Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Glossary and Index of Terms

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs
Assisted by C. Ott, under the patronage of the International Union of Acadamies

Glossary and Index of Terms treats the technical terms in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu and other languages or dialects of the Islamic world. As an index, it is of immeasurable importance, in particular for the many terms which are not given an entry but are discussed in the course of an article; and as glossary it is an invaluable source of information for both non-specialist, who is given an insight into the varied and rich vocabulary of Islam, and the specialist, who may discover surprising new contexts in which a term is used.

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taḳsīm

(61 words)

taḳsīm (A, pl. taḳāsīm) : in music, a solo melodic modal improvisation entrusted to an instrumentalist,…

taḳsīra

(17 words)

taḳsīra (A) : a short-sleeved jacket worn by both sexes in Syria and Palestine. Libās

taḳsīṭ

(36 words)

taḳsīṭ (A) : in early Islamic financial administration, the allocation or distribution amongst the t…

taḳṭīr

(10 words)

taḳṭīr (A) : in pharmacology, distillation. Māʾ al-Ward

ṭaḳṭūḳa

(61 words)

ṭaḳṭūḳa (A) : in music, a form of strophic song in Egyptian colloquial Arabic. It is unclear whether…

taḳwā

(21 words)

taḳwā (A) : in religion and mysticism, fear of God, or godliness, devoutness, piety, pious abstinenc…

taḳwīm

(52 words)

taḳwīm (A, pl. taḳāwīm) : tabular form of almanac data. Taḳwīm; a retrospective calendar of events. Taʾ…

takwīn

(51 words)

takwīn (A) : ‘bringing into being’, the artificial generation of minerals, plants and animals; in th…

tāl

(25 words)

tāl (H) : in Indian music, a cyclic time-measure punctuated by a stress pattern which is marked on a pair of drums. Hind

ṭalā

(25 words)

ṭalā (A) : in the terminology of childhood, ‘the youngling of any kind; an infant until a month old …

ṭalaʿa

(4 words)

ṭalaʿa It̲h̲t̲h̲ag̲h̲ara

talaḥḥī

(24 words)

talaḥḥī (A) : with iltiḥā, a rare synonym for the taḥnīk, or way the turban-cloth is brought under the chin (Ḥ…

ṭalāḳ

(69 words)

ṭalāḳ (A) : in law, repudiation of the wife by the husband, by way of the simple unilateral declaration anti ṭāliḳ. ʿAbd…

tālār

(62 words)

tālār (P) : in architecture, a flat-roofed portico. Architecture; ( ṭālār) a colonnaded verandah associated wi…

talāt̲h̲ama

(10 words)

talāt̲h̲ama (A) : to kiss one another. Lit̲h̲ām

talāʾum

(9 words)

talāʾum (A) : in rhetoric, euphony. al-Rummānī

talbīna

(28 words)

talbīna (A) : a dish similar to ḥarīra, a gruel made from flour cooked with milk, but eaten at funeral meal…

talbīs

(25 words)

talbīs (A) : in mysticism, the practice of ‘concealing, changing the guise of something to make it a…

talbiya

(31 words)

talbiya (A) : the invocation made in a loud voice and repeatedly by the pilgrim upon entering the st…

tald̲j̲iʾa

(94 words)

tald̲j̲iʾa (A), or ild̲j̲āʾ : lit. putting under protection; in the first three or four centuries of Is…

talfīḳ

(49 words)

talfīḳ (A) : in law, a patchwork approach to the juristic tradition, by bringing together certain el…

ṭalḥ

(15 words)

ṭalḥ (A) : in botany, a variety of acacia ( Acacia seyal). Abūḳīr; Tuwāt

ṭāliʿ

(200 words)

ṭāliʿ (A) : lit. that which rises; in astronomy, that point of the ecliptic which is rising over the…

ṭalī

(12 words)

ṭalī (A, pl. ṭulyān) : a young lamb. Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab

tālī

(61 words)

tālī (A) : lit. follower; in Druze hierarchy, the Left Wing, the fifth of the five cosmic ranks in t…

ṭalīʿa

(67 words)

ṭalīʿa (A, pl. ṭalāʾiʿ) : in military science, an advance guard or reconnaissance force (syn. kas̲h̲s̲h̲āfa ‘scouts…

