrift für Indologie und Iranistik.

Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung.

Short Titles for Commonly Cited References

A. Aarne, The Types of the Folk-Tale: A Classification and Bibliography, tr. and ed. Stith Thompson, 2nd ed., Helsinki, 1961; orig., A. Arne, Verzeichnis der Märchentypen, Helsinki, 1910.

Abu’l-Faraj ʿAli b. al-Ḥosayn Qoraši Eṣfahāni, Ketāb al-aḡāni, 20 vols., ed, Naṣr Hurini, Bulāq, 1868-69.

Abu’l-Faraj ʿAli b. al-Ḥosayn Qoraši Eṣfahāni, Ketāb al-aḡāni, ed. Aḥmad Šenqiṭi, 25 vols., Cairo, 1905-6; repr. of the editions of Hurini and Brünnow, with the Tables.

Abu’l-Faraj ʿAli b. al-Ḥosayn Qoraši Eṣfahāni, Ketāb al-aḡāni, vol. I-, Cairo, 1926-; also known as Dār al-kotob edition.

Aḡāni, Brünnow
Abu’l-Faraj ʿAli b. al-Ḥosayn Qoraši Eṣfahāni, The Twenty-First Volume of the Kitâb al-aghânî: Being a Collection of Biographies not Contained in the Edition of Bûlâq, ed. Rudolf-Ernst Brünnow, Leiden, 1888.

Aḡāni Tables
Ignazio Guidi et al., Tables alphabétiques du Kitâb al-aġânî, 2 vols., Leiden, 1895-1900.

Agathangelos, History, tr. Thomson
Agatʿangelay, History of the Armenians, tr. R. W. Thomson Albany, N.Y., 1976; covers Patmutʿiwn Hayocʿ, pars. 1-258.

Agathangelos, Patmutʿiwn Hayocʿ
Agatʿangelay, Patmutʿiwn Hayocʿ, ed. G. Tēr-Mkrtʿean and S. Kanayeancʿ, Tiflis, 1909.

Agathangelos, Teaching of St. Gregory
Agatʿangelay, The Teaching of St. Gregory: An Early Armenian Catechism, tr. R. W. Thomson, Cambridge, Mass., 1970; covers Patmutʿiwn Hayocʿ, pars. 259-715.

Āʾin-e akbari, ed. Blochmann
Abu’l-Fażl ʿAllāmi, Āʾin-e akbari, ed. Henry Blochmann, 2 vols., Calcutta, 1867-77.

Āʾin-e akbari, tr. Blochmann
Abu’l-Fażl ʿAllāmi, The Ain i Akbari, vol. I, tr. H. Blochmann, Calcutta, 1873; vols. II-III, tr. H. S. Jarrett, Calcutta, 1891-1894.

Āʾin-e akbari, ed. Phillott
Abu’l-Fażl ʿAllāmi, The Ain i Akbari, trs. H. Blochmann and H. S. Jarrett, rev. D. C. Phillott and J. Sarkar, 3 vols., Calcutta, 1927-49.

Christian Bartholomae, Altiranisches Wörterbuch, Strassburg, 1904.

Abu’l-Fażl ʿAllāmi, Akbar-nāma, eds. Āqā Aḥmad ʿAli and Mawlawi ʿAbd-al-Raḥim, 3 vols., Calcutta, 1873-87.

Akbar-nāma, tr. Beveridge
Abu’l-Fażl ʿAllāmi, Akbar-nāma, tr. Henry Beveridge, 3 vols., Calcutta, 1897-1902.

Āqā Bozorg Ṭehrāni, Ṭabaqāt aʿlām al-šiʿa, ed. Moḥammad Ṭabāṭabāʾi al-Behbahāni, 17 vols., Tehran, 2009;  each vol. has a separate title; orig., vol. 1-, Najaf, 1954-. 

Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: I - Von den Anfängen Roms bis zum Ausgang der Republik, ed. Hildegard Temporini, 4 vols., Berlin, 1972-73.

Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: II - Principat, eds. Hildegard Temporini and Wolfgang Haase, vol. I-, Berlin, 1974-.

Āryanpur, Az Ṣabā tā Nimā
Yaḥyā Āryanpur, Az Ṣabā tā Nimā: Tāriḵ-e 150 sāl adab-e fārsi, vols. I-II, Tehran, 1971.

Āryanpur, Az Ṣabā tā Nimā III

Yaḥyā Āryanpur, Az Nimā tā ruzgār-e mā: Tāriḵ-adab-e fārsi-e moʿāṣer, Tehran, 1995.

Ašʿari, Maqālāt
Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAli b. Esmāʿil Ašʿari, Ketāb maqālāt al-eslāmiyin wa-eḵtelāf al-moṣallin: Die dogmatischen Lehren der Anhänger des Islam, ed. H. Ritter, 2 vols. and index, Istanbul, 1929-33.

Loṭf-ʿAli Beg Āḏar Bigdeli, Ātaškada, ed. Ḥasan Sādāt Nāṣeri, 4 vols., Tehran, 1957-99.

Avesta, ed. Geldner
K. F. Geldner, ed., Avesta: Die heiligen Bücher der Parsen, 3 vols., Stuttgart, 1885-95.

Avesta, tr. Darmesteter
James Darmesteter, Le Zend-Avesta: Traduction nouvelle avec commentaire historique et philologique, 3 vols., Paris, 1892-93.

ʿAwfi, Lobāb
Moḥammad ʿAwfi, Lobāb al-albāb, eds. E. G. Browne and M. Qazvini, 2 vols., Leiden, 1903-1906.

ʿAwfi, ed. Nafisi
Moḥammad ʿAwfi, Lobāb al-albāb, eds. E. G. Browne and M. Qazvini, rev. Saʿid Nafisi, Tehran, 1957.

