Encyclopaedia Islamica

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Edited by: Farhad Daftary and Wilferd Madelung

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Encyclopaedia Islamica Online is based on the abridged and edited translation of the Persian Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif-i Buzurg-i Islāmī, one of the most comprehensive sources on Islam and the Muslim world. A unique feature of the Encyclopaedia Islamica Online lies in the attention given to Shiʿi Islam and its rich and diverse heritage. In addition to providing entries on important themes, subjects and personages in Islam generally, Encyclopaedia Islamica Online offers the Western reader an opportunity to appreciate the various dimensions of Shiʿi Islam, the Persian contribution to Islamic civilization, and the spiritual dimensions of the Islamic tradition.

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Ibn Ikhshīd

(858 words)

Author(s): Zia'i, Ali Akbar | Translated by Alexander Khaleeli
Ibn Ikhshīd, Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Maʿjūr (270–326/883–938), a theologian, jurist, commentator on the Qurʾān, and one of the leaders of the Muʿtazila. His name has been given variously as Ibn Akhshād (al-Ṭūsī, 167; Yāqūt, 16/101), Ibn Ikshiyādh (al-Ṣafadī, 7/216) and Ibn Ikshādh (al-Khaṭīb, 4/309). It is likely he acquired this name because his home was on an alley known as Darb al-Aḥshād in a district of Baghdad known as Sūq al-ʿAṭash (Ibn al-Nadīm, 245–246). His father served as a governor …
Date: 2022-10-14

Ibrāhīm b. al-Mahd

(2,192 words)

Author(s): Sadeq Sajjadi | Mallah, Hossein-Ali | Translated by Alexander Khaleeli
Ibrāhīm b. al-Mahdī, Abū Isḥāq (162–224/779–839), an ʿAbbāsid prince, singer ( mughannī), musician and poet. He was the son of the ʿAbbāsid caliph al-Mahdī (r. 158–169/775–785) and a woman named Shikla, who came from a noble Zoroastrian family in Ṭabaristān (al-Ṭabarī, 7/513; Abū al-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, 9/49; Ibn al-Nadīm, 129; see also Minorsky, 745; Madelung, 544). Some sources referred to him using his mother’s name as ‘Ibn Shikla’ (‘the son of Shikla’), sometimes in a derogatory manner as in the poetry o…
Date: 2022-10-14

Ibrāhīm Khalīl Khān Jawānshī

(2,213 words)

Author(s): Seyyed Ali Al-i Davud | Translated by Alexander Khaleeli
Ibrāhīm Khalīl Khān Jawānshīr (d. 1221/1806), the Khan of Qarābāgh during the turbulent period of military confrontations in the Caucasus between Iran and Russia in the late 12th/18th–early 13th/19th centuries. Ibrāhīm Khalīl Khān was from the Jawānshīr clan of the Afshār (q.v.) tribe, which lived in the plains of Qarābāgh and originally came from Turkestan. His father, Panāh ʿAlī Khān, had been forced to enter the service of Nādir Shāh Afshār (q.v. Afshārids), and became his first herald ( jārchī). However, towards the end of  Nādir Shāh’s life, he fell out with him and f…
Date: 2022-10-14

Ibrāhīm Quwayrā

(842 words)

Author(s): Manouchehr Pezeshk | Translated by Alexander Khaleeli
Ibrāhīm Quwayrā/Quwayr ī , Abū Isḥāq (flor. late 3rd/9th century), one of the earliest commentators of Aristotle’s logical works in Arabic. No precise details survive concerning his life or the dates of his birth or death, save for the fact that he was alive during the reign of the ʿAbbāsid caliph al-Muʿtaḍid bi’llāh (r. 279–289/892–902). His primary importance lies in his role in promoting the study of logic in the Islamic world.According to al-Masʿūdī (p. 105), Quwayrā was one of the final links in the transmission of logic and philosophy from Alexandria and Anti…
Date: 2022-10-14


(2,192 words)

Author(s): Ja?far Sajjadi, Seyyed | Translated by Alexander Khaleeli
Ibṣār , a form IV ( wazn al-ifʿāl) Arabic verbal noun ( maṣdar) derived from the triliteral root b-ṣ-r (‘to see’), meaning ‘vision, visual perception’. As a technical term in Islamic philosophy and science, it refers to one of the five outward faculties of sense ( al-ḥawāss al-ẓāhira). Vision, and the means by which it occurs, was discussed by Muslim philosophers and scientists in different aspects in general metaphysics, natural philosophy, the science of the soul and optics.Although the discussions on vision can be traced back to ancient Greek philosophy, for Muslim ph…
Date: 2022-10-14