ṭālib

(58 words)

ṭālib (A) : student; in law, the plaintiff in a lawsuit. The defendant is called maṭlūb. Daʿwā; ʿUrf; and Aru; Ayḳa…

taʿlīḳ

(239 words)

taʿlīḳ (A), also taʿlīḳa : in scholarly activity, the ‘appending upon ( ʿalā)’ a text or the ‘deriving from ( ʿan)’ an a…

ṭāliḳ

(46 words)

ṭāliḳ (A) : an untethered camel, or a repudiated wife (Ṭalāḳ). Ṭalāḳ ṭāliḳa (T, < Sl taliga) : a carriage, widely us…

ṭāliḳūn

(50 words)

ṭāliḳūn : a copper alloy, which equals μεταλλικόν, and is probably identical with ‘Chinese iron’ ( k̲h̲ār čīnī, ḥadī…

ṭalḳ

(23 words)

ṭalḳ (A) : in metallurgy, asbestos, from Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān, out of which wicks and fire-resistant cloth…

tall

(56 words)

tall (A) : a hill, mound, tumulus (Eng. tell); in the Mag̲h̲rib, ~ is said to be ‘marly, grey or dar…

talmīḥ

(30 words)

talmīḥ (A) : in rhetoric, allusion, which consists of alluding to famous passages in the Qurʾān or T…

talt̲h̲īma

(31 words)

talt̲h̲īma (A) : a woman’s veil. Lit̲h̲ām talt̲h̲īmat al-bayāḍ under the Fāṭimids…

ṭamaʿ

(14 words)

ṭamaʿ (A) : in classical Muslim administration, an issue of pay. Daftar

tamānuʿ

(23 words)

tamānuʿ (A) : in theology, ‘reciprocal hindrance’, a major argument for Tawḥīd, the oneness of God. …

tamat̲h̲t̲h̲ul

(41 words)

tamat̲h̲t̲h̲ul (A) : in rhetoric, the activity of one who quotes a line or two of poetry to encapsul…

tamattuʿ

(39 words)

tamattuʿ (A) : ‘enjoyment’; one of three methods of performing the pilgrimage, viz. by accomplishing…

tamd̲j̲īd

(14 words)

tamd̲j̲īd (A) : among Copts, songs of praise about a saint. Ziyāra

tamg̲h̲a

(126 words)

tamg̲h̲a (T) : brand or sign placed on livestock or personal property; seal [of the king or other] (A syn. ṭābiʿ); and, …

taʾmīm

(34 words)

taʾmīm (A, P millī kardan, T devletleştirme) : nationalisation, that is, the state’s assumption of control…

tamīma

(45 words)

tamīma (A, pl. tamāʾim) : amulet, talisman. In origin, ~ means a stone with white speckles on a black f…

taʿmiya

(11 words)

taʿmiya (A) : cryptography. Muʿammā In rhetoric, mystification. Ramz

ṭaʿmiyya

(19 words)

ṭaʿmiyya (Egy) : the national food of Egypt, Egyptian beans, fūl mudammas ‘Jew’s marrow’ or mulūk̲h̲iyya. G̲h̲id̲h̲…

tamkīn

(35 words)

tamkīn (A) : ‘strengthening, stability’; in mysticism, the spiritual act of endurance and stability,…

tāmm

(119 words)

tāmm (A) : in literary theory, complete agreement in nature, number, and arrangement of consonants a…

tamma

(60 words)

tamma (Mon), or tanma : in the Mongolian army, contingents selected from the total available Mongol pow…

tammār

(26 words)

tammār (A) : a seller of dates. Tammām b. G̲h̲ālib, Abu G̲h̲ālib Tammām b. G̲h̲ālib b. ʿUmar, also k…

tammūz

(19 words)

tammūz : the tenth month in the Syriac calendar, corresponding to July in the Roman calendar. Tammār

tamr

(59 words)

tamr (A) : dried dates. A basic, and sometimes the only food for Arabs in early times, dates were eaten also fresh ( ruṭab)…

tamt̲h̲īl

(130 words)

tamt̲h̲īl (A) : lit. the adducing of a likeness, example; representation. In grammar, ~ denotes the …