Aʿyān al-šiʿa
Moḥsen Amin Ḥosayni ʿĀmeli, Aʿyān al-šiʿa, 14 vols., Damascus, 1935‑39.

Ẓahir-al-Din Moḥammad Bābor, Bābor-nāma, ed. Annette S. Beveridge, Leiden, 1905; facsim. ed. of the Hyderabad codex with indices.

Bābor-nāma, tr. Beveridge
Ẓahir-al-Din Moḥammad Bābor, Memoirs of Babur, tr. A. S. Beveridge, 2 vols., London, 1922.

Badāʾuni, Montaḵab
ʿAbd-al-Qāder Badāʾuni, Montaḵab al-tawāriḵ, eds. Aḥmad ʿAli and W. N. Lees, 3 vols., Calcutta, 1865-69.

Badāʾuni, Montaḵab, tr. Ranking
Abu Manṣur ʿAbd-al-Qāder Badāʾuni, Montaḵab al-tawāriḵ, trs. G. S. A. Ranking, W. H. Lowe, and W. Haig, 3 vols., Calcutta, 1884-1925.

Baḡdādi, Farq, ed. ʿAbd-al-Ḥamid
Abu Manṣur ʿAbd-al-Qāher b. Ṭāher Baḡdādi, Ketāb al-farq bayn al-feraq, ed. M. M. ʿAbd-al-Ḥamid, Cairo, 1964.

Baḡdādi, Farq, ed. Badr
Abu Manṣur ʿAbd-al-Qāher b. Ṭāher b. Moḥammad Baḡdādi, Ketāb al-farq bayn al-feraq, ed. Moḥammad Badr, Cairo, 1910.

Bailey, Zoroastrian Problems
H. W. Bailey, Zoroastrian Problems in the Ninth-Century Books, Oxford, 1943; repr., with new introd. and index, Oxford, 1971.

Balāḏori, Ansāb
Abu’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā b. Jāber Balāḏori, Ketāb ansāb al-ašrāf, vol. IVb, ed. Max Schlössinger, Jersualem, 1935; vol. V, ed. S. D. Goitein, Jerusalem, 1936.

Balāḏori, Ansāb, ed. Beirut
Abu’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā b. Jāber Balāḏori, Ketāb ansāb al-ašrāf, eds. ʿAbd-al-ʿAziz Duri et al., vol. I-, Wiesbaden, 1978-.

Balāḏori, Ansāb, ed. Damascus
Abu’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā b. Jāber Balāḏori, Ketāb ansāb al-ašrāf, 20 vols., Damascus, n.d. (1990s).

Balāḏori, Fotuḥ
Abu’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā b. Jāber Balāḏori, Ketāb fotuḥ al-boldān, ed. M. J. de Goeje, Leiden, 1866; Ar. text with Latin commentary.

Balāḏori, Fotuḥ, ed. Monajjed
Abu’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā b. Jāber Balāḏori, Ketāb fotuḥ al-boldān, ed. Ṣalāḥ-al-Din Monajjed, 3 vols., Cairo, 1956-57.

Balʿami, ed. Bahār
Abu ʿAli Moḥammad Balʿami, Tāriḵ-e Balʿami, ed. M.-T. Bahār, Tehran, 1962.

Balʿami, ed. Rowšan
Abu ʿAli Moḥammad Balʿami, Tāriḵ-nāma-ye Ṭabari gardānida-ye mansub ba Balʿami, ed. Moḥammad Rowšan, 3 vols., Tehran, 1987.

Balʿami, tr. Zotenberg
Moḥammad b. Jarir Ṭabari, La chronique sur la version persane d’Abou-ʿAli Mohammad Belʿami, tr. Hermann Zotenberg, 4 vols., Paris, 1867-74.

Bāmdād, Rejāl
Mehdi Bāmdād, Šarḥ-e ḥāl-e rejāl-e Irān dar qorun-e davāzdahom va sizdahom va čahār-dahom-e hejri, 6 vols., Tehran, 1966-78.

Barthold, Turkestan3
V. V. Barthold, Turkestan down to the Mongol Invasion, 3rd ed., London, 1969.

Bayāni, Ḵošnevisān
Mehdi Bayāni, Aḥvāl o āṯār-e ḵošnevisān: Nastaʿliq-nevisān, 3 vols., Tehran, 1966-69.

Bayhaqi, ed. Fayyāż
Abu’l-Fażl Bayhaqi, Tāriḵ-e masʿudi, ed. ʿAli‑Akbar Fayyāż, Mashad, 1971.

Bayhaqi, ed. Nafisi
Abu’l-Fażl Bayhaqi, Tāriḵ-e masʿudi, ed. Saʿid Nafisi, 3 vols., Tehran, 1940-53.

Bayhaqi, ed. Yāḥaqqi
Abu’l-Fażl Bayhaqi, Tāriḵ-e masʿudi, eds. Moḥammad Jaʿfar Yāḥaqqi and Mehdi Sayyedi, 2 vols., Tehran, 2009.

Belgrāmi, Ḵezāna
Āzād Belgrāmi, Ḵezāna-ye ʿāmera, Cawnpore, 1871.

Biruni, Āṯār
Abu Rayḥān Biruni, Ketāb al-āṯār al-bāqia ʿan al-qorun al-ḵālia, ed. Eduard Sachau, Leipzig, 1878.

Biruni, Āṯār, tr. Sachau
Abu Rayḥān Biruni, Chronologie orientalischer Völker, tr. Eduard Sachau, London, 1879.

Borhān-e qāṭeʿ, ed. Moʿin
Moḥammad Ḥosayn b. Ḵalaf Tabrizi, Borhān-e qāṭeʿ, ed. Moḥammad Moʿin, 6 vols., Tehran, 1963-73.

Bosworth, Ghaznavids
C. E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids: Their Empire in Afghanistan and Eastern Iran 944-1040, Edinburgh, 1963.

Bosworth, Later Ghaznavids
C. E. Bosworth, The Later Ghaznavids, Splendour and Decay: The Dynasty in Afghanistan and Northern India 1040-1186, Edinburgh, 1977.

Boyce, “Middle Persian Literature”
Mary Boyce, “Middle Persian Literature,” in Iranistik: 2. Abschnitt – Literatur, HO I, IV, 2/1, Leiden, 1968, pp. 31-66.

Boyce, Zoroastrianism
Mary Boyce, A History of Zoroastrianism, vols. I-II, Leiden, 1975-82.

Boyce and Grenet, Zoroastrianism
Mary Boyce and Frantz Grenet, A History of Zoroastrianism, vol. III, Leiden, 1991.

Brill’s New Pauly
Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World, 20 vols. plus 2 vols. of indices, Leiden, 2002-2010; tr. of Der Neue Pauly, 16 vols., Stuttgart, 1996-2003.

Browne, Lit. Hist. Persia
E. G. Browne, A Literary History of Persia, 4 vols., London, 1902-24.

Browne, Persian Revolution
E. G. Browne, The Persian Revolution of 1905-1909, London, 1910.

Browne, Press and Poetry
E. G. Browne, The Press and Poetry of Modern Persia Partly Based on the Manuscript Work of Mírzá Muḥammad ʿAlí Khán “Tarbiyat” of Tabríz, Cambridge, 1914.

Bundahišn (DH)
P. K. Anklesaria, ed., The Codex DH, Being a Facsimile Edition of Bondahesh, Zand-e Vohuman Yasht, and Parts of the Denkard, Tehran, n.d. [1970].

Bundahišn (TD1)
P. K. Anklesaria, ed., The Bondahesh, Tehran, n.d. [1970]; facsim. ed. of MS TD 1.

Bundahišn (TD2)
T. D. Anklesaria, ed., The Bûndahishn, Bombay, 1908; facsim. ed. of MS TD 2.

Bundahišn, tr. Anklesaria
B. T. Anklesaria, ed. and tr., Zand-Ākāsih: Iranian or Greater Bundahišn, Bombay, 1956.

Cambridge Ancient History, 2nd ed., 12 vols., Cambridge, 1928-39.

Cambridge Ancient History, 3rd ed., 2 vols. in 4, Cambridge, 1970-75.

Čahār maqāla, ed. Qazvini
Aḥmad b. ʿOmar b. ʿAli Neẓāmi ʿArużi Samarqandi, Čahār maqāla, ed. Moḥammad Qazvini, rev. Moḥammad Moʿin, Tehran, 1952.

Camb. Hist. Iran
The Cambridge History of Iran, 7 vols. in 8, Cambridge, 1968-91.

Cat. Bankipore
E. Denison Ross, J. A. Chapman, et al., Catalogue of the Arabic and Persian Manuscripts in the Oriental Public Library at Bankipore, 25 vols., Calcutta, 1908-42.

Cat. Bibliothèque Nationale
Edgar Blochet, Catalogue des manuscrits persans de la Bibliothèque Nationale, 4 vols., Paris, 1905-34.

Cat. Bibliothèque Nationale, Richard
Francis Richard, Catalogue des manuscrits persans: I – Ancien fonds, Paris, 1989.

Cat. Bodleian Library
Eduard Sachau, Hermann Ethé, and A. F. L. Beeston, Catalogue of the Persian, Turkish, Hindustani, and Pushtu Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, 3 vols., Oxford, 1889-1954.

Cat. Chester Beatty Library
A. J. Arberry, M. Minovi et al., The Chester Beatty Library: A Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts and Miniatures, 3 vols., Dublin, 1959-62.

Cahiers de la Délégation archéologique française en Iran, 15 vols., Paris, 1971-87.

Christensen, Iran Sass.
Arthur Christensen, L’Iran sous les Sassanides, 2nd ed., Copenhagen, 1944.

Corpus Inscr. Iran.
Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum, vol. I-, London, 1955‑.

Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium, vol. I-, Paris, 1903-; the writings of the Eastern Church Fathers in critical edition and modern translation.

Curzon, Persian Question
G. N. Curzon, Persia and the Persian Question, 2 vols., London, 1892.

Dādistān ī dēnīg
T. D. Anklesaria, ed., The Dadistan-i Dinik, Part I, Pursishn I-XL, Bombay, 1913.

Āqā Bozorg Ṭehrāni, al-Ḏariʿa elā taṣānif al-šiʿa, 24 vols. in 27, Najaf, 1936-78.

Dawlatābādi, Ḥayāt-e Yaḥyā
Yaḥyā Dawlatābādi, Tāriḵ-e moʿāṣer yā ḥayāt-e Yaḥyā, 4 vols., Tehran, n.d.; introd. dated 1336 Š./1957.

Dawlatšāh, ed. Browne
Dawlatšāh Samarqandi, The Tadhkiratu ‘sh-shuʿará (“Memoirs of the Poets”), ed. E. G. Browne, London, 1901.

ʿAli-Akbar Dehḵodā, Loḡat-nāma, Tehran, 1946-75; published in unnumbered fascicles.

Dēnkard, ed. Dresden
M. J. Dresden, ed., Dēnkart: A Pahlavi Text, Wiesbaden, 1966; facsim. ed. MS B of the K. R. Cama Oriental Institute Bombay.

Dēnkard, ed. Madan
D. M. Madan, ed., The Complete Text of the Pahlavi Dinkard, 2 vols., Bombay, 1911.

Dēnkard, ed. Sanjana
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D. S. Margoliouth and H. F. Amedroz, eds. and trs., The Eclipse of the Abbasid Caliphate:  Original Chronicles of the Fourth Islamic Century, 7 vols., Oxford, 1921-22.

Markwart, Ērānšahr
Joseph Marquart (Markwart), Ērānšahr nach der Geographie des Ps. Moses Xorenacʿi, Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, phil.-hist. KL. N.F. 3/2, Berlin, 1901.

Markwart, Provincial Capitals
Joseph Marquart (Markwart), A Catalogue of the Provincial Capitals of Ērānshahr: Pahlavi Text, Version and Commentary, ed. Giuseppe Messina, Rome, 1931.

Marshall, Mughals in India
D. N. Marshall, Mughals in India: A Bibliographic Survey - I. Manuscripts, Bombay, 1967.
Massé, Croyances
Henri Massé, Croyances et coutumes persanes suivies de contes et chansons populaires, 2 vols., Paris, 1938.

Masʿudi, Moruj
Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAli Masʿudi, Les prairies d’or, eds. and trs. Charles Barbier de Meynard and Abel Pavet de Courteille, 9 vols., Paris, 1861-1917; Ar. text with French tr.

Masʿudi, Moruj, ed. Pellat
Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAli Masʿudi, Moruj al-ḏahab, eds. Charles Barbier de Meynard and Abel Pavet de Courteille, rev. Charles Pellat, 7 vols., Beirut, 1966-79; tr. as Les prairies d’or, by C. Barbier de Meynard and A. Pavet de Courteille, rev. by Ch. Pellat, vol. 1-, Paris, 1962-; Ar. text and French tr. are cited according to paragraph.

Masʿudi, Tanbih
Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAli Masʿudi, Ketāb al-tanbih wa’l-ešrāf, ed. M. J. de Goeje, Leiden, 1894.

Maṭlaʿ-e saʿdayn, ed. Šafiʿ
Kamāl-al-Din ʿAbd-al-Razzāq b. Jalāl-al-Din Esḥāq Samarqandi, Maṭlaʿ-e saʿdayn va majmaʿ-e baḥrayn, ed. Moḥammad Šafiʿ, 2 vols., Lahore, 1941-49.

Maṭlaʿ-e saʿdayn, ed. Navāʿi
Kamāl-al-Din ʿAbd-al-Razzāq b. Jalāl-al-Din Esḥāq Samarqandi, Maṭlaʿ-e saʿdayn va majmaʿ-e baḥrayn, ed. ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Navāʿi, rev. ed., Tehran, 1993.

Maṭlaʿ al-šams
Moḥammad-Ḥasan Khan Ṣaniʿ-āl-Dawla Eʿtemād-al-Salṭana Marāḡaʾi, Maṭlaʿ al-šams, 3 vols., Tehran, 1883-85.

Mayrhofer, Altindisch
Manfred Mayrhofer, Kurzgefasstes etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindischen, 4 vols. in 8, Heidelberg, 1956-80; with English tr. of Sanskrit headings.

Mayrhofer, Altindoarisch
Manfred Mayrhofer, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen, 3 vols., Heidelberg, 1986-2001.

Mēnōg ī xrad, ed. Anklesaria
Dânâk-u mainyô-i khrad, ed. T. D. Anklesaria, Bombay, 1913.

Meskawayh, Tajāreb
Abu ʿAli Aḥmad b. Meskawayh, Tajāreb al-omam, ed. L. Caetani, vols. I and V-VI, Leiden, 1909-17, facsim. ed. of MS arab. of the Aya Sufiya Library; vols. II-IV were not published.

Meskawayh, tr.
Abu ʿAli Aḥmad b. Meskawayh, “The Experiences of the Nations,” in The Eclipse of the Abbasid Caliphate, eds. and trs. D. S. Margoliouth and H. F. Amedroz, vols. I-II, Oxford, 1920-21.

Meyḵāna, ed. Golčin-e Maʿāni
ʿAbd-al-Nabi Qazvini, Taḏkera-ye meyḵāna, ed. Aḥmad Golčin-e Maʿāni, Tehran, 1961.

Mir. Man.
F. C. Andreas and W. B. Henning, Mitteliranische Manichaica aus Chinesisch-Turkestan, SPAW I, 1932, 10; II, 1933, 7; III, 1934, 27.

Mirḵᵛānd (Bombay)
Mir Moḥammad b. Sayyed Borhān-al-Din Ḵᵛāvandšāh Mirḵᵛānd, Rawżat al-ṣafā, 7 vols., Bombay, 1855.

Mir Moḥammad b. Sayyed Borhān-al-Din Ḵᵛāvandšāh Mirḵᵛānd, Rawżat al-ṣafā, 10 vols., Qom, 1960; vols. IX-X are Hedāyat’s continuation of Mirḵᵛānd’s world history.

Reżāqoli Khan Hedāyat, Rawżat al-ṣafā-ye nāṣeri, 2 vols., Tehran, 1853-56.

Mirḵᵛānd, indices
Moḥammad J. Maškur, Fehrest-e Tāriḵ-e rawżat al-ṣafā, Tehran, 1972.

Modarres, Rayḥānat al-adab
M.-ʿA. Modarres, Rayḥānat al-adab fi tarājem al-maʿrufin be’l-konya aw al-laqab, 8 vols., Tabriz, n.d.

Mojmal, ed. Bahār
Mojmal al-tawāriḵ wa’l-qeṣaṣ, ed. M.-T. Bahār, Tehran, 1939.

Mojmal, eds. Najmābādi and Weber

Mojmal al-tawāriḵ wa’l-qeṣaṣ, eds. Sayf-al-Din Najmābādi and Siegfried Weber, Neckarhausen, 2000; edition of Persian text with German commentary.

Monzavi, Nosḵahā
Aḥmad Monzavi, Fehrest-e nosḵahā-ye ḵaṭṭi-e fārsi, 6 vols., Tehran, 1969-74.

Abu ʿAbd-Allāh Moḥammad Moqaddasi, Aḥsan al-taqāsim fi maʿrefat al-aqālim, ed. M. J. de Goeje, Leiden, 1877.

Morley, Catalogue
William H. Morley, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Historical Manuscripts in the Arabic and Persian Languages Preserved in the Library of the Royal Asiatic Society, London, 1854.

Mošār, Fehrest
Fehrest-e ketābhā-ye čāpi-e fārsi, based on the 2-volume catalogue of the same title by Ḵānbābā Mošār and the catalogues of the Anjoman-e Ketāb, 3 vols., Tehran, 1973.

Mošār, Moʾallefin
Ḵānbābā Mošār, Moʾallefin-e kotob-e čāpi-e fārsi o ʿarabi, 6 vols., Tehran, 1961-65.

Movsēs Xorenacʿi
Movsēs Xorenacʿi, Patmutʿiwn Hayocʿ, eds. M. Abelean and S. Yarutʿiwnean, Tiflis, 1913.

Movsēs Xorenacʿi, tr. Thomson
Movsēs Xorenacʿi, History of the Armenians, tr. R. W. Thomson, Cambridge, Mass., 1978.

Mostawfi, Šarḥ-e zendagāni
ʿAbd-Allāh Mostawfi, Šarḥ-e zendagāni-e man yā Tāriḵ-e ejtemāʿi o edāri-e dawra-ye qājāriya, 2nd ed., 3 vols., Tehran, 1964.

Müller, Fragmenta
Karl and Theodor Müller, eds., Fragmenta historicorum graecorum, 5 vols., Paris, 1841-85.

Nafisi, Naẓm o naṯr
Saʿid Nafisi, Tāriḵ-e naẓm o naṯr dar Irān, 2 vols., Tehran, 1965.

Nafisi, Rudaki
Saʿid Nafisi, Aḥwāl o ašʿār-e Rudaki, 3 vols., 2nd ed., Tehran, 1962.

Abu Bakr Jaʿfar Naršaḵi, Tārik-e Boḵārā, ed. M.-T. Modarres Rażawi, 2nd ed., Tehran, 1972.

Naršaḵi, tr. Frye
Abu Bakr Jaʿfar Naršaḵi, The History of Bukhara, tr. R. N. Frye, Cambridge, Mass., 1954.

National Census
Public Statistics Bureau, National and Province Statistics of the First Census of Iran, November 1956, Tehran, 1961; Iranian Statistical Center, National Census of Population and Housing, November 1966, Tehran, 1968; Statistical Center of Iran, National Census of Population and Housing, November 1976, Tehran, 1981; Markaz-e āmār-e Irān, Saršomāri-e ʿomumi-e nofus o maskan mehrmāh-e 1365, Tehran, 1968.

Nozhat al-qolub, ed. Le Strange
Ḥamd-Allāh Mostawfi, The Geographical Part of the Nozhat al-Qolub, ed. and tr. Guy Le Strange, 2 vols., Leiden, 1915-19; Pers. text with Eng. translation.

Nyberg, Manual
H. S. Nyberg, A Manual of Pahlavi, 2 vols., Wiesbaden, 1964-74.


Vera S. Rastorgueva et al., Osnovy iranskogo yazykoznaniya: I - Drevneiranskie yazyki (Elements of Iranian linguistics: I – The Old Iranian languages), Moscow, 1979.

Pahlavi Rivayat, ed. Dhabhar
B. N. Dhabhar, ed., The Pahlavi Rivâyat Accompanying the Dâdestân-î Dînîk, Bombay, 1913.

Pahlavi Texts, ed. Jamasp-Asana
J. M. Jamasp-Asana, ed., The Pahlavi Texts Contained in the Codex MK, 2 vols., Bombay, 1897-1913.

August Pauly, Georg Wissowa, et al., eds., Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, new ed., 84 vols., Stuttgart, 1894–1980.

Persian Rivayats, ed. Unvala
M. R. Unvala, ed., Dârâb Hormazyâr’s Rivâyat, 2 vols., Bombay, 1922.

Persian Rivayats, tr. Dhabhar
B. N. Dhabhar, tr., The Persian Rivayats of Hormazyar Framarz and Others, 2 vols., Bombay, 1932.

Julius Pokorny, Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, 2 vols., Bern, 1959-69.

Qāżi Aḥmad
Qāżi Aḥmad, Golestān-e honar, ed. A. Soheyli Ḵᵛānsāri, Tehran, 1973.

Qāżi Aḥmad, tr. Minorsky
Qāżi Aḥmad, Calligraphers and Painters: A Treatise, trs. Vladimir Minorsky and Tatiana Minorsky, Washington, D.C., 1959.

Qodāma, Ketāb al-ḵarāj
Qodāma b. Jaʿfar, Ketāb al-ḵarāj, ed. M. J. de Goeje, Leiden, 1889.

Rašid-al-Din, Jāmeʿ al-tawāriḵ (Baku)
Rašid-al-Din Fażl-Allāh b. ʿEmād-al-Dawla, Jāmeʿ al-tawāriḵ, 3 vols., Baku, 1957; vols. I-II include the Persian text in the ed. of ʿA. ʿA. ʿAlizada, while vol. III is a reissue of the 1946 Russian tr. by A. K. Arends et al.

Rašid-al-Din, Jāmeʿ al-tawāriḵ (Moscow)
Rašid-al-Din Fażl-Allāh b. ʿEmād-al-Dawla, Jāmeʿ al-tawāriḵ, eds. L. A. Khetaqurova et al., 3 vols. in 4, Moscow, 1946-60; facsim ed. accompanied by rev. ed. of the edition by ʿA. ʿA. ʿAlizada.

Rašid-al-Din, Jāmeʿ al-tawāriḵ, ed. Rowšan
Rašid-al-Din Fażl-Allāh b. ʿEmād-al-Dawla, Jāmeʿ al-tawāriḵ, ed. Moḥammad Rowšan, 4 vols., Tehran, 2005-6. 

Rašid-al-Din, Jāmeʿ al-tawāriḵ (Khalili)
Sheila L. Blair, A Compendium of Chronicles: Rashid al-Din’s Illustrated History of the World, Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art XXVII, London, 1995; with a facsimile ed. of the early 14th century Arabic MS that before 1980 was in the collection of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

Rašid-al-Din, Tāriḵ-e ḡāzāni
Rašid-al-Din Fażl-Allāh b. ʿEmād-al-Dawla, Geschichte Ġāzān-Ḥān’s, ed. Karl Jahn, London, 1940; Geschichte der Ilhane Abaga bis Gaihatu (1265-1295), ed. Karl Jahn, Prag, 1941, repr., The Hague, 1957; critical ed. of Tāriḵ-e-mobārak-e ḡāzāni.

Razmārā, Farhang
Ḥ.-ʿA. Razmārā, ed., Farhang-e joḡrāfiāʾi-e Irān: Ābādihā, 10 vols., Tehran, 1949-53.

Reallexikon der Assyriologie, vol. I-, Berlin, 1928-.

Rieu, Persian Manuscripts
Charles Rieu, Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts in the British Museum, 3 vols. and  supplement, London, 1876-95.

Rypka, Hist. Iran. Lit.
Jan Rypka et al., History of Iranian Literature, ed. Karl Jahn, Dordrecht, 1968.

Ṣadr Hāšemi, Jarāʾed o majallāt
Moḥammad Ṣadr Hāšemi, Tāriḵ-e jarāʾed o majallāt-e Irān, Isfahan, 1948-53.

Ṣafā, Adabiyāt
Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā (Zabihollah Safa), Tāriḵ-e adabiyāt dar Irān, vol. I-, Tehran, 1953-;  rev. ed. of vol. I, Tehran, 1956; the very popular work was completed in the 1980s and comprises 5 vols., but the division of the volumes into parts vary in the numerous reprint editions.

Šāh-nāma, ed. Boruḵim
Abu’l-Qāsem Ferdowsi, Šāh-nāma, 10 vols., Tehran, 1934-36; a continuation of Vullers' edition, based on the editions by Turner Macan and Jules Mohl and augmented with critical notes by Saʿid Nafisi.

Šāh-nāma, ed. Khaleghi
Abu’l-Qāsem Ferdowsi, Šāh-nāma, eds. Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh et al., 12 vols. in 11, New York, 1987-2009; 8 vols. Persian text with 3 vols. Persian commentary.

Šāh-nāma, ed. Mohl
Abu’l-Qāsem Ferdowsi, Šāh-nāma, ed. and tr. Jules Mohl, 7 vols., Paris, 1838-78.

Šāh-nāma (Moscow)
Abu’l-Qāsem Ferdowsi, Šāh-nāma, eds. E. E. Bertel’s et al., 9 vols., Moscow, 1960-71; new ed., eds. R. M. Aliev and M.-N. O. Osmanov, vol. I-, Tehran, 1971-.

Moḥammad b. ʿAbd-al-Karim Šahrastāni, Ketāb al-melal wa’l-neḥal, ed. William Cureton, London, 1846.

Šahrastāni, tr. Gimaret and Monnot
Moḥammad b. ʿAbd-al-Karim Šahrastāni, Livre des religions et des sectes, trs. Daniel Gimaret and Guy Monnot, Paris, 1986.

Markaz-e āmār-e Irān, Sāl-nāma-ye āmāri-e kešvar 1345-; statistical reports published annually since 1966.

Samʿāni, ed. Margoliouth
Abu Saʿd ʿAbd-al-Karim b. Moḥammad Tamimi Samʿāni, Ketāb al-ansāb, ed. D. S. Margoliouth, Leiden, 1912; facsim. ed. of BM MS arab. Add. 23355.

Samʿāni, ed. Yamāni
Abu Saʿd ʿAbd-al-Karim b. Moḥammad Tamimi Samʿāni, Ketāb-al-ansāb, ed. ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Yamāni, 13 vols., Hyderabad, 1962-82.

Šams-al-Din Rāzi, Moʿjam
Šams-al-Din Moḥammad b. Qays Rāzi, al-Moʿjam fi maʿāʾir ašʿār al-ʿajam, ed. Moḥam-mad Qazvini and M.-T. Modarres Rażawi, Tehran, 1959.

Fehrest-e ruz-nāmahā-ye mawjud dar Ketāb-ḵāna-ye melli-e Irān, eds. Bizhan Sartipzāda and Kobrā Ḵodāparast, 2nd ed., 2 vols., Tehran, 1977.

Šāyest nē šāyest
Šāyast nē Šāyast: A Pahlavi Text on Religious Customs, ed. and tr. J. C. Tavadia, Hamburg, 1930.

Šāyest nē šāyest, suppl.
The Supplementary Texts to the Šāyest nē-šāyest, ed. and tr. Firoze M. P. Kotwal, Copenhagen, 1969; Pahlavi text with transcription, and Eng. translation.

J. L. Schlimmer, Terminologie médico-pharmaceutique et anthropologique française-persane, Tehran, 1874, lithographed; repr. with new pagination, Tehran, 1970.

Schwarz, Iran
Paul Schwarz, Iran im Mittelalter nach den arabischen Geographen, 7 vols., Leipzig, 1896-1921.

Siroux, Anciennes voies et monuments
Maxime Siroux, Anciennes voies et monuments routiers de la région d’Ispahan, Cairo, 1971.

Sobki, Ṭabaqāt (Cairo1)
Abu Naṣr ʿAbd-al-Wahhāb b. ʿAli Tāj-al-Din Sobki, Ṭabaqat al-šāfeʿiya al-kobrā, 6 vols., Cairo, 1906.

Sobki, Ṭabaqāt (Cairo2)
Abu Naṣr ʿAbd-al-Wahhāb b. ʿAli Tāj-al-Din Sobki, Ṭabaqāt al-šafeʿiya al-kobrā, ed. M. M. Ṭanāḥi and ʿA. M. Ḥelw, 10 vols., Cairo, 1964-76.

Solami, Ṭabaqāt
Moḥammad b. Ḥosayn Solami, Ketāb ṭabaqāt al-ṣufiya, ed. Johannes Pedersen, Leiden, 1960.

Spuler, Iran
Bertold Spuler, Iran in früh-islamischer Zeit, Wiesbaden, 1952.

Spuler, Mongolen4
Bertold Spuler, Die Mongolen in Iran: Politik, Verwaltung und Kultur der Ilchanzeit 1220-1350, 4th ed., Leiden, 1985. 1st ed., Leipzig, 1939

C. A. Storey, Persian Literature: A Bio-bibliographical Survey, vol. I-, Leiden, 1927-.

C. A. Storey, Persidskaya literatura: Bio-bibliograficheskiĭ obzor, ed. and tr. Yu. E. Bregel, 3 vols., Moscow, 1972.

Storey-de Blois
François de Blois, Persian Literature: A Bio-bibliographical Survey Begun by the Late C. A. Storey – Volume V: Poetry to ca. A.D. 1100, 3 pts., 2nd ed., London, 2004. 

Survey of Persian Art
A. U. Pope and P. Ackerman, eds., A Survey of Persian Art from Prehistoric Times to the Present, 4 vols., London, 1938-39; 2nd ed., 16 vols., Tehran, 1964, with addenda 1967; 3rd ed. with bibliography and addenda, Tehran, 1977.

Suter, Mathematiker
Heinrich Suter, Die Mathematiker und Astronomen der Araber und ihre Werke, Leipzig, 1900.

Sykes, History of Persia
Percy Sykes, A History of Persia, 3rd ed. with suppl. essays, 2 vols., London, 1930.

Ṯaʿālebi, Ḡorar
Abu Manṣur ʿAbd-al-Malek Ṯaʿālebi, Histoire des rois des Perses, ed. and tr. Hermann Zotenberg, Paris, 1900; Ar. text of Ḡorar aḵbār moluk al-fors with French tr.

Ṯaʿālebi, Yatima (Damascus)
Abu Manṣur ʿAbd-al-Malek Ṯaʿālebi, Yatimat al-dahr fi maḥāsen ahl al-ʿaṣr, Damascus, 1886-87.

Ṯaʿālebi, Yatima, ed. ʿAbd-al-Ḥamid
Abu Manṣur ʿAbd-al-Malek Ṯaʿālebi, Yatimat al-dahr fi maḥāsen ahl al-ʿaṣr, ed. M. M. ʿAbd-al-Ḥamid, Cairo, 1957-68.

Moḥammad b. Jarir Ṭabari, Ketāb taʾriḵ al-rosol wa’l-moluk, eds. M. J. de Goeje et al., 15 vols., Leiden, 1879-1901.

Ṭabari (Cairo1)
Moḥammad b. Jarir Ṭabari, Ketāb taʾriḵ al-rosol wa’l-moluk, 13 vols., Cairo, 1908.

Ṭabari (Cairo2)
Moḥammad b. Jarir Ṭabari, Ketāb taʾriḵ al-rosol wa’l-moluk, ed. M. A. Ebrāhim, 9 vols., Cairo, 1960-68.

Ṭabari, tr.
Moḥammad b. Jarir Ṭabari, The History of al-Ṭabari, gen. ed. Ehsan Yarshater, 40 vols., Albany, N.Y., 1985‑2007; translators vary.

Ṭabari, tr. Nöldeke 
Moḥammad b. Jarir Ṭabari, Geschichte der Perser und Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden, tr. from the Arabic by Theodor Nöldeke, Leiden, 1879.

Taḏkerat al-moluk, ed. Minorsky
Tadhkirat al-muluk: A Manual of Ṣafavid Administration (circa 1137/1725), tr. Vladimir Minorsky, London, 1943; facsim. ed. with Eng. translation.

Taʾriḵ Baḡdād
Ḵaṭib Baḡdādi, Taʾriḵ Baḡdād, 14 vols., Cairo, 1931.

Tāriḵ-e bidāri, ed. Saʿidi Sirjāni
Nāẓem-al-Eslām Kermāni, Tāriḵ-e bidāri-e irāniān, ed. ʿA.-A. Saʿidi Sirjāni, 2 vols., 2nd ed., Tehran, 1983.

Tāriḵ-e gozida, ed. Browne
Ḥamd-Allāh Mostawfi, Tāriḵ-e gozida, ed. E. G. Browne, Leiden, 1910; facsim. ed.

Tāriḵ-e gozida, ed. Navāʾi
Ḥamd-Allāh Mostawfi, Tāriḵ-e gozida, ed. ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Navāʾi, 2 vols., Tehran, 1957-60.

Tāriḵ-e Sistān
Tāriḵ-e Sistān, ed. M.-T. Bahār, Tehran, 1935.

Tāriḵ-e Sistān, tr. Gold
The Tārikh-e Sistān, tr. into English by Milton Gold, Rome, 1976.

Tāriḵ-e Waṣṣāf
Šehāb-al-Din ʿAbd-Allāh Waṣṣāf Ḥażra, Tajziat al-amṣār va tazjiat al-aʿṣār, ed. M. M. Eṣfahāni, Bombay, 1853.

Tāriḵ-e Waṣṣāf, ed. Hammer-Purgstall
Šehāb-al-Din ʿAbd-Allāh Waṣṣāf Ḥażra, Geschichte, ed. and tr. Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall, vol. I, Vienna, 1856; Persian text with German translation; further vols. were not published.

Tāriḵ-e Waṣṣāf, ed. Wentker
Šehāb-al-Din ʿAbd-Allāh Waṣṣāf Ḥażra, Geschichte, ed. and tr. Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall, revised by Sibylle Wentker and Klaus Wundsam, vol. I-, Vienna, 2010; the complete edition is planned for 5 vols. 

Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients, Wiesbaden, 1977-1993; maps and accompanying studies.

Tedesco, “Dialektologie”
Paul Tedesco, “Dialektologie der westiranischen Turfantexte,” Le Monde oriental 15, 1921, pp. 184-257.

Toḥfa-ye sāmi
Sām Mirzā Ṣafavi, Toḥfa-ye sāmi, ed. Ḥasan Vaḥid Dastgerdi, Tehran, 1935.

Ṭusi, Fehrest
Abu Jaʿfar Moḥammad b. Ḥasan Ṭusi, Fehrest kotob al-šiʿa wa-asmāʾ al-moʾallefin, ed. Aloys Sprenger, Calcutta, 1853-55, issued in fascicles.

Ṭusi, Rejāl
Abu Jaʿfar Moḥammad b. Ḥasan Ṭusi, Ketāb al-rejāl, ed. M. Ṣ. Baḥr-al-ʿOlum, Najaf, 1961.

Hans Wehr, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic: Arabic-English, ed. J. Milton Cowan, enl. 4th ed., 1979.

Wolff, Glossar
Fritz Wolff, Glossar zu Ferdosis Schahname, Berlin, 1935.

Wulff, Crafts
H. E. Wulff, The Traditional Crafts of Persia, Cambridge, Mass., 1966.

Yaʿqubi, Boldān
Aḥmad b. Abi Yaʿqub Yaʿqubi, Ketāb al-boldān, ed. M. J. de Goeje, Leiden, 1892.

Yaʿqubi, tr. Wiet
Aḥmad b. Abi Yaʿqub Yaʿqubi, Les pays, tr. Gaston Wiet, Cairo, 1937.

Yaʿqubi, Taʾriḵ
Aḥmad b. Abi Yaʿqub Yaʿqubi, Taʾriḵ, ed. M. T. Houtsma, 2 vols., Leiden, 1883.

Yāqut, Boldān
Šehāb-al-Din Abu ʿAbd-Allāh Yāqut b. ʿAbd-Allāh Ḥamawi, Moʿjam al-boldān, ed. Ferdinand Wüstenfeld, 6 vols., Leipzig, 1866-73.

Yāqut, Boldān (Beirut)
Šehāb-al-Din Abu ʿAbd-Allāh Yāqut b. ʿAbd-Allāh Ḥamawi, Moʿjam al-boldān, 5 vols., Beirut, 1955-57.

Yāqut, Odabāʾ
Šehāb-al-Din Abu ʿAbd-Allāh Yāqut b. ʿAbd-Allāh Ḥamawi, Dictionary of Learned Men, ed. D. S. Margoliouth, 7 vols., Leiden, 1907-27; Ar. text of Moʿjam al-odabāʾ.

B. T. Anklesaria, ed., Vichitakiha-i Zatasparam, pt. 1, Bombay, 1964.

Eduard de Zambaur, Manuel de généalogie et de chronologie pour l’histoire de l’Islam, Hannover, 1927.

Zerekli, Aʿlām2
Ḵayr-al-Din Zerekli, al-Aʿlām, 2nd ed., 10 vols., Cairo, 1954-59.

Zhukovskiĭ, Materialy
V. A. Zhukovskiĭ, Materialy dlya izucheniya persidskikh narechiĭ, 3 vols., St. Petersburg, 1888-1922.


The system employed here aims to achieve simplicity and accuracy. It has been jointly adopted by the Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum and Encyclopædia Iranica. Transliteration of Arabic words and, in most cases, words of Arabic origin in Persian follows the system used for Persian, with the exceptions noted below.

Consonants Vowels & Diphthongs















آ ،ا ،یٰ
























































  ـه، ـة، ة a  














  وَ ow aw




  َ ى ey ay






  خوا ḵᵛā  


























Note: When an Arabic word ending in a long vowel is followed by the definite article al-, the macron is omitted and the words are elided: e.g., fi and al- become fi’l; Abu and al- become Abu’l; etc. When the Arabic ending ــة is in construct, it is transliterated as at. For Dari and early Persian, the majhul vowels و and ى may be transliterated as ō and ē respectively. The Persian eżāfa is rendered as -e after consonants and the vowel i and as -ye after other vowels. For words in modern Persian of Arabic origin, the consonant و may be transliterated as “v” or “w” depending on the syntax and context. Ottoman Turkish follows the system for Persian, with the addition of the vowels ö, ü, ı.