ṭamūḥ

(20 words)

ṭamūḥ (A) : in the terminology of horse-riding, a horse that is regarded as impossible to ride. Furūsiyya

tamyīz

(58 words)

tamyīz (A) : the faculty of ‘discernment’; in the terminology of childhood, the faculty which enable…

tamzak

(17 words)

tamzak (Touareg) : among the Touareg, a camel’s saddle, more luxurious than the Tarik. Ibil

tanāsuk̲h̲

(62 words)

tanāsuk̲h̲ (A), or nāsūk̲h̲iyya : in theology, the doctrine of reincarnation, metempsychosis (syn. nuḳla, tanaḳḳu…

tanawwuṭ nassād̲j̲

(13 words)

tanawwuṭ nassād̲j̲ (A) : in zoology, the weaver-bird. Abū Barāḳis̲h̲

tand̲j̲īr

(61 words)

tand̲j̲īr (A) : a vessel in which sweetmeats were commonly made, used in the mediaeval kitchen. A sp…

tand̲j̲īz

(18 words)

tand̲j̲īz (A) : in law, the immediate effect of the act of founding a Waḳf. Waḳf

tanfīd̲h̲a

(9 words)

tanfīd̲h̲a (A) : a land grant. Ẓahīr

tanga, and tanka

(62 words)

tanga, and tanka : in numismatics, terms spelled the same in Arabic but pronounced differently and w…

tängrikän

(16 words)

tängrikän : a wise man; also, an old Turkī title ‘ruler’. Tanpinar, Aḥmed Ḥamdī

ṭanīb

(78 words)

ṭanīb (A) : in North Africa, a man who, to safeguard his rights, to escape from justice or to save h…

tanka

(105 words)

tanka : in numismatics, the generic name for coined money under Maḥmūd of G̲h̲azna and the name of a…

tannūr

(65 words)

tannūr (A, < Ar) : a domestic baking oven of Mesopotamian origin. Cylindrical and bee-hive shaped, i…

tañri̊

(10 words)

tañri̊ (T) : heaven, God. Tanpinar, Aḥmed Ḥamdī

tanṣīr

(15 words)

tanṣīr (A) : conversion, or more precisely, Christianisation (< Naṣārā). Tabrīzī, D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn

ṭanṭūr

(58 words)

ṭanṭūr (A), or ṭarṭūr : a high conical cap resembling a mitre, worn by ṣūfīs in the Arab East. Libās; Tād̲j̲ In Algeria, …

tanwīn

(24 words)

tanwīn (A) : in grammar, nunation. Nūn; al-Tanūk̲h̲ī tanwīn al-tarannum (A) : a special usage of tanwīn connected wi…

tanzīh

(31 words)

tanzīh (A) : ‘withdrawal’; in theology, denying God any resemblance to anything. Allāh; Taṣawwuf; tr…

tanzīl

(44 words)

tanzīl (A) : a revelation to be proclaimed publicly to mankind. Bāṭiniyya; a term for the Qurʾān. Ẓāhir Among the Ismā…

tanẓīm

(94 words)

tanẓīm (A) : ‘ordering, setting in order, regulating. Tanẓīm al-Nasl, Tanẓīm al-Usra tanẓīm al-nasl (A), also tanẓīm…

tao

(93 words)

tao (Ch) : way. tao-chang (Ch), or daozhang : lit. Head of the Way, the term in Chinese mysticism for S̲h̲a…

ṭapu

(77 words)

ṭapu (T) : in Ottoman fiscal administration, the holding of state-owned lands by a subject of the su…

tār

(142 words)

tār (P ‘string’) : a weaver’s warp. al-Zibriḳān b. Badr In music, a long-necked pandore with an elongated vaul…

ṭār

(25 words)

ṭār (A) : in music, a round tambourine with jingling plates fixed in openings in the shell or body o…

ṭarab

(117 words)

ṭarab (A) : a term denoting poetic and musical emotion, evoking a broad spectrum of sentiments, from…

ṭaraf

(134 words)

ṭaraf (A, pl. Aṭrāf) : province. Bahmanīs; point, cape. Taʿrīf; and Ḳabīlī In the science of Tradition, the ~ is…